Endangered species in Pakistan

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Endangered species in Pakistan

  1. 1. Iqra Afzal
  2. 2. IUCN RED LIST  IUCN RED LIST The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List) is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species.  The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species.  IUCN Red List is widely considered to be the most objective and authoritative system
  3. 3.  Population depletion  The IUCN Red List of threatened species lists 45 species of internationally threatened animals occurring in Pakistan. Of these, 4 are critically endangered, 12 endangered and 29 vulnerable. Out of these 45 species, 18 are mammals, 17 birds 9 reptiles, and one fish.  Several of these threatened species are found in Northern Areas.  Use of modern technology in Agriculture  During the last few years there has been a great change in regional agriculture. Now farmers use chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides that are leading to diseases in wildlife especially insects, birds, reddens and the aquatic fauna.
  4. 4.  Lack of Awareness  Little awareness about the importance of conservation.  Traditional activities like hunting or shooting of wildlife have still not been banned.  The government and NGOs are trying to redress the situation by creating awareness in communities regarding conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, including wildlife.  Weak law enforcement  The rules and regulations that have been framed regarding the protection and conservation of natural resources have typically not been implemented properly due to weak law enforcement.
  5. 5.  Illegal hunting and shooting still exist. Now the government has started to work with stakeholders and concerned communities for the protection, conservation and sustainable use of wildlife by providing some monetary and social benefits. Such schemes have been successful.  Insufficient inventories and data  In much area there is insufficient primary and secondary information about wildlife status, its genetic richness and habitat condition. Where some information does exist on biodiversity, it is usually not shared widely. Published data is also typically unknown to most people except the authors and a few academics. Moreover, a lot of the information remains on files as raw data. The government, research institutions and others should collect this information without further delay and share it with all the stakeholders.
  6. 6.  Limited resources The Northern Areas Forestry Department (Wildlife division and the KNP directorate) is responsible for the conservation and protection of wildlife in this region. The lack of adequate field staff and proper training of existing staff, combined with limited funds, means that they cannot perform their duties effectively. The government departments and concerned NGO need to address these issues.  Lack of research / medical facilities In Northern Areas there are almost no research or medical facilities for animal health. There is just one animal husbandry department which is poorly supplied with field staff and doctors. Recently in Gojal valley a large number of blue sheep died due to an unknown disease. The disease was identified after a loss of a large number of animals.
  7. 7.  Other causes, Indirect and Direct  Indirect • Poverty • Weak polices and laws • little incentives  Direct • Natural hazards (avalanches, floods) • Lack of prey species • Misuse /mismanagement of pastures . • Introduction of exotics (trout, carp etc) • Illegal poaching of wild animals to sell in down country (brown bear) • Killing by herdsmen to protect their livestock
  8. 8. Humans Pollution Hunting and Fishing Exotic Species Cut down trees Water Pollution People hunt for fun Animals kill each other Build Homes Oil Spills People hunt for meat Animals give each other disease Build Roads Throwing trash on the ground People hunt for fur Acid Rain Fill in swamps and marshes to build homes
  9. 9. MAMMALS  Urial  Siberian ibex  Markhor  Marco polo sheep  Sind wild goat
  10. 10.  Himalayan Musk deer  Hog deer  Goitered Gazelle  Snow leopord  Fishing Cat  Himalayan Brown bear
  11. 11.  Woolly flying squirrel  Hotson’s mouse-like hamster  Blue whale  Indus River dolphin
  12. 12. BIRDS  Houbara Bustard  Red-headed vulture  Migratory birds  Cranes  Marbled Teal
  13. 13.  White-headed duck  Western Tragopan REPTILES  The Green Turtle  Narrow-headed soft-shelled turtle
  14. 14. Indus River DolphinIndus River Dolphin:  Is endemic to the lower Indus basin river in Pakistan.  The construction of dams and barrages has severely limited the dolphin’s movement and habitat, as has increasing withdrawal of water for agricultural and industrial use.  Approximately 1,100 of these animals remain in Pakistan.  The WWF has devoted some of their resources to help protect this endangered species. The Blue WhaleThe Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)  Is a marine mammal.  At up to 32.9 meters in length and 172 metric tons in weight it is the largest animal ever to have existed.  The IUCN Red List counts the blue whale as ‘endangered.  Whale population is dwindling because of whaling, accidental collision with ships, and due to global warming.
  15. 15. MarkhorMarkhor  Is the largest member of the goat family,  and is found in northern and western Pakistan.  The species is classed by the IUCN as Endangered, as there are less than 2,500 mature individuals. Flying SquirrelFlying Squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi)  is a rodent, nocturnal flying squirrel endemic to Pakistan.  And is listed as a critically endangered species due to habitat loss. Snow leopardSnow leopard (Uncia uncia)  is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia.  Snow leopards live between 3,000 and 5,500 meters above sea level in the rocky mountain ranges of Central Asia.  It has been estimated that between 3,500 and 7,000 snow leopards exist in the wild.
  16. 16. Crane Grus:Crane Grus:  was historically widespread all over south Asia and also in pakistan.  Now declining all over its range. These are primarily threatened by a combination of habitat loss and modification (owing primarily to agricultural expansion), and pollution. Baluchistan BearBaluchistan Bear::  It is also referred to as the "moon bear" due to a crescent-shaped mark on its chest.  These solitary bears live in forest habitats and can weigh over 300 pounds. The Baluchistan bear is found only in the province of Baluchistan in southwest Pakistan.  These bears now face extinction due to deforestation and loss of habitat  And those that survive are threatened by hunting due to demand for the bears' parts by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine.
  17. 17. UrialUrial ((Ovis vigneiOvis vignei))::  is a wild sheep subspecies which is found in Pakistan, widespread in all four provinces and Northern Areas.  Threats are Frequently hunted, their number is also decreasing gradually. All three sub-species of Urial in Pakistan are listed as Endangered in by the IUCN's Capirane Specialist Group. The Green Turtle:The Green Turtle:  It can grow up to 3.5 feet in length, and could be as heavy as 180 kilogram.  Green Turtles are facing extinction all over the world due to low growth rate and environmental constraints.  Main threats are commercial trade in turtle skin, shell, medicines and cosmetics, and destruction of eggs by predators, especially feral domestic dogs. Other dangers to turtles come from poachers, accidental capture in fishing nets, and extensive coastal development, which results in human disturbance at the nesting sites and pollution.
  18. 18. "Mugger or Marsh " or the Crocodiles:"Mugger or Marsh " or the Crocodiles:  These are found in lakes and marshes around Karachi. Manghoo Pir, shrine of a saint had many crocodiles in the pond inside the shrine, but now only a few are left.  The Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary has the largest population of the endangered Mugger Crocodile in Pakistan.  Principal threats include killing for sale of the hide, killing by fishermen as well killing for the collection of specimens for laboratories and museums. Gharial or GavialGharial or Gavial::  is the most long-snouted and together with the saltwater crocodile the largest of the living crocodilians.  Gharial are restricted to the northern part of the Indian subcontinent where they were found in four river systems Reports of gharial remaining in the Sindh region of Pakistan are persistent, but there appears to be a very small number, possibly only one or two individuals.
  19. 19.  Lal Sohanra National Park (Bahawalpur)  Kirthar National Park (Sindh)  Khunjerab National Park (NothernAreas)  Chiltan Hazargangi National Park (Balochistan)  Margalla Hills National Park (Islamabad)  Chitral Gol National Park (NWFP)
  20. 20.  Ephedra Procera  Deodar (Himalayan Cedar)  Mangroove Forests
  21. 21.  Ephedra Procera:Ephedra Procera: is used in allopathic medicine to treat bronchial asthma, hay fever and as a heart stimulant. As per an estimate, 4000 tones of oil from juniper berries could be harvested. species have been estimated as threatened or endangered due to lack of adequate rains in recent years, habitat destruction, over-exploitation of economic plants, and introduction of alien species besides environmental pollution. No one presently seems to be interested in conserving the flora which may prove to be disastrous in long run.  Deodar or Himalayan CedarDeodar or Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus Deodara): is the National tree of Pakistan. It is a species of cedar native to the western Himalaya in eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, Kashmir, Tibet and western Nepal, occurring at 1500-3200 m altitude.. Abbot bad in Pakistan has some very rare and old trees, some even as old as 200-300 years old. The photograph shown above is that of huge tree standing majestically in the Piffers Officers' Mess in Abbotabad, planted somewhere around 1850.
  22. 22.  Plants and animals hold medicinal, agricultural, ecological, commercial and aesthetic/recreational value. Endangered species must be protected and saved so that future generations can experience their presence and value  MedicinalMedicinal Plants and animals are responsible for a variety of useful medications. In fact, about forty percent of all prescriptions written today are composed from the natural compounds of different species.   AgriculturalAgricultural There are an estimated 80,000 edible plants in the world. Humans depend upon only 20 species of these plants, such as wheat and corn, to provide 90% of the world's food. Wild relatives of these common crops contain essential disease- resistant material. They also provide humans with the means to develop new crops that can grow in inadequate lands such as in poor soils or drought-stricken areas to help solve the world hunger problem. Why Save Endangered Species?
  23. 23.  EcologicalEcological Plant and animal species are the foundation of healthy ecosystems. Humans depend on ecosystems such as coastal estuaries, prairie grasslands, and ancient forests to purify their air, clean their water, and supply them with food. When species become endangered, it is an indicator that the health of these vital ecosystems is beginning to unravel.  CommercialCommercial Various wild species are commercially raised, directly contributing to local and regional economies. Commercial and recreational salmon fishing in the Pacific Northwest provides 60,000 jobs and $1 billion annually in personal income, and is the center of Pacific Northwest Native American culture. This industry and way of life, however, is in trouble as salmon decline due to habitat degradation from dams, clear cutting, and overgrazing along streams.
  24. 24.  Aesthetic/RecreationalAesthetic/Recreational Plant and animal species and their ecosystems form the basis of nation’s money making , job-intensive tourism industry. They also supply recreational, spiritual, and quality-of-life values as well.
  25. 25.  Our national heritage of biological diversity is an invaluable and irreplaceable resource. Our quality of life and that of future generations depends on our preservation of plant and animal species.  More knowledge of complete ecosystems can help us to better understand, and protect, the requirements of all life--including the human species.  Endangered means there’s still time, but extinction is forever.

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