Profile of unauthorized Colonies:Definition of unauthorized colonies:• An unauthorized colony is one which has been constructed by the colonizer without obtaining the legal permission or no objection certificate from the department of Town and country planning, Urban land ceiling, Municipality and these colonies do not conform to the laid down standards.• Unauthorized housing development can be classified into two broad categories.• Where the transaction of land is either legal or quasi-legal. The illegal act consist sub-dividing the land into plots and building on them without the permission of controlling authority• When a dweller has no legal right over the built up land.The process of development of unauthorized colonies:• The process of illegal land development is as follows:• Due to high demand for housing in urban areas, the land sub dividers purchase the agricultural land for providing plots to willing buyers at a lesser / cheaper rate compared to the market value.
• The land is chosen in such a manner that some planned colonies already exists in the vicinity so that the people can use the facilities of such developed area.• The newly migrants in the city or lower middle class people who cannot afford formal housing but can spend some amount upon the housing are main target of these developers. Such quantum of class is relatively high and which resulted into faster unauthorized developments within the city and sometimes getting houses in public sector also includes lot of proceedings and consumes lot of time.• The colonizer, registers the colony in the name of a third person/ or makes a transfer of property deal with the farmer / Get the notary made, since registration for an unauthorized colony is difficult to get.• Generally the name of such settlement is on the name of some MLA in order to seek protection in future against demolition and to avoid getting vacated.• The unauthorized colony may be completely or partly in violation of norms and regulations.• With the prime motive of maximization, adequate space is not left for the facilities required, thus violating the prescribed norms of sub division and housing development partly or fully.
Factors promoting unauthorized colonies:• Migration at higher rate due to industrial developments• Remarkable quantum of housing shortage in lower income groups• Gap between demand and supply of housing• Land speculation and high land prices• Less housing supply by public agencies
CITY PROFILE Meerut district is found between Ganga and Jamuna, and has been a centre of lots of activities in the history of India. It was the fertility of the soil, temperate climate and its proximity to Delhi that has helped in the progress of Meerut during times of peace and political commotions; falls in National Capital Region (NCR). It is the second largest town in the National Capital Region next to Delhi. Meerut is at 70 km. distance from Delhi, 50 km. from Muzaffarnagar and 50 km. from Ghaziabad. Meerut, a well known city, famous for ancient History, Ist freedom movement, sports goods, scissors, Khadi, Nauchandi Mela and Communal Rights. The city has 13 links; 10 of roads & 3 of railways.
DemographicsYear Population Positive Or Negative In Last 10 Percentage Male Female Years 1901 121180 -- -- -- 67219 53961 1911 119435 Positive 1745 1.44 68188 51247 1921 125506 Positive 6071 5.08 73419 52087 1931 141025 Positive 15519 12.44 82589 58636 1941 179155 Positive 38170 27.08 104075 75120 1951 239440 Positive 60245 33.62 136538 102902 1961 294853 Positive 55413 23.14 163447 131406 1971 382944 Positive 88091 29.88 201245 181699 1981 536615 Positive 153671 40.13 281334 255281 1991 846954 Positive 310339 57.83 454204 392750 2001 1170985 Positive 321186 37.79 631720 539265 • 2021 - 19.28 lakhs or say 20.0 lakhs Planning Aspects Basically the development of Meerut can be Total Urbanizable Area divided in to two parts; • 2001 – 5712 Hec. or 57 Sq.KM • Built-up Area • 2021 – 15590 Hec. or 156 Sq. KM • Colonial Area
Various modes of Land supply for Housing Acquisition of agricultural lands under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 Transfer of government vacant land Purchase of assembly of agricultural land/vacant lands by negotiation Transfer from one use to another use Intensification of use of same land
Housing Scenario Housing scenario is an observation made from Meerut Master Plan-2021 and from observations made during city visit.• Upto the end of the present Master 10,468 hectare area was required to be developed, against which only 2987 hectare area has been developed so from the required development area only 28.5% of the required 315 area has been developed. Also in Modipuram sector, only 191 hectare area has been developed which is almost 60.6% of the required. Therefore according to the development area, which was presented area per Master Plan to be 10,783 hectare only 3,178 hectare has been developed which is only 29.5% of the required.• From time to time, in between the period of the Master plan, authority have converted about 545 hectare land area into development area, as a result of which it is necessary to look after the area, the converted area to see over the effect of Master plan on them.• During the master plan period MDA and UPAVP proceeded on some schemes which were under developed/proposed scheme against the proposal of Master Plan.• Many unauthorised colonies were accepted by MDA, out of which many colonies were against the land use were converted against land use and house plan of these areas were also accepted by the authority. Although it is known, that till now the administration have not converted land use of these colonies accordingly, as a result of these unauthorised colonies accepted by authorities, the area surrounding have also been effected.
• There have been unauthorised development, on the large scale in the proposed park area and open area especially mentioned in Master Plan as P-3 use zone in those areas which are attached with the developed areas and this is somewhere in MDA and UPAVP has been done the development leaving either P-3 land area or unauthorised conversation of P-3 use zone. As a result of this kind of behaviour of authorities unauthorised work has been given a large support (under P-3 use zone).• In many schemes, MDA have partly or completely under the agriculture green belt use zone have acquired even acquired even not considering many land areas and developed it. According to the Master Plan land use, probably, supported by such behaviour of authorities, under agriculture green belt use zone some private developers and general people have also plotted the unauthorised plotting and development. This development is probably done in those areas, whose chances of development are more, as mentioned in the master plan. Also besides the main roads of Meerut, UPAVP have acquired the land, supported by which, private developers have also done unauthorised development in agriculture green belt.• In the proposed industrial area on Delhi road and Meerut bypass road, keeping in mind the air flow of these industries, it is not convenient to set up industries in these areas.
• In the Master Plan the proposed road width in the built-up area is not possible as MDA has sectioned / compounded some unauthorised plans against the road width, as well as in the existing road width the unauthorised construction has been done, therefore it is not possible to widen the road as per proposed master plan. The schemes under process by MDA are not according to the circulation pattern as proposed circulation pattern of master plan therefore it is difficult to change the circulation pattern of particular area.• Against the rules MDA have permitted the development of residential complexes in built- up area and commercial complex in open area. In these building there is no rule wise criteria for parking and setbacks. As result, or one side the look of build up area has been demolished and on the other hand as per Master Plan proposal, either in the main commercial centre unauthorised development has been done or the ground floor plan of those areas has been accepted commercially for residential use.Observations• In the Master Plan, 10783 Hectare land was proposed to develop for the population of 13.4 lacs. If the development grew according to Master Plan then appx. 10244 Hectare of land (i.e. appx. 95% of to be developed area) was supposed to develop in the end of 1990. But in 1990 only 3178 Hectare of land was developed which was appx. 29.30% only.• Hence, there has been tremendous supporting for the illegal land sub-division and so the unauthorised development due to the negligence in some part of the city by the government authorities and also due to the slow working pace which usually did not matched with the target of Master Plan of Meerut.
Study of the Meerut Master Plan – 2021Unauthorized Colonies (MPD-2021, Page ‐7 g), Unauthorized colonies, which are to beregularized as per government policy, should be effectively incorporated in themainstream of urban development; this requires provision of infrastructuredevelopment, services and facilities for which differential norms procedures have beendevised.Meerut Master Plan-2021 has identified 33 unauthorized colonies as regularized and105 to-be regularized unauthorized colonies.Observations• Many unauthorised colonies were accepted by MDA, out of which many colonies were against the land use as they were converted against Master Plan land use, plus the house plans of these areas were also accepted by the authority. Although it is known, that till now the administration have not converted land use of these colonies accordingly, as a result of these unauthorised colonies accepted by authorities, the area surrounding have also been effected.• There have been unauthorised development, on the large scale in the proposed park area and open area especially mentioned in Master Plan as P-3 use zone in those areas which are attached with the developed areas and this is somewhere in MDA and UPAVP has been done the development leaving either P-3 land area or unauthorised conversion of P-3 use zone. As a result of this kind of behaviour of authorities unauthorised work has been given a large support (under P-3 use zone).
ILLEGAL LAND SUBDIVISION IN THE CITYAround 80% of residential areas in Meerut city are unauthorised development due tovarious factors;• The level of urbanization in Meerut has been accelerating since from past few decades due to its location of being in NCR. Hence, rapid economic growth is taking place which is likely to increase the urban population in a significant manner. Moreover in NCR, it’s an only major manufacturer and supplier of metal items like scissors, knife, cutters, etc. giving employment to many households.• Migration of rural population to city for industrial employment.• Gap between demand & supply of Housing by the public agencies and corporate sector.• Lengthy procedure for converting land from agricultural use to non agriculture use.• High development charges.• No check on the unauthorised development by the public authority in the past.• Land speculation and high land prices within the city as land is in saturation in urban areas.• Major portion of Meerut is reserved as cantonment land which acts as delineates main city with the later part of Meerut (Kankan Khera) which now has developed as biggest unauthorised development in the city.
S.No. Regularised unauthorised colonies by MDA a Bharat Vihar (Roorkee Road) Examples of sectors of b Ramnagar (Sardhana Road) unauthorised colonies c Mangalpuri (Sardhana Road) d New Govindpuri (Sardhana Road) Malyana Sector e Ashokpuri (Sardhana Road) Malyana sector is between f Rajendrapuram (Bhavana Road) Delhi railway line, bypass road g Ramvati puram (Badot Road) and Cantt Boundry. Projected h Tej Vihar (Badot Road) area of land for Master Plan i Gagan Vihar (Badot Road) 2001, 1399.000 hectare but in j Mona Vihar (Badot Road) 1990 it was used only 317.74 k Saraswati Vihar (Badot Road) hectares which is approximate l Sant Vihar 22.7%. m Raghukul Vihar According to Master Plan this n Gupta Colony area was allotted for residential, o Siddharth industrial, amusement and p Kalindi Colony regional parks. But it was q Gulmohar park developed as unauthorised r Saipuram residential colonies and linear s Ashiyana Colony development shops/commercial t Vidhyanagar on both sides of the roads, u Jaidevi nagar industrial and public parks v Samrat Enclave development is nil. w Ambedkar Nagar
Kanker Khera SectorKanker Khera Sector covers 366.00 hectare of projected land under the Master Plan 2001, on the mainSardhana road passing through Meerut Cantt. in the Master Plan 1990, the land was allotted for thissector, 347.000 hectare but it was used 83.14 hectare, which was 22.7% only as per Master Plan thesector was allotted for residential area mainly. The area is developed as built up mohalla type withnarrow lanes with small shops on both side of lanes and maximum of unauthorised small colonies, exceptShardhanpuri colony developed by MDA and Defence Enclave, Sainik Vihar Colonies are failure developedby MDA.•Reasons for less development;•Due to approaching road passing through Cantt. Area which makes a physical distance from the main city.•Low cost land available near the main populated area, allows the unauthorised plotting and constructionactivity.Abdullapur SectorIn this sector between Mawana and Prikshitgarh road and Meerut Cantt. Land was allotted for the MasterPlan 2001, 1551.000 hectare. Up to 1990, only 131.20 hectare of land was developed which is 8.5% ofland. According to the Master Plan in this sector commercial centre, light industrial residential andamusement parks were purposed. This land is still undeveloped only Defence Colony, P&T ColonyMinakshipuram, Rakshapuram etc has been in developing stage. Commercial and residentialunauthorised construction is also very less. Rakshapuram and Ganganagar colonies developed by MDA.Reasons for Insufficient Development Of Malyana and Abdullapur Sector• The sector is connected by road to city through by Cantt. roads and area which is lonely therefore one doesn’t want to traverse this road.• Delhi railway line is a physical barrier in the development of Malyana sector.• The development has been done by the public along the road of Malyana Sector, Baghpat road, Baraut road and Bhola road.
GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN REGULARISATIONProcess of Development of unauthorised coloniesAs per Uttar Pradesh State Planning and Development Regulations, under Sec.-15,permission is to be sought for the development areas before doing any developmentwork by the authority, but most of these areas have been developed irrespective ofthe sanctioning of their layout plans, among which maximum areas are eitherincomplete or are under-developed (as per the government norms).For the development of such areas, under Sec.-33 of the above stated regulation,beneficiaries (residents) should check with the development work done by theresponsible agency, else development authority may undertake this developmentwork and charge the prescribed development fees from the beneficiaries.Major stock of residential colonies is unauthorised and thus not feasible fordemolition. State Development Policy has not included anything regarding thedevelopment of the unauthorised colonies whereas these residents being Indiancitizens are entitled for basic facilities for which authorities have laid guidelines underwhich developed unauthorised colonies are to be surveyed and studied, to bedeveloped as per stated government norms, and upon which future development issought
ObservationsGovernment process of regularisation of unauthorised colonies depends upon thecriterion fulfilment by these colonies as stated in U.P. Government Orders circulated inthe state. These G.O. guidelines are mostly related to infrastructure facilities and donot check on the violation of the state building bye-laws. It only states for theconstruction of larger plots as per bye-laws but already constructed ones may enjoythe liberty on the payment of minimal penalty cost.Since these colonies are the vote banks for the political parties, are easily providedwith electricity. Whereas for water supply, mostly Meerut Municipal Corporation borehand pumps and sometimes even political leaders do so in the colony irrespective ofground water quality. Then after sometime people themselves starts boring theirmotor pumps for extraction of ground water. Likewise, basic infrastructure provision isthere and so people doesn’t feel need to get their colony regularised and hence theyusually do not apply for their regularisation.Hence, stock of unauthorised colonies seems ever-growing in the city of Meerut withno land policy regulation and density. People can construct as per their willirrespective of structural and ventilation norms. Once they’ll be regularised, they mayincrease their building heights exceeding the prescribed F.A.R., and if the colony is notregularised then they are even in better situation to scoop personal benefits which is avery common scenario of Meerut.
CASE STUDIESCase study of Regularised Unauthorised ColonyNEW AJANTA COLONYIt is a regularised unauthorised colony as per MMP-2021.It is a small developing colony besides an authorised residential area of Ajanta Colony. New Ajanta Colony thrives on Ajanta Colony for infrastructure. It’s a complete plotted development with construction in full swing (as on July 2009). Income group: MIG at first halfLocation: It is located on Garh road, near Sales from main road and LIG in second Tax Office. half.Area: Gross area of the colony as identified by Population: Total number of Meerut Development Authority= 80,000 sqm exiting constructed buildings = (80 ha), whereas 46,000 sqm (46 ha) has already 213, out of which number of DU’s been developed by individuals and rest area is = 186. Considering one household under construction. per plot and average householdNo. of plots = 213, inclusive of all landuses and size of 5 persons, exiting various plots divisions. population of the colony is 930.
Density: 277 persons/ hectare, i.e. 112 persons/ acrePlot sizes: There are no specific plot sizes as they vary between 4 sqm to plot size of800 sqm.Land use: The area is designated for residential use. The existing land use is mixed landuse i.e. residential cum commercial, where commercial shops are on the sub-dividedland of residential plots. In all, area under residential use is around 73%, with norecorded percentage of commercial area as it is developing at a rapid pace.As per G.O., 15% of the total areato be given for green spaces 1% 2%whereas there is only 10% greenspace available as marked on 8%plots which are not developed. 5% PSPTwo plots for primary schools areavailable covering for about only Circulation2% of colony area. Green spacesCirculation area is about only10% of the total site area which Residentialincludes the internal roads with Commercialvarying width from 3.5m to 6m. 84%Shops are provided on both sideof local road of width 5.5m.
Land rates: Circle rate= Rs.3000 persqm, whereas market rates varieswith locational criteria, where ingeneral it revolves around Rs. 20,000per sqm.Building Bye Laws (existing status):No of floors: G, G+1, G+2Ground coverage: 90- 100%Setbacks: 1.5m or no setbacks havebeen left on plots.Taxes paid: Since development workis complete within the colony, nodevelopment charges are levied onbeneficiaries except for thedevelopment of open spaces ofRs.563 per sqm.
Physical infrastructureWater supply: There is no piped water supply for this area. Meerut MunicipalCorporation has installed hand pumps (5 nos.), whereas people have bored theirmotorised tube wells and have installed over-head tanks to store boring water. Waterquality is not fit for drinking purpose.Sewerage and Drainage: There is no facility for sewer, where drains are maintainedproperly on either sides of roads.Solid waste: Few people dump their garbage in barren plots, whereas majorhouseholds have the private facility of door-to-door garbage collection.Electricity: Properly installed electricity poles are there all along the road for thedistribution of electricity to every plot.Roads: Developed roads, maintained drains on both sides of road, and electricity polesare installed all along the road for the distribution of electricity.
Social infrastructureShopping: Convenience shops aredeveloping all along the mainapproach road.Education: Two schools are there;both are of primary level.Health: 1 private medical clinic isthere within the colony.Park & playground: As per MDA, noopen space has been identified forparks and playgrounds.Whereas, open spaces aredemarcated (and not developed yet)arbitrarily anywhere on size of plotvarying from 75 sqm to 800 sqm.These demarcated open spaces arecurrently used as dumping sites.Religious: There is only one temple inthe locality and no other religiousbuilding.
Case study of Unauthorised ColoniesJAIDEVI NAGARIt is an identified unauthorised colony as per MMP-2021.It is a small developed unauthorised colony located in the main city.Location: It is located on Garh road, near Sales Tax Office.Income group: HIG and MIGs (lower to higher MIG)Land use: The area is designated for residential use. Theexisting land use is mixed land use i.e. residential cumcommercial. As per G.O., 15% of the total area to begiven for green spaces. Lower MIG houseLand rates: Circle rate= Rs.3000 per sqm, whereasmarket rates varies with locational criteria, ranging fromRs.20,000 – Rs. 25,000 per sqm.Building Bye Laws (existing status):No of floors: G, G+1, G+2Ground coverage: 90- 100%Setbacks: 1.5m or no setbacks have been left on plots.Taxes paid: No development charges are levied on nor Higher MIG housethey pay taxes. They are benefiters of not beingregularised.
Physical infrastructureWater supply: There is piped water supply for this area evenbeing unauthorised colony by Meerut Municipal Corporation inaddition to the installed hand pumps. Water quality is fit fordrinking purpose.Sewerage and Drainage: This area has sewer facility with ill-maintained drains on either sides of roads.Solid waste: All households have the private facility of door-to-door garbage collection. In addition to this, there is a big openplot which is used as a dumping site. From there rag-pickers andgarbage-collecting vans clear the dump.Electricity: Properly installed electricity poles are there all alongthe road for the distribution of electricity to every plot.
Social infrastructurePark & playground: Non-availability of opengreens in this unauthorised colony, except fora barren corner plot which seems to bedesignated as park but is serving as adumping site.Shopping: Convenience shops are there allalong the main road and few shops on theinternal roads/ streets too.Education: Two schools and a regd. computertraining centre are there. Busy road flanked with shops on bothHealth: 5 private medical clinics are there sides and a templewithin the colony. standing out from the skylineReligious: There are two temples and onemosque in the locality. Plot sub-division on a residential plot, used for commercial activities.
ANALYSISLand Ownership• No provision of lease hold plots, loss of revenue and problems of higher cost of maintenance.• Regularisation process has further encouraged the formation of such colonies where no authority keeps check of further sub-division after regularisation of colonyArea under plots• This leads to a reduction in open spaces and a continuous narrowing down process of roads.• Load on roads leading towards capacity exhaustion.• Load on facilities and services.• This makes place over crowded.• Further sub-division is possible on plot area which are turned for commercial activities.Circulation• Circulation in unauthorised is unsafe. It hampers easy and convenient access to pedestrian as well as vehicular traffic.• Due to arbitrary land sub-division, no hierarchy of roads/ streets is maintained making streets very narrow upto 1.5 m.• Many streets are inaccessible by heavy vehicles at during the time of emergency.
Dwelling Unit• There is no check on built-up spaces; hence unauthorised development has high potential for indiscriminate addition. This increases load on existing on site as well as on nearby site’s infrastructure.• Inadequate light and ventilation, no protection against noise or dust pollution.• There are no structural considerations made before construction of houses or during addition of floors, making building structurally unsafe.Infrastructure facilities• People thrive on ground water in such colonies. Though ground water quality is good but in some areas it is unfit to drink due to its contamination over the period of time, reason being sewer seepage and discharge from home-based industries directly in open ground.• Lack of proper sewerage creates unhealthy environment by forcing people to discharge their soil into open storm water drains.• Road widths are reduced due to presence of open drains on wither sides of ROW• Open drains supports breeding of mosquitoes and other insects.• Garbage is disposed off on open plots left for or demarcated as green spaces, creating unhealthy environment.
• As per education facility, these colonies may have primary schools but no colony have senior secondary school which is required as per existing population. These colonies depend on planned development for their educational needs.• As per the religious community majority, religious building is built right along the main edge of the colony (usually main road side), so that future demolition could be prevented.• No community spaces are there which provides no scope for social gathering and so lack in social welfare.• Commercial growth disturbs the residential character and attracts traffic which is unsupported by existing ROW.• Pavement dwellers are common here for their day to day living.
CONCLUSION• Since the housing supply could not keep pace with the increasing population and so the housing demand, unauthorised development is adding on. Its biggest example is Kankhera area which is the biggest unauthorised development in Meerut existing on northern side of Cantonment area.• Around 20% of the city is planned development where most of the city is unauthorised development due the incapability of housing board to supply public housing as per demand by the different income groups, nor the public authority invited private developers for addition to the required housing stock. These colonies are regularised later on and now private developers are coming in market as Meerut is emerging a strong economic city in NCR.• Since people have home based economic activities, it easier for them to work from the fringe areas and supply their goods to market in the core. So there is no check even by the income tax department too. Hence, unauthorised housing could be said to have work-place relationship. Therefore, housing for Meerut should be developed keeping in mind the economic relationship with the housing.
• Though MDA has proposed development of these colonies for their regularisation but on ground reality colonies within main city (example Jaidevi Nagar) are fully developed, but lack in community facilities like education, open spaces, hospitals, post offices, fire etc. no space is available for the provision of these facilities in future too.• Existing public housing did not catered to LIG and EWS, whereas upcoming public and private housing are targeting upper income groups only. Hence, LIG and EWS are forced to do illegal land sub-division on the fringe areas and stay connected with the city.
Impact of Unauthorized Colonization:Positive impact of illegal land subdivision The colonizers are the most benefited from unauthorized colonies. The amount involved in this process are very high and even the profits are high. The terms of payments are flexible in most of the cases. The terms of payment is not rigid, people pay in installment according to their conveyance. Unauthorized housing is much faster in providing houses to the people. This is an added advantage compared to other subsystems. There is great flexibility in building as no byelaws are applied here. The people build as per their need. Politicians gain popularity by the regularization or provision of infrastructure on such colonies. Initial investment for the occupant is very low, although they finally end up paying more. Creates market value for the property. Improvement in terms of infrastructure.
Negative impact of illegal land subdivision:• Due to the growth of unauthorized housing, the whole development proposals and plans loose their relevance. The growth of such colonies taken place in a disjointed manner. It becomes very difficult to integrate them with the existing planned development.• As soon as the unauthorized settlement grows in some direction, other non confirming supporting uses crop up nearby. The cost of infrastructure provision for such colonies is much higher than the required.• After regularization, even though there is little improvement in physical infrastructure and buildings but the one which cannot be improved or modified in the road width between the encroachments.• The residents have to face insecurity for quite some time and have to provide for their own infrastructure. The initial investment is comparatively less but later on they end up paying more.• These unauthorized colonies act as vote bank for the politicians, and are exploited by the politicians for their personal interest.• Court litigations take place for several years in which both the colonizer and the officials are harassed.• Unauthorized colonies encourage corruption at all levels.• It creates stress on the infrastructure provided for the planned colonies.