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Best Practices in Rural Sanitation & Hygiene


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Synthesis from Rural San&Hyg Practitioners Seminar, Moshi, Tanzania, Nov.07

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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  • In Africa fear, shame and disgust is not there unless you explore and involve the community what they fear most.To foster clear awareness of and concern about cultural, economic, social, political and ecological inter-dependence in rural, peri-urban and urban settings. To provide each person with opportunities to acquire knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment and skills needed to protect and improve the environment hence, positioned to solve the current environmental challenges and prevent the new ones to come in.
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Best Practices in Rural Sanitation & Hygiene

  1. 1. Best Practices in Rural Sanitation & Hygiene Synthesis from Rural San&Hyg Practitioners Seminar Moshi, Nov.07 Jo Smet, IRC Int. Water & Sanitation Centre ( ) AfricaSan+5 Conference Durban, Feb. 08
  2. 2. San&Hyg Practitioners <ul><li>40 practitioners : East and Southern Africa: Eth, Ug, Ken, Tz, Malawi, Zimb, Madagascar, world </li></ul><ul><li>16 ‘Best Practices’ presented </li></ul><ul><li>A catalytic and analytic environment to identify the factors that make San&Hyg interventions a success </li></ul><ul><li>Shared and learned from claimed ‘Best Practices’ in Rural Household and Primary School San&Hyg </li></ul><ul><li>Identified key issues for follow-up at policy and practitioners’ level </li></ul><ul><li>Full Moshi seminar report on request ( [email_address] ) </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar
  3. 3. Areas of analysis AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar Institutional/ policy Cultural / social Technical Financial / economics Environmental
  4. 4. Sanitation Institutions sub-district/district/province national; international Community Household person
  5. 5. SAN&HYG PROCESS FRAMEWORK AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar WHAT? WHICH MESSSAGES & CHANNELS WHO APPROACHES Community, HH, individuals APPROACH RESPONSE: DESIRE/WILL and CHANGE HYG&SAN FACILITY & BEHAVIOUR Individuals, HHs, schools Demand or created demand at individuals, HHs, schools Motives and Drives Individuals, HHs, schools Community institutions and organisations TRIGGER IGNITION
  6. 6. PROMISING APPROACHES <ul><li>Community-based and -owned process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with support of government, NGOs, private sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region/District has output-based performance contracts in support/achievement with lower level government staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognised local champion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community-based monitoring and follow-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological innovation addressing technical problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHAST : Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>CLTS : Community-led Total Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>EcoSan including innovations as ArborLoo </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar
  7. 7. WHO APPROACHES? AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar WHO APPROACHES Community, HHs, individuals From outside community: Political, religious leaders, technical health staff, NGOs, police TRIGGER DESIRE/WILL to improve facility & behaviour From inside HH : Wife, husband, children From inside community : Leaders, teachers, voluntary health workers, Health Clubs, CBOs, entrepreneurs, neighbours, relatives CONVINCING ENFORCEMENT CHAMPION’s PERSUASION SOCIAL PRESSURE LIVELIHOODS: EXTRA INCOME AGRICULTURE LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT STATUS PRIVACY PARTICIPATION DEVELOPMENT HEALTHY LIFE INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES HEALTHY LIFE VALUES & NORMS
  8. 8. WHAT? MESSAGES AND CHANNELS <ul><li>Consistent and non-conflicting messages from all stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Competitions in Sanitation within & between communities with (sustainable/replicable) awards </li></ul><ul><li>Technical innovation and training Village Health Workers and builders </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building on promotion , awareness raising </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Public rallies : ignition step </li></ul><ul><li>House-to-house visits </li></ul><ul><li>Bye-law enforcement (for small group of difficult people) </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar <ul><li>one-off mass campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>huge awards </li></ul><ul><li>model villages </li></ul><ul><li>demonstration latrines </li></ul><ul><li>dependency on volunteering work </li></ul><ul><li>external subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>free slabs </li></ul>Doubtful = unsustainable or less replicable Drivers
  9. 9. THIS TRIGGERS THE COMMUNITY, HOUSEHOLD OR INDIVIDUAL! AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar IGNITION MOTIVES AND DRIVES <ul><li>Positive motives and drives: </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy and Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Pride </li></ul><ul><li>Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for neighbours/community </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of flies and dirty smells </li></ul><ul><li>No collapsing pits and floors </li></ul><ul><li>No flooding or overflowing pits </li></ul><ul><li>Long lasting latrine </li></ul><ul><li>Human waste as resource ‘Humanure’ </li></ul><ul><li>Competition and awards </li></ul>YES! BECAUSE <ul><li>Negative motives and drives: </li></ul><ul><li>Shame of dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>(Bye-) Law enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Fear for imprisonment/fine </li></ul>
  10. 10. COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANISATIONS <ul><li>Community-based organisations , e.g Comm. Health Clubs, Neighbourhood Groups, Youth Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Political leadership on San&Hyg </li></ul><ul><li>Local champion from … </li></ul><ul><li>Political, religious, traditional and social leaders buy in </li></ul><ul><li>Health Extension Workers and Community Health Volunteers/Promoters </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage community with School San&Hyg </li></ul><ul><li>School Health Clubs linked to PTA, SMC </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar
  11. 11. KEY ISSUES FOR FOLLOW-UP-1 <ul><li>Institutional issues : </li></ul><ul><li>separate San&Hyg national policy , not just a paragraph in the health or water policy </li></ul><ul><li>separate San&Hyg budget line </li></ul><ul><li>clear home for San&Hyg = Min of Health </li></ul><ul><li>San&Hyg to be lifted up to departmental level </li></ul><ul><li>National and local multi-stakeholder forums on San&Hyg for learning, harmonisation and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Integration, coordination of San&Hyg with HIV/AIDS sector </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar
  12. 12. KEY ISSUES FOR FOLLOW-UP-2 <ul><li>Technology issues </li></ul><ul><li>Demands women, girls, elderly and disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation for latrines in areas with high groundwater tables, flood-prone , loose soils </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of affordable EcoSan as ArborLoo </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain rural San&Hyg (builders, slab producers) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology information versioned for local use </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar
  13. 13. KEY ISSUES FOR FOLLOW-UP-3 <ul><li>Learning and Capacity Building </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building through learning alliances (national, district and sub-district) </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity builders to learn from reality for feasible, sustainable approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Children help developing tools and promotional materials </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar
  14. 14. KEY ISSUES FOR FOLLOW-UP-4 <ul><li>School San&Hyg </li></ul><ul><li>Separate budget line for School WASH </li></ul><ul><li>Review school building regulations Innovate designs of latrines, hand-washing devices </li></ul><ul><li>Manage cleaning of facilities (latrines and hand-washing) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate School Health Clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring condition and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Competitions within and between schools </li></ul>AfricaSan-08 - San&Hyg from Moshi Seminar