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ApplyingSustainabilityAnalysis to RuralWater ServicesDr. Peter HarveyRegional WASH AdviserUNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa
Why analyse sustainability? To identify the constraining factors/bottlenecksthat are resulting in low levels of water ser...
SustainabilityA water supply service can be said to besustainable if: the water sources are not over-exploited but natura...
Sustainability factors Policy context (P) Management and institutionalarrangements (M) Financial issues (F) Community ...
Sustainability assessment andplanning process
Sustainability factor Score RankPolicy context (P) 0 WeakManagement and institutional arrangements (M) 2 MediumFinancial i...
P, M, FM, F, CF, C, TC, T, SSPolicyManagementFinanceCommunityTechnologySupply chainIntervention levels and areas of engage...
Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Susta...
Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Susta...
Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Susta...
Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Susta...
Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Susta...
Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Susta...
Application of tool The tool has been applied by Government sectoragencies (with UNICEF support) to develop rural waterse...
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Applying sustainability analysis to rural water services
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Applying sustainability analysis to rural water services

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Applying sustainability analysis to rural water services

  1. 1. ApplyingSustainabilityAnalysis to RuralWater ServicesDr. Peter HarveyRegional WASH AdviserUNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa
  2. 2. Why analyse sustainability? To identify the constraining factors/bottlenecksthat are resulting in low levels of water servicesustainability; To determine appropriate intervention levels atwhich action is needed (national, sub-national,community, private sector etc.); To identify areas of intervention (for respectivelevels) to increase sustainability; To develop a sustainability improvement plan; To increase rural water service sustainability.
  3. 3. SustainabilityA water supply service can be said to besustainable if: the water sources are not over-exploited but naturallyreplenished; water systems are maintained in a condition whichensures a reliable and adequate water supply; the benefits of the supply continue to be realized by allusers indefinitely; and the service delivery process demonstrates a cost-effective use of resources that can be replicated.
  4. 4. Sustainability factors Policy context (P) Management and institutionalarrangements (M) Financial issues (F) Community and social aspects(C) Technology and environment(T) Supply chains (S)Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Sustainable financing• Realistic cost recoveryCommunity• O&M management options• Equity strategiesTechnology• Technology choice• Local option prioritySupply chain• Local procurement• Integrated supply chains
  5. 5. Sustainability assessment andplanning process
  6. 6. Sustainability factor Score RankPolicy context (P) 0 WeakManagement and institutional arrangements (M) 2 MediumFinancial issues (F) 4 StrongCommunity and social aspects (C) 1 WeakTechnology and environment (T) 3 MediumSupply chains (S) 4 StrongTOTAL 14 MediumSustainability assessmentframework
  7. 7. P, M, FM, F, CF, C, TC, T, SSPolicyManagementFinanceCommunityTechnologySupply chainIntervention levels and areas of engagement
  8. 8. Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Sustainable financing• Realistic cost recoveryCommunity• O&M management options• Equity strategiesTechnology• Technology choice• Local option prioritySupply chain• Local procurement• Integrated supply chainsParadigm shift required from: Projects (time-bound, funding linked toconstruction, handovers) Facilities (infrastructure based,maintenance focus)toProgrammes (long-term fundingand operational strategies)Services (focus on ongoing waterdelivery)Programmes & Services
  9. 9. Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Sustainable financing• Realistic cost recoveryCommunity• O&M management options• Equity strategiesTechnology• Technology choice• Local option prioritySupply chain• Local procurement• Integrated supply chains Institutional support is required andmust be budgeted for. Accurate cost-determination andsustainable financing mechanismsare needed. Sustained technical capacity must bedeveloped. If community management is notviable, private sector service deliverymodels should be explored.Makingcommunitymanagementwork (or not!)
  10. 10. Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Sustainable financing• Realistic cost recoveryCommunity• O&M management options• Equity strategiesTechnology• Technology choice• Local option prioritySupply chain• Local procurement• Integrated supply chains Cost-recovery targets must berealistic. A tariff hierarchy can be developed toassess and set targets. Sustainable (innovative) communityfinancing mechanisms are needed. Equity-focused financing strategiescan be developed for:• cross-subsidy within communities;• cross-subsidy across communities;• households to access micro-credit facilities;• institutional support to communities.Financing
  11. 11. Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Sustainable financing• Realistic cost recoveryCommunity• O&M management options• Equity strategiesTechnology• Technology choice• Local option prioritySupply chain• Local procurement• Integrated supply chains Community management is oneoption for O&M but it is not the onlyone! Different O&M options need to beconsidered so that each communityhas a choice. Where appropriate, communitymanagement may requirestrengthening. Alternatively, public-privatepartnerships and private sector O&Mmodels may be implemented andcritically evaluated.A flexible approach to O&M
  12. 12. Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Sustainable financing• Realistic cost recoveryCommunity• O&M management options• Equity strategiesTechnology• Technology choice• Local option prioritySupply chain• Local procurement• Integrated supply chains Ensure communitieshave a real choice Introduceappropriate low costtechnology options Improve artisanskills and equipment Support localinnovation Monitor waterresourcesustainabilityTechnology & Environment
  13. 13. Policy• Programme approach• Service delivery focusManagement• Support to communities• Private sector optionsFinance• Sustainable financing• Realistic cost recoveryCommunity• O&M management options• Equity strategiesTechnology• Technology choice• Local option prioritySupply chain• Local procurement• Integrated supply chains Support to integrated supply chains –e.g. contractual options for provisionof equipment and O&M services Local procurement Quality assurance Policy and co-ordinationSupply chains
  14. 14. Application of tool The tool has been applied by Government sectoragencies (with UNICEF support) to develop rural waterservice sustainability improvement plans. It can be reviewed and adapted to the local context. An appropriate entry point is needed, such as a sectoror programme review. The tool raises awareness of issues affectingsustainability and identifies potential ways to tacklethem. It complements other sector analysis tools that focusmore on service coverage. Monitoring service sustainability and functionality isessential to measure impact of improvement plans.
  15. 15. Thank you

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