Domestic plus approaches in Ghana


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During the IRC webinar on MUS, that took place on 22 June 2012. Marieke Adank presented the experiences with the Domestic Plus aproaches in Ghana.

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Domestic plus approaches in Ghana

  1. 1. Domestic-plus approaches inGhana Marieke Adank IRC webinar on MUS IRC-nergy week, 22 June 2012
  2. 2. Formal service delivery models for domestic water supply:Rural areas: • COM of point sources with design for basic domestic service level • real service levels lower mainly because of crowding/distance, though some use water productivelySmall towns: • COM of piped systems with levels of service above basic • MUS for informal commercial activitiesEmerging between rural and small town: • limited mechanical scheme, with higher levels of service, so potential for MUS • no data on actual use as yetUrban: • utility managed piped systems with different service levels • apart from formal industries, MUS for informal commercial activities Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  3. 3. A large proportion of point sources are used for productive uses 100% 90% 80% Water from the facility used for 70%% of point source watering gardens 60% 50% water from the facility used for watering livestock 40% 30% Water from the facility used for 20% small commercial uses (brick making, pito making etc) 10% 0% Akatsi East Gonja Sunyani WestSource of data: Triple-S (2012) Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  4. 4. % of population using water from community-managed point source for productive uses 100% 90% 80% 70% % of population 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Afadjator Kutunse Abensu Pano anomawobi Ahasowudie Ebenezer lume atsyame Anyama Amanfrom Oboyambo kweshi Abbe Kofi Tsbilkwa Dade mankye avenui camp Adkeiman Alafia Agona East Awutu Senya East Akim Ga West HoSource of data: IRC/ Aquaconsult (Rotary/USAID sustainability check (2012)
  5. 5. Possible MUS models identified:Domestic plus approaches: Communal productive uses of point sources Productive use of piped systems in small towns and cities Upgrading point sources to limited mechanical schemes with higher levels of serviceIrrigation plus Rehabilitation and retrofitting small reservoirs Promoting self-supply for irrigation, even though not MUS MUS in public surface irrigation schemes – not analysed because in disarrayCommunity-driven MUS: Promoting self-supply alongside formal domestic supplies Integrated local level planning Improving conditions of reuse of wastewater Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  6. 6. Domestic plus around point sourcesDescription of model and scaling pathway: promoting cattle troughs andcommunal gardens around handpumps. Needs some piloting to showcase itPotential: 10 million of people relying on point sources; less when zooming in toNorthern belt and coastal zone where there are less open water sourcesPolicy and legislation: CWSA water use regulations are not a limitation; move tohigher levels of service is in fact encouragingWater resources implications: depends on yield of boreholesInstitutional arrangements: can be done from within domestic sector(CWSA, MMDAs and WATSANs), making their staff aware of MUS and include inproject / service provision cycle; requires setting local regulationsFinancing: can be done at minimal incremental costs, as no major hardware costsare involved. Piggy backing on investments in rural WASHTechnical issues: can be first step in going for higher levels of services. However abigger step will require change in technology Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  7. 7. Commercial use of piped systems in small towns and citiesDescription of model and scaling pathway: use existing model ofdifferential levels of services, may need further adjustments. Marketmechanisms: users will only pay for it if they can make a return. Need forextension supportPotential: # of people in small towns. Mainly in the Northern region. couldbe temporary when there are no other sources availablePolicy and legislation: by-laws and CWSA guidelinesWater resources implications: probably minor, probably only in biggercities there may be limitationsInstitutional arrangements: can be done from within domestic sector;requires setting local regulationsFinancing and cost recovery: payment of tariffs. Are people willing to paytariff for productive uses or rather develop alternative sources?Technical issues: straightforward Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  8. 8. Upgrading point sources to limited mechanical schemesDescription of model: upgrading to higher level of service on existingboreholes with handpumps to motorised pumps and small distributionnetwork. Requires pilot projectsPotential: # of boreholes per region and nr of people served and to beserved.Policy and legislation: supportive through drive for increasing servicelevels and de facto priority for small towns. MUS not explicit thoughWater resources implications: only possible on high yielding boreholesInstitutional arrangements: via CWSA, DAs, WATSANsFinancing: estimated increase from 30 US$/capita with some 5-6US$/capita, so 20% incremental costsTechnical issues: there are already standardised designs, needs newdesign for community garden and cattle trough. Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  9. 9. Investment opportunities: low risk, potential to reach large numbers of people but with small per capita impact.Consortia for investment opportunities: CWSA, DAs and their donors. For learning and sharing, use platforms and networks of domestic sector: RCN, CONIWAS, NLLAP Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  10. 10. ConclusionMUS is practiced within formal domestic services butnot clearly articulated in sectoral documents orthinkingOpenness to consider it – at least no prohibitionMove from de facto practice to planned MUSRisks beyond MUS with sustainability Domestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012
  11. 11. ThanksDomestic-plus approaches in Ghana June 2012