20 UNICEF-assisted ecological sanitation projects in 12 countries. Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bolivia, Congo Brazzaville, Guinea Conakry, India, Malawi, Nigeria, People Democratic Republic of Korea (PDRK), Rwanda, Togo and Zimbabwe. Wide disparities in size of projects from 95 users for a project with household UDDTs in Bangladesh up to 23,000 users under emergency conditions in Zimbabwe. Similar characteristics of purpose, scope, challenges, opportunities and sanitation technologies.
Burera latrines both public and private; modern and traditional.
Eco-toilet: An Ecological Sanitation Option for Difficult Areas of Bangladesh
Eco-toilet – An EcologicalSanitation Option for DifficultAreas of Bangladesh (Practice) Monirul Alam (UNICEF Bangladesh) S. A. Abdullah Al Mamun(Practical Action Bangladesh) ASIA REGIONAL SANITATION AND HYGIENE PRACTITIONERS WORKSHOP 1st Feb 2012; BARC CDM, Dhaka
1. PURPOSE AND SCOPEThe action research was implemented to try-out the feasibilityof ecological sanitation in five types of geo-hydrologicallydifficult areas, characterised by: water scarcity areas (hilly area); uneven land and clay soils in the Barind regions; flood prone areas with loamy soils; urban slums where there is insufficient land to apply normal spacing criteria; and heavily water logged areas (6-9 months of the year) in the low lying Haor Basin.
2. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION: OPTION DEVELOPEDOpt. Description Hilly Barind Flood Slum Haor Tract Prone01 Fixed Chamber with Plastic Fibre Pan (FC+PFP) 02 Movable Plastic Drum with Plastic Fibre Pan (Single Pan) (MPD+PFP)03 Movable Plastic Drum with High Commode (Single Pan) (MPD+HC)04 Fixed Chamber with Modified Eco Pan (FC+MEP) 05 Fixed Chamber with Traditional EcoPan (FC+TEP) 06 Movable Plastic Drum with Traditional EcoPan (MPD+TEP)07 Elevated Movable Plastic Drum with RCC Column (EMPD+RCC)08 Single Pit Urine Diversion Toilet (SPUD) 09 Twin Pit Urine Diversion Toilet (TPUD) 10 Waste Concern Model with Urine Diversion Pan (WCM+UDP)11 Community Based Urine Diversion Toilet with Biogas Plant (CUD+BGP) Suitable option depending on site conditions 10 10 7 7 7
2. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION:COST SHARING AND CAPACITY BUILDING• Implemented through a NGO consortium (Practical Action was the lead agency. SPACE, BASA and Commitment Consultant were among others)• 11 low-cost, user-friendly options developed with provisional approval from DPHE (costing US$70-US$290). Users were free to choose options considering their affordability;• 107 latrines piloted in difficult areas with cost sharing ranging from 10% to 40% depending on income level;• The users, local masons, community leaders, PS & DPHE staff were trained on construction, use, and O&M.• Developed entrepreneurship in ecopan making (Plastic Fiber)
3. TESTING & MONITORING:Pathogen test of composted faeces (by IEDCR) and nutrientanalysis of urine (by the Dept. of Soil Water & Environment, DU• The colour and odour of the compost are more or less acceptable;• No pathogenic organism identified in bacteriological examination;• Parasitological examination revealed that, if compost is not properly dried out, at least one type of parasite infectious to human health in each specimen; and• Nutrient value of compost excreta revels existence of arsenic and cadmium are not at harmful level. Recommendations on composted faeces by IEDCR• To ensure application of ash after each defecation for attaining alkaline pH;• The compost has to be dried;• Storage of the compost for at least one month in airtight container may reduce the pathogenic load of parasites.
5. MAJOR CHALLENGES Construction cost???? Proper handling/use of urine & composted faeces Land scarcity in urban slum; Shifting 1800 for urination during menstruation; Promotion of local Materials Limited time for follow-up and monitoring.
6. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS Based on option prepared for hard to reach areas, users choice and cost sharing, the following rank of options is identified: Rank Option Name 1 Option 1: Fixed Chamber System Using Plastic Fibre Pan 2 Option 4: Fixed Chamber System Using Modified Traditional Eco Pan 3 Option 5: Fixed Chamber with Traditional EcoPan 4 Option 9: Twin Pit Urine Diversion Toilet Recommendations Potential to expand, especially in areas where conventional technologies are difficult; Some of pilot areas can be used as demonstration centres and knowledge hubs for replication; Continue development, testing and monitoring are essential.
7. Photo gallery: Innovation (small but beautiful and effective) Eco Plastic Fiber Pan Pan Cover Handle Urine Diversion Pan Ventilation and light facilities Pre cast slab with Eco-pan
7. Photo gallery: Innovation (small but beautiful and effective)Structural adjustment in theevaporation bed for menstrualhygiene management issue:still there is room forimprovement
7. Photo gallery: Innovation (small but beautiful and effective)Pictorial chart for use & Hand washing device maintenance