IUCN RED LIST
IUCN RED LIST The IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN
Red List or Red Data List) is the world's most
comprehensive inventory of the global
conservation status of plant and animal species.
The International Union for the Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is the
world's main authority on the conservation status
IUCN Red List is widely considered to be the most
objective and authoritative system
The IUCN Red List of threatened species lists 45 species
of internationally threatened animals occurring in
Pakistan. Of these, 4 are critically endangered, 12
endangered and 29 vulnerable. Out of these 45 species,
18 are mammals, 17 birds 9 reptiles, and one fish.
Several of these threatened species are found in Northern
Use of modern technology in Agriculture
During the last few years there has been a great change
in regional agriculture. Now farmers use chemical
fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides that are leading to
diseases in wildlife especially insects, birds, reddens and
the aquatic fauna.
Lack of Awareness
Little awareness about the importance of conservation.
Traditional activities like hunting or shooting of wildlife have
still not been banned.
The government and NGOs are trying to redress the
situation by creating awareness in communities regarding
conservation and sustainable use of natural resources,
Weak law enforcement
The rules and regulations that have been framed regarding
the protection and conservation of natural resources have
typically not been implemented properly due to weak law
Illegal hunting and shooting still exist. Now the government
has started to work with stakeholders and concerned
communities for the protection, conservation and
sustainable use of wildlife by providing some monetary and
social benefits. Such schemes have been successful.
Insufficient inventories and data
In much area there is insufficient primary and secondary
information about wildlife status, its genetic richness and
habitat condition. Where some information does exist on
biodiversity, it is usually not shared widely. Published data
is also typically unknown to most people except the authors
and a few academics. Moreover, a lot of the information
remains on files as raw data. The government, research
institutions and others should collect this information
without further delay and share it with all the stakeholders.
The Northern Areas Forestry Department (Wildlife division
and the KNP directorate) is responsible for the conservation
and protection of wildlife in this region. The lack of adequate
field staff and proper training of existing staff, combined with
limited funds, means that they cannot perform their duties
effectively. The government departments and concerned
NGO need to address these issues.
Lack of research / medical facilities
In Northern Areas there are almost no research or medical
facilities for animal health. There is just one animal
husbandry department which is poorly supplied with field
staff and doctors. Recently in Gojal valley a large number of
blue sheep died due to an unknown disease. The disease
was identified after a loss of a large number of animals.
Other causes, Indirect and Direct
• Weak polices and laws
• little incentives
• Natural hazards (avalanches, floods)
• Lack of prey species
• Misuse /mismanagement of pastures .
• Introduction of exotics (trout, carp etc)
• Illegal poaching of wild animals to sell in down country
• Killing by herdsmen to protect their livestock
Cut down trees Water Pollution
People hunt for
People hunt for
Build Roads Throwing trash on
People hunt for
Acid Rain Fill in swamps and
marshes to build homes
Marco polo sheep
Sind wild goat
The Green Turtle
Indus River DolphinIndus River Dolphin:
Is endemic to the lower Indus basin river in
The construction of dams and barrages has
severely limited the dolphin’s movement and
habitat, as has increasing withdrawal of water
for agricultural and industrial use.
Approximately 1,100 of these animals
remain in Pakistan.
The WWF has devoted some of their
resources to help protect this endangered
The Blue WhaleThe Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)
Is a marine mammal.
At up to 32.9 meters in length and 172 metric
tons in weight it is the largest animal ever to
The IUCN Red List counts the blue whale as
Whale population is dwindling because of
whaling, accidental collision with ships, and
due to global warming.
Is the largest member of the goat family,
and is found in northern and western Pakistan.
The species is classed by the IUCN as
Endangered, as there are less than 2,500
Flying SquirrelFlying Squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi)
is a rodent, nocturnal flying squirrel endemic to
And is listed as a critically endangered species
due to habitat loss.
Snow leopardSnow leopard (Uncia uncia)
is a moderately large cat native to the mountain
ranges of Central Asia.
Snow leopards live between 3,000 and 5,500
meters above sea level in the rocky mountain
ranges of Central Asia.
It has been estimated that between 3,500 and
7,000 snow leopards exist in the wild.
Crane Grus:Crane Grus:
was historically widespread all over south Asia and
also in pakistan.
Now declining all over its range. These are
primarily threatened by a combination of habitat
loss and modification (owing primarily to
agricultural expansion), and pollution.
Baluchistan BearBaluchistan Bear::
It is also referred to as the "moon bear" due to a
crescent-shaped mark on its chest.
These solitary bears live in forest habitats and can
weigh over 300 pounds. The Baluchistan bear is
found only in the province of Baluchistan in
These bears now face extinction due to
deforestation and loss of habitat
And those that survive are threatened by hunting
due to demand for the bears' parts by practitioners
of traditional Chinese medicine.
UrialUrial ((Ovis vigneiOvis vignei))::
is a wild sheep subspecies which is found in
Pakistan, widespread in all four provinces and
Threats are Frequently hunted, their number is also
decreasing gradually. All three sub-species of Urial
in Pakistan are listed as Endangered in by the
IUCN's Capirane Specialist Group.
The Green Turtle:The Green Turtle:
It can grow up to 3.5 feet in length, and could be as
heavy as 180 kilogram.
Green Turtles are facing extinction all over the world
due to low growth rate and environmental
Main threats are commercial trade in turtle skin,
shell, medicines and cosmetics, and destruction of
eggs by predators, especially feral domestic dogs.
Other dangers to turtles come from poachers,
accidental capture in fishing nets, and extensive
coastal development, which results in human
disturbance at the nesting sites and pollution.
"Mugger or Marsh " or the Crocodiles:"Mugger or Marsh " or the Crocodiles:
These are found in lakes and marshes around
Karachi. Manghoo Pir, shrine of a saint had
many crocodiles in the pond inside the shrine,
but now only a few are left.
The Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary has the
largest population of the endangered Mugger
Crocodile in Pakistan.
Principal threats include killing for sale of the
hide, killing by fishermen as well killing for the
collection of specimens for laboratories and
Gharial or GavialGharial or Gavial::
is the most long-snouted and together with the
saltwater crocodile the largest of the living
Gharial are restricted to the northern part of the
Indian subcontinent where they were found in
four river systems Reports of gharial remaining
in the Sindh region of Pakistan are persistent,
but there appears to be a very small number,
possibly only one or two individuals.
Lal Sohanra National Park (Bahawalpur)
Kirthar National Park (Sindh)
Khunjerab National Park (NothernAreas)
Chiltan Hazargangi National Park
Margalla Hills National Park (Islamabad)
Chitral Gol National Park (NWFP)
Ephedra Procera:Ephedra Procera: is used in allopathic medicine
to treat bronchial asthma, hay fever and as a heart
stimulant. As per an estimate, 4000 tones of oil from
juniper berries could be harvested. species have been
estimated as threatened or endangered due to lack of
adequate rains in recent years, habitat destruction,
over-exploitation of economic plants, and
introduction of alien species besides environmental
pollution. No one presently seems to be interested in
conserving the flora which may prove to be
disastrous in long run.
Deodar or Himalayan CedarDeodar or Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus
Deodara): is the National tree of Pakistan. It is a
species of cedar native to the western Himalaya in
eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, Kashmir,
Tibet and western Nepal, occurring at 1500-3200 m
altitude.. Abbot bad in Pakistan has some very rare
and old trees, some even as old as 200-300 years old.
The photograph shown above is that of huge tree
standing majestically in the Piffers Officers' Mess in
Abbotabad, planted somewhere around 1850.
Plants and animals hold medicinal, agricultural, ecological,
commercial and aesthetic/recreational value. Endangered species
must be protected and saved so that future generations can
experience their presence and value
Plants and animals are responsible for a variety of useful
medications. In fact, about forty percent of all prescriptions
written today are composed from the natural compounds of
There are an estimated 80,000 edible plants in the world.
Humans depend upon only 20 species of these plants, such as
wheat and corn, to provide 90% of the world's food. Wild
relatives of these common crops contain essential disease-
resistant material. They also provide humans with the means to
develop new crops that can grow in inadequate lands such as in
poor soils or drought-stricken areas to help solve the world
Why Save Endangered Species?
Plant and animal species are the foundation of healthy
ecosystems. Humans depend on ecosystems such as
coastal estuaries, prairie grasslands, and ancient
forests to purify their air, clean their water, and supply
them with food. When species become endangered, it
is an indicator that the health of these vital ecosystems
is beginning to unravel.
Various wild species are commercially raised, directly
contributing to local and regional economies.
Commercial and recreational salmon fishing in the
Pacific Northwest provides 60,000 jobs and $1 billion
annually in personal income, and is the center of
Pacific Northwest Native American culture. This
industry and way of life, however, is in trouble as
salmon decline due to habitat degradation from dams,
clear cutting, and overgrazing along streams.
Plant and animal species and their ecosystems form
the basis of nation’s money making , job-intensive
tourism industry. They also supply recreational,
spiritual, and quality-of-life values as well.
Our national heritage of biological diversity is an
invaluable and irreplaceable resource. Our quality of
life and that of future generations depends on our
preservation of plant and animal species.
More knowledge of complete ecosystems can help
us to better understand, and protect, the requirements
of all life--including the human species.
Endangered means there’s still time, but
extinction is forever.