Depleted Uranium Radioactive Contamination In Iraq: An Overview Dr. Souad N. Al-Azzawi Assoc. Prof. / Ma ’ moon Univ. for ...
US & UK armed forces continuously used Depleted Uranium (DU) weapons since 1991 against people and environment in Iraq  Th...
The Pentagon and the American administration have refused the release of any information about the amounts of DU, and loca...
In 1993, 1 st  site detection of  DU  related contamination in destroyed tanks and military artilleries in areas of northe...
Tables 1, 2, and 3 show the results of this detection program, which shows exposure ten times, radioactivity increase, tha...
Table (1) Field Measurements at DMZ and Surrounding Area [7]   * Exposure measurements (Micro Roentgen/hr) 65  7.0  Tank/T...
Table (2) Field Measurements at North Rumaila Area [7] 13.2  7.2  Rescue Tank  4  15.1  8.7  T-72 Tank  3  9.7  8.2  Armor...
Table (3) Field Measurements at Shamia Air field / Gudairat al-Audhaimi Area [7] 7.2  7.3  Far away area from chosen sampl...
In 1996, another, more comprehensive, exploration program were conducted by the Environmental Engineering Dept. ( EEUB ) o...
 
<ul><li>The program involved taking hundreds of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exposure measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so...
 
Table 4, shows selected measurements of that program which prove DU related contamination of air, soil, water, and sedimen...
Table 4 : Selected Exposure and Soil Radioactivity Measurements [15] T: Destroyed Tank  A: Destroyed Armored Vehicle  0.00...
<ul><li>Other exploration programs (Table 5) proved the existing of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more contaminated areas in sout...
Al-Basrah, Safwan, S.Rummailah, N. Rummailah Oil Fields U-235/U-238 in soil samples 2001 Kinani, A.T. et al.  East, centra...
II Epidemiological studies related to DU contamination health effects indicate: <ul><li>The existing of multifold increase...
 
 
In 2002 Yacoub, Al-Sadoon, and Hassan examined the association between exposure to DU in contaminated areas & rising incid...
Biological plausibility criteria were satisfied through the shift of the increase of leukemia incidence rate towards child...
 
Yacoub, et.al., 2002, couldn’t explain the continuous increase of malignancies incidence rates among children in Al-Hartha...
 
III Other DU effects on human health studies include: In 1998, Ammash presented a paper that deals with joined toxic and r...
In the year 2000, Muhammad, Z., et.al, published a paper about the effects of DU radiations on a group of (26) Iraqi veter...
In 2000, Ammash, H., et.al., published a paper about the results of  genetic hematological analysis  for (47) individuals ...
PCV, WBC, and hemoglobin concentration blood tests were all showed a significant effects on Basrah studied group as follow...
* 8% of the studied group have total count of white blood cells (WBC) less than normal(4000) c/ml * The author, also, poin...
In the year 2002, Al-Sadi, H., and Sawad, A.,  conducted a research in the Veterinary College of Basrah University.  The s...
Recommendations: In light of the stated facts and evidences, the following is recommended: <ul><li>Occupation forces must ...
3. Occupation forces should allow WHO to conduct comprehensive health surveys and investigations in DU contaminated areas ...
5.  The doors for further research must be opened concerning studies about the impact of DU on the population and the envi...
7. The international community must work together to promote a resolution banning DU weapons as a first step to abolish th...
The End.... Thank You
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Depleted Uranium Radioactive Contamination In Iraq:An Overview

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Depleted Uranium (DU) weaponry has been used against Iraq for the first time in the history of recent wars. The magnitude of the complications and damage related to the use of such radioactive and toxic weapons on the environment and the human population mostly results from the intended concealment, denial and misleading information released by the Pentagon about the quantities, characteristics and the area’s in Iraq, in which these weapons have been used.

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Depleted Uranium Radioactive Contamination In Iraq:An Overview

  1. 1. Depleted Uranium Radioactive Contamination In Iraq: An Overview Dr. Souad N. Al-Azzawi Assoc. Prof. / Ma ’ moon Univ. for Science & Technology
  2. 2. US & UK armed forces continuously used Depleted Uranium (DU) weapons since 1991 against people and environment in Iraq Thousands of tons of DU expenditure have been used against southern, middle, and northern cities of Iraq during Gulf War I as well as during the invasion of Iraq in 2003, until now through all their military operations against Iraqi people and their environment
  3. 3. The Pentagon and the American administration have refused the release of any information about the amounts of DU, and locations where these radioactive weapons have been used, as well as their effects on the population of Iraq. Tens of exploration programs, epidemiological studies, and other DU effects on human health studies, have been conducted by Iraqi universities researchers. Results of these studies have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals inside Iraq only, due to the comprehensive economical sanctions imposed on Iraq since 1991.
  4. 4. In 1993, 1 st site detection of DU related contamination in destroyed tanks and military artilleries in areas of northern Rumaila oil field, Alshamia city, Kharange, and Jabal Sanam have been documented. Exposure readings were done by a team from the (IAEC) and Science College of Baghdad University.
  5. 5. Tables 1, 2, and 3 show the results of this detection program, which shows exposure ten times, radioactivity increase, than background levels in the same areas.
  6. 6. Table (1) Field Measurements at DMZ and Surrounding Area [7]   * Exposure measurements (Micro Roentgen/hr) 65 7.0 Tank/T-72 (south west on Mount Sanam) 6 69 7.6 Tank/T-72 (near international observation post between crossroads Nos. 12 and 13) 5 67 7.4 Tank/T-55 (left of crossroads No. 9) 4 23 7.2 Tank/T-72 (No. 16107) 3 21 7.6 Tank/T-55 (between crossroads Nos. 13 and 14) 2 83 7.4 Unexploded DU Warhead (near Karrange Oil Pumping Station on the Iraqi-Saudi border 1 Chosen Sample Background Type of Chose Sample
  7. 7. Table (2) Field Measurements at North Rumaila Area [7] 13.2 7.2 Rescue Tank 4 15.1 8.7 T-72 Tank 3 9.7 8.2 Armored Personnel Carrier MTLB 2 24.6 8.1 Armored Personnel Carrier BMB-1 1 Chosen Sample Background Type of Chose Sample
  8. 8. Table (3) Field Measurements at Shamia Air field / Gudairat al-Audhaimi Area [7] 7.2 7.3 Far away area from chosen sample (2) / Water can 4 7.3 7.1 Far away area from chosen sample (1) / T-72 3 60.3 7.2 Armoured Personnel Carrier (Water can) 2 60.8 7.0 T-72 Tank 1 Chosen Sample Background Type of Chose Sample
  9. 9. In 1996, another, more comprehensive, exploration program were conducted by the Environmental Engineering Dept. ( EEUB ) of University of Baghdad [Al-Azzawi, S., et.al., 1996].
  10. 11. <ul><li>The program involved taking hundreds of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exposure measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soil samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surface and groundwater samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water ways bottom sediments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vegetables, meat, and wild plants samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Areas covered by that program are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Zubair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jabal Sanam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Rumaila Oil Field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Rumaila Oil Field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safwan </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Table 4, shows selected measurements of that program which prove DU related contamination of air, soil, water, and sediments. By measuring U 238 , U 235 , and the ratio U 235 /U 238 proved DU contamination .
  12. 14. Table 4 : Selected Exposure and Soil Radioactivity Measurements [15] T: Destroyed Tank A: Destroyed Armored Vehicle 0.008 25.1 3120 48 A 2 Jabal Sanam S-7-3 0.007 229 31600 43 T 12 Southern Rumaila Oil Field RK-4-1 0.009 198 21700 42.1 T 11 Southern Rumaila Oil Field RK-3-2 0.013 531 40900 51.9 T 10 Southern Rumaila Oil Field RK-2-2 0.0161 901 55700 80.8 T 9 Southern Rumaila Oil Field RK-1-1 0.007 70.3 9700 43 A 4 Northern Rumeila Oil Field R-4-3 0.014 119 79100 58 T 8 Northern Rumaila Oil Field R-3-2 0.013 375 27800 75.5 T 7 Northern Rumaila Oil Field R-1-6 0.017 36.3 2019 14.4 T 6 North Safwan City S-6-2 0.010 79 7310 16.3 T 5 North Safwan City S-5-3 0.009 30.9 3408 15.3 T 4 NW Jabal Sanam S-4-1 0.0185 47.3 2550 17.1 T 2 Jabal Sanam SN-2-3 0.0167 183 11400 36.8 T 1 Jabal Sanam SN-1-2 0.0129 57.1 4401 30.5 T 13 Northern Jabal Sanam S-2-9 0.01069 41.9 3918 28.6 A 1 Northern Jabal Sanam S-2-2 U 235 / U 238 U 235 Th 234 Activity Concentration in Soil (Bq/Kg) Exposure µR/hr Type of Sampled Target Location Sample Symbol
  13. 15. <ul><li>Other exploration programs (Table 5) proved the existing of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more contaminated areas in south and west of Basrah city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Ninevah governorate and its center, Mosul city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Muthana governorate and its center, Samawa city, where after more than 3 years, the American guardsmen of New York blood tests, who served there, proved they were exposed to DU contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Thee-Qar governorate, to the north of Basrah, and its center, Nassyria city. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Al-Basrah, Safwan, S.Rummailah, N. Rummailah Oil Fields U-235/U-238 in soil samples 2001 Kinani, A.T. et al. East, central and west areas of Al-Basrah Soil sampling 2001 Butrus, S.M. et al. Al-Basrah, Al-Suweirah and other locations U-238 concentration in Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 2000 Tawfiq, N.F. et al. Baghdad City Municipality Radioisotopes in drinking water 2001 Elias, M.M. et al. Safwan City, Al-Zubair, Jabal Sanam, Northern and Southern Rumaila Oil Fields, Al-Basrah City Exposure, soil 2000 Al-Azzawi, S.N. and Hassan, A. Mosul City and Ninevah Governorate Exposure, soil, water, sediment 2000 Al-Azzawi, S.N. and Nashwan Shawkat Al-Basrah and Al-Mutharan Governorates Exposure, activity measurements in soil 2000 Maarouf, B.A. Al-Muthana and Thee-Qar Governorates Exposure, soil, water, plants and animal tissues 1996 Khalil, M.A. and Fethi, F.M. Areas Measurements Year Authors
  15. 17. II Epidemiological studies related to DU contamination health effects indicate: <ul><li>The existing of multifold increase of malignant diseases like leukemia among children, of less than 15 years old, in Basrah 1990-2000 [Yacoub, A., et.al., 2002]. </li></ul><ul><li>A three fold increase in congenital malformation in 1998 compared to 1990 [Al-Sadoon, I., et.al., 1998] congenital heart diseases, chromosomal aberrations, & multiple malformations which all indicate exposure to teratogenic environmental factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of 160% of uterine cancer in 1997 compared to 1990. Also, 143% increase in thyroid cancer cases, and 82% increase of lymphomas cancer [Yacoub, A., et.al., 1998]. </li></ul>
  16. 20. In 2002 Yacoub, Al-Sadoon, and Hassan examined the association between exposure to DU in contaminated areas & rising incidence of malignancies among children in Basrah through time sequence and dose response criteria . Geographic shift in the increase rates from less than 5/100,000 prior to 1993 to 20.75/100,000 in 2000 in Zubair contaminated area, Figures 3,4, &5 conclude these results.
  17. 21. Biological plausibility criteria were satisfied through the shift of the increase of leukemia incidence rate towards children younger than five years old, after 1995 (Figure 4).
  18. 23. Yacoub, et.al., 2002, couldn’t explain the continuous increase of malignancies incidence rates among children in Al-Hartha area (Figure 2) from 10/100,000 prior to 1993 to 42.7/100,000 in the year 2000. This can attributed to the existing of the 800 MGW Hartha Electrical Power Plant which was attacked by US Air Force many times and has been destroyed during the first week of the 1 st . Gulf War in 1991.
  19. 25. III Other DU effects on human health studies include: In 1998, Ammash presented a paper that deals with joined toxic and radioactive effects of DU on (50) studied individuals, where (29) cases have been found with DNA abnormalities .
  20. 26. In the year 2000, Muhammad, Z., et.al, published a paper about the effects of DU radiations on a group of (26) Iraqi veterans compared to (43) control group. Tests of the (ADA) Adenosine DA Amines enzyme activity found to be significantly lower than that of the control group.
  21. 27. In 2000, Ammash, H., et.al., published a paper about the results of genetic hematological analysis for (47) individuals who lives or exposed as veterans in contaminated areas of Basrah, compared with (30) individuals of control group from Baghdad.
  22. 28. PCV, WBC, and hemoglobin concentration blood tests were all showed a significant effects on Basrah studied group as follow: * 21% of them suffered reduction in blood hemoglobin conc. (9-13) g/dl *25% of the Basrah studied group showed abnormal blood packed cell volume (PCV) in a rate of (30-39)% lower than the normal rate, or 3% higher than normal rate. CONT……
  23. 29. * 8% of the studied group have total count of white blood cells (WBC) less than normal(4000) c/ml * The author, also, pointed out the existing compound chromosomal changes in the lymphocytes of peripheral blood of Basrah studied group at a ratio of (0.1118%) scientifically higher than normal. * Ratio of dicenteric and ring-centric chromosomal abnormality fraction was found to be (0.04479) which is also higher than ordinary ratio. Chromosomal damages were mostly in male veteran individuals.
  24. 30. In the year 2002, Al-Sadi, H., and Sawad, A., conducted a research in the Veterinary College of Basrah University. The study reported the existing of three types of animal neoplasm: 1. seminoma in rams 2. mesotheliomas in buffalo 3. ovarian cystademonas in bitches 4. some types of congenital defects in farm animals All previous types of neoplasm have never reported in this region before the nineties.
  25. 31. Recommendations: In light of the stated facts and evidences, the following is recommended: <ul><li>Occupation forces must allow UNEP to conduct a full exploration program in Iraq in order to assess human health and environmental damages caused by these weapons since 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation forces should clearly submit all necessary information and data about the types, amounts, and locations of all DU expenditures that have been used on Iraqi territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Cont….. </li></ul>
  26. 32. 3. Occupation forces should allow WHO to conduct comprehensive health surveys and investigations in DU contaminated areas to help the Iraqi people and children coping with the consequences of DU related health damages. 4. Occupation forces should help in managing all contaminated wreckage and destroyed contaminated artilleries, top soil, waterways, bottom sediments through a comprehensive clean-up and remedy plan. Cont…..
  27. 33. 5. The doors for further research must be opened concerning studies about the impact of DU on the population and the environment in Iraq. This includes the release of statistics related to occupation crimes and casualties that have been committed against Iraqi people during the last two decades. 6. The accused administrations responsible for committing war crimes against Iraqi people and the environment through subjecting them to this suffering and gradual death as a result of DU weaponry use should be convicted and sentenced for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Cont…..
  28. 34. 7. The international community must work together to promote a resolution banning DU weapons as a first step to abolish these weapons from the army arsenals of the countries that currently use them.
  29. 35. The End.... Thank You

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