Apa itu sains?

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  • Apa itu sains?

    1. 1. 1. Apa itu Sains?
    2. 2. Sains Kajian yang sistematik tentang fenomena alam. Contoh fenomena semulajadi •Letupan gunung berapi. •Pertumbuhan bayi •Gerhana matahari •Peleburan ais • Pembentukkan pelangi
    3. 3. Bidang – bidang Sains Kajian tentang benda hidup 1 Biologi 2 Fizik Kajian tentang tenaga dan kesannya ke atas jirim 3 Kimia Kajian tentang jirim dan tindak balas antaranya. 4 Geologi Kajian tentang batuan, tanih dan mineral 5 Astronomi 6 Meteorologi Kajian tentang planet, bintang, dan objek lain dalam alam semesta Kajian tentang perubahan cuaca dan iklim
    4. 4. Kerjaya dalam sains •Doktor •Pakar diet •Ahli botani •Ahli botani •Ahli farmasi •Ahli farmasi •Ahli meteorologi •Ahli kimia •Jurutera •Arkitek •Saintis •Angkasawan.
    5. 5. Kepentingan Sains • Sains membantu kita memahami alam sekitar • Sains meningkatkan taraf kehidupan • Sains menawarkan kerjaya yang berasaskan sains • Sains meyumbang kepada penemuan dan penciptaan baru.
    6. 6. 2. A Science Laboratory
    7. 7. Hazard Symbols
    8. 8. Hazard Symbols Symbol and meaning 1 Examples Petrol & Kerosene Phosphorus Highly flammable 2 Alcohol / Ethanol Sodium Potassium Explosive Hydrogen
    9. 9. Hazard Symbols Symbol and meaning 3 Harmful / Irritant 4 Examples Ammonia Chlorine Chlorofom Mercury Lead Sodium cyanide Hydrogen sulphide Toxic / Poisonous Bromine
    10. 10. Hazard Symbols Symbol and meaning 5 Examples Sodium hydroxide Hydrogen peroxide Corrosive 6 Concentrated acids & alkalis Uranium Radium Thorium Radioactive Plutonium
    11. 11. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS CONTAINER Beaker flask Conical flask Flat-bottomed flask Round-bottomed
    12. 12. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Test tube holder Filter funnel Gas jar Crucible For heating To hold ToTo contain filter mixtures test tubes gas of solids and liquids chemicals
    13. 13. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Crucible Tripod Bunsen Wire gauze burner tongs stand To provide a flame To support apparatus To conduct excess To during heating holdheating for hot objects heat away
    14. 14. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Glassstand Retort Evaporating Syringe and clamp rod dish ToFor stirring hold the apparatus To transfer small For evaporating liquid while experiments are liquids from a solution quantities done of liquids being
    15. 15. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Pipette Thermometer An To measure a Burette Measuring of Stop ammeter fixed volume cylinder watch solutions An instrument to To measure a small accurately volume of solutions To measure Tomeasure electric measure the volume accurately of solutions accurately To measure time current temperature Suction pump
    16. 16. BUNSEN BURNER Barrel Collar Air-hole Gas inlet Base
    17. 17. BUNSEN BURNER . Air-hole open 2. Non-luminous does not give out light 3. Does not give out soot [Gas is completely burn] 4. Suitable for heatingvery hot 1. Air-hole close 2. Luminous-gives out light 3. Gives out a lot of soot 4. Not suitable for heating-not very hot Just remember one side only
    18. 18. BUNSEN BURNER
    19. 19. Steps in lighting a Bunsen burner 1 Close the air hole by turning the collar 2 Light a match and bring it near the barrel 3 Turn on the gas pipe 4 Adjust the collar on the Bunsen burner
    20. 20. 3. The Steps in a Scientific Investigation
    21. 21. Steps in a Scientific Investigation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Identify the problem Making a smart guess/ hypothesis Plan the experiment Control the variables Carry out the experiment Recording/Collect data Analysing the data Interpreting the data Making conclusions Writing reports
    22. 22. 4. Physical Quantities and Their Units
    23. 23. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES & THEIR UNITS Quantity Unit Symbol of unit Length Mass Time metre kilogram second m kg s Temperature kelvin K Electric current ampere A
    24. 24. Physical quantity Measured by using 1. Length A metre rule 2. Mass Beam balance Lever balance 3. Time 4. Temperature 5. Electric current A stop watch A thermometer An ammeter Electronic balance
    25. 25. PREFIXES Prefix Symbol Value of prefix kilo- k 1000 centi- c milli- m 1 100 1 1000
    26. 26. Examples show how prefixes are used
    27. 27. 5. Weight and Mass
    28. 28. 1. The amount of matter in the object 1. The pull of the Earth on the object 2. Always the same 2. Not always the same- WEIGHT IS NOT 3. Measured by using a 3. Measured by using a THE SAME AS MASS spring balance or a lever balance or a tripleanywhere depends on the force of gravity beam balance 4. Measured in kilograms compression balance 4. Measured in newtons
    29. 29. Balance for measuring Weight Spring balance Compression balance
    30. 30. Balance for measuring Mass Lever balance Beam balance Electronic balance
    31. 31. WEIGHT AND MASS Weight Mass 1 kg 60 kg Earth Moon Outer space 10 N 10/6 N 0N 600 N 100 N 0N 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg 1 kg = 1 x ( gravity = 10 ) = 10 N
    32. 32. Balance for measuring Mass Triple beam balance Lever balance Beam balance Lever balance
    33. 33. 6. Measuring Tools
    34. 34. Measurement of Length ● to measure the length of short straight line ● to measure the length of long straight line ● to measure the length of a curved line ● to measure the length of a 4. An opisometer (map measurer) crooked line
    35. 35. Measurement of Length 5. External callipers 6. Internal callipers
    36. 36. Measurement of Length Measuring the thickness of a beaker External diameter = 2.2 cm Internal diameter = 2.1 cm Thickness of the beaker = External diameter – Internal diameter 2 = 0.1 = 0.05 cm 2
    37. 37. 4.8 cm – 4.6 cm 2 = 0.1 cm = 1mm
    38. 38. Measurement of Length The correct way to read the scale on a ruler
    39. 39. Measuring a curved line using a thread and a ruler
    40. 40. Measurement of Area
    41. 41. 1 PMR 2008
    42. 42. Measuring the volume of liquids To measure the volume of liquids To measure a small volume of liquids accurately To measure a fixed volume of liquids accurately Use a suction pump to suck liquid into a pipette. Do not use your mouth
    43. 43. Measuring the volume of liquids The correct way to read the scale on a measuring cylinder
    44. 44. Measuring the volume of liquids The correct way to read the scale on a measuring cylinder
    45. 45. Measuring the volume of liquids To improve the accuracy of the reading . . use a hand lens to read the scale put a piece of white paper behind the scale
    46. 46. WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD To measure the volume of regular and irregular solids
    47. 47. Estimating the volume of irregular solids WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD
    48. 48. Estimating the volume of a cork Volume of the cork = ( 58 – 52 ) ml = 6 ml = 6 cm³ WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD
    49. 49. Estimating the volume of irregular solids WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD
    50. 50. WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD EUREKA CAN

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