Data source:-WASH: UNICEF-WHO JMP 2010 updateSchool WASH: District Information System for Education (DISE) 2010
Addressing key bottlenecks in WASH in Schools - UNICEF India experiences
Addressing key bottlenecks in WASH in Schools:UNICEF’s experience in IndiaIRC Webinar: WASH in SchoolsMamita Bora ThakkarWASH SpecialistUNICEF IndiaDecember 13, 2012
Jammu & KashmirHimachal PradeshPunjabUttarakhandUttar PradeshBiharJharkhandWest BengalOrissaChhattisgarhMadhya PradeshGujaratRajasthanMaharashtraGoaKarnatakaAndhra PradeshTamilNaduKeralaAssamSikkimArunachal PradeshTripuraMeghalayaMizoramManipurNagalandLakshadweepAndamand &NicobarIslandsHaryana< 25%25 - 50%50 - 75%> 75%National average78%2001The sanitation status in IndiaSource-WASH: UNICEF-WHO JMP 2010 update, Census 2011School WASH: District Information System for Education (DISE) 20101.7 million (22% of world total) Under-5children died in 2010 were born in IndiaPopulation(millions)227 367 646 857 874 1225655626MDG target (59%)Will not be reached!Rural India
Key government commitments• Right to Education: guarantees separate toilets for girls and boys and safeand adequate drinking water in schools. Sets a deadline of 3 years (2013)to states, for compliance of RTE guidelines.• Supreme Court Order (2012) “It is imperative that all schools mustprovide toilet facilities; empirical researches have indicated that wherevertoilet facilities are not provided in the schools, parents do not send theirchildren (particularly girls) to schools’’.• The Approach Paper for the 13th Five Year Plan (2007-2012) commits fullcoverage of schools with drinking water and sanitation facilities by the endof 2012, and coverage of 133,114 Anganwadi Centers with sanitationfacilities in the same period.• Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (National Sanitation Campaign) sets deadline of2013 for completion of WASH in Schools infratsructure targets.There is a favorable administrative space in India
Ministry of DrinkingWater and Sanitation- Funds for WASHinfrastructure- Monitoring- Budgets forIEC, hygiene promotionMinistry of HumanResource Development- Implements RTE –provides for teacher-educationsystems, training andcapacity blg.- EMISMinistry of HealthMinistry of HealthImplements theSchool HealthProgrammeThe ministries involved
Key challenges- disparities in coverage7 states (Orissa, Meghalaya, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Assam and Bihar) account for almost50% (13.8 million) children without access to toilet facilities in schools.
Key challenges: Toilet vs pupil ratioIn states like Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, one toilet isused by more than 100 students.NGP Study, CMS, 201041.057.565.9 68.085.6 88.6103.6113.6126.8145.3 149.3242.589.50.020.040.060.080.0100.0120.0140.0160.0180.0200.0220.0240.0260.0KeralaHimachalPradeshAndhraPradeshHaryanaRajasthanUttarPradeshMaharashtraKarnatakaChhattisgarhWestBengalTripuraBiharTotal
Categories DeterminantsEnablingEnvironmentSocial NormsLegislation/PolicyBudget/expenditureGovernance/PartnershipsSupplyAvailability of essential commodities/inputsAccess to adequately staffed services andinformationDemandFinancial accessSocial cultural acceptabilityContinuity of useQualityQualityExpanded Tanahashi model - Determinants
8No Expanded Tanahashi model_WASH in Schools Bottle Neck Analysis1 Enabling Environment (Generic) INDICATORS1.1 •Social NormsAll children are expected to practice hand washing with soap at critical times and use safedrinking water (PoU) by the head teacher and the community, and the community and headteacher provide an enabling environment for children to practice the above1.2 •Legal FrameworkNational legislation on WASH in Schools standards (including regional targets, gradualimprovements, inclusiveness, privacy and dignity for children) and monitoring systems are inplace1.3•Policy framework (existence/application ofpolicies which are critical for OT)Government/Education sector policy reflects WASH in Schools, allocation of budget forincreasing access, operation and maintenance of facilities and hygiene education.1.4•Budget/expenditure – at national or sub-national level?)Availability of a multisectoral budget for WASH in Schools (capital and recurrent costs) at thedistrict level as a percentage of the national allocation made for the district.2 Supply (Generic)2.1 •Availability of essential commodities/inputs% of schools having access to functional WASH facilities i.e. hand washing stands, toilets anddrinking water (PoU - point of use water treatment) as per national standards.2.2 •Availability of human resources% of schools with trained teachers on hygiene promotion in schools and dedicated staff foroperation and maintenance of WASH facilities2.3 •Access to services% of schools in communities where hygiene education is taking place on a daily basis (i.e. dailyhand washing with soap or ash, operation and maintenance of facilities)3 Demand (Generic)3.1 •Financial barriers% of schools that can keep WASH facilities operational (including making soap available athand washing stands and PoU water treatment systems operational) as per national standards3.2 •Social cultural barriers% of school children in schools where WASH facilities are operational practicing hand washingwith soap after use of toilet and before eating food4 Quality (Generic)4.1 Quality Indicator 1% of schools carrying out gradual improvements to their WASH facilities and keeping themoperational as per national standards (clean, hygienic, soap and drinking water available)
Key results in policies and practice• Standardized designs andmanuals mainstreamed instates• WASH norms nowincluded in CFSframework under RTE atthe national level• Identification of key issuesin monitoring.• Acceptance of data gaps byGOI- willingness to relookat definitions etc.• Functionality, HWfacilities, genderdisaggregated toiletsincluded.• School Health Programme –now includeshandwashing, hygieneeducation and use of toilets inschools• Government circularsinstitutionalizing HW in allschools• Subsequent state follow upcirculars• Inter-ministerialdialogue started fordedicated allocation forO&M• Some states havesecured separate fundsfrom Education underSchool Maintenancegrants O&MHygieneandhandwashingWASHstandardsM&E
What next…???• Innovation – leading tostandardization of approaches andscaling up of handwashing with soapin all schools.• Shift towards Education – to takemore responsibility for WinS.• Set higher standards for WinS in thecountry- support scaling up of qualityservices - benchmarking of schools.• Institutional strengthening toundertake all of the above.