Addressing the Challenge on the Use and Sustainability of School WASH facilities in Afghanistan Adane Bekele, WASH Specialist, UNICEF-Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh, 31 January -2 February 2012 ASIA REGIONAL SANITATION AND HYGIENE PRACTITIONERS WORKSHOP
Background• According to Ministry of Education figures for 2011, provided by the Youth Welfare and Planning Department, there are 12,891 schools in Afghanistan, and only 45% have basic water and sanitation facilities• Based on data collected from 7,769 schools in 24 provinces in 2009, 36% had safe drinking water, 22% had separate toilets for boys and girls, 8% had separate toilets for physically challenged students, and 13% had hand-washing facilities out of which 7% Soap available• Through its National Policy of 2010 on Rural Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development aims to rehabilitate 3,500 latrines and construct 23,000 new sanitation facilities in schools – increasing coverage to 80% by 2014.• Ministry of Education’s National Education Strategic Plan 2010–2013 set the objective of providing 5,200 schools with sanitation facilities by 2014.
Factors affecting Use ofWASH facilities -• Lack of appropriate design of WASH facilities• Old, abandoned and unrepairable latrines• Unavailability of sufficient facilities of water, toilet and hand washing facilities• Lack of facilities for disposal of solid waste• Lack of facilities for management of girls hygiene (MHH)• Lake of awareness on menstruation• Balance between hardware, knowledge and practice• Toilet being untidy and smelly, latrines are unventilated and without sufficient lighting
Factors affectingsustainability ofWASH facilities• Lack of defined role and responsibility• Absence of Operation and maintenance frame work• Budget allocation from Government and community• Low capacity of MOE• Gap between knowledge and practice, students are not taught how to utilize WASH facilities, therefore, they are using facilities in appropriate manner• Lack of clear guideline on roles of Stakeholders in Planning and Preparation for O&M• Priority is being paid to construction of WASH facilities while consideration of their maintenance and operation is ignored.• No mechanism available for repairing of hand pump if get non- functional
On-going action to improve use and sustainability of school WASH facilities• Developing good data collection and management for planning• Step by step process of WASH development plan by school committee• Revising the existing school larine designed which encourage the use and cleaning of the facilities• Menstruation Health and Hygiene
Ex based on the assessment conducted by NGO Gradation of schools for WASH status• UNICEF’s School WASH Guidelines Province Grade No. of schools Remark recommend that gradation be carried 0 None of the assessed schools have Grade -1 out for WASH status in schools. a complete WASH program• The gradation is completed on the basis 2 Two schools have good water and of already identified criteria: the latrine facilities. But the hygiene Grade -2 availability of facilities and hygiene promotion and management promotion practices with ‘Grade-1’ committees are not in place. highlighted a ‘green’ rating given to a 15 One school needs improvement of school having all the latrine and water, 5 schools need components, whilst those with ‘Grade- latrine improvement but water 4’ highlighted a ‘red’ rating given to a Parwan facilities are ok, 5 schools have school lacking all the basic components. good latrines but need new water Grade -3• The gradation shown in the table below facility, 2 schools need latrine has been completed for 49 schools in improvement and rehabilitation of Parwan province. water facility. 2 schools need new• Accordingly, 32 schools (65%) fall in latrine and improvement of water Grade-4 WASH status; 15 schools (30%) facility fall in Grade-3 WASH status; 2 schools 32 All need new water facility, 13, (4%) fall in Grade-2 status and none fall Grade -4 need new latrines, 19 need latrine in Grade-1 status. improvement