Hardware of  Personal Computers Topic 4
Part 1:  Introduction
What are Basic Hardware  of  a Personal Computer? <ul><li>Monitor  </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard  </li></ul><ul><li>CPU (M...
What is a Hardware? <ul><li>Hardware is the general term that is used to describe physical artifacts of a technology. </li...
Classification of Hardware Figure 2. Classification of Hardware. Input  Devices   1 Processing  Unit  2 Storage  Devices 3...
Part 2:  Input Devices
What is an Input Device? <ul><li>A hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by...
Input Devices a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object and converts it to a digital image...
Input Devices a real-time camera (usually, though not always, a video camera) whose images can be accessed using the World...
Part 3:  Processing Unit
What is a Processing Unit? <ul><li>A central processing unit (CPU), is the component in a digital computer that  interpret...
How fast is a CPU? <ul><li>When you choose a CPU, you should consider its speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of a CPU is d...
What are Intel CPU Families for Desktop Computers? <ul><li>There are 3 Intel CPU families for desktop computers: </li></ul...
What are AMD CPU Families for Desktop Computers? <ul><li>There are 3 AMD CPU Families for Desktop Computers: </li></ul><ul...
TASK 1 (Individual work) <ul><li>You have learnt some searching skills for search engines,  now you need to search the  ba...
TASK 1 (TABLE 1) AMD CPU Intel CPU Price (HK$) Cache Memory L2 (MB) Clock Frequency (GHz) Athlon 64 ADA 3200-CN Athlon 64 ...
TASK 2 (Group Work) <ul><li>You are divided into  groups of 4 . </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the above  CPU models , which ar...
What is a motherboard? <ul><li>A  motherboard  is the  central circuit board  making up a personal computer. (Wikipedia, 2...
Motherboard <ul><li>A personal computer is built with the CPU, main memory, and other essential components on the motherbo...
What is a Video Card? <ul><li>A  video card  is to generate and  output images to a display . (Wikipedia, 2007k) </li></ul...
A Video Card <ul><li>If the video card is  integrated in the motherboard , it will use the computer RAM memory (lower thro...
What is a Sound Card? <ul><li>A  sound card  is a computer expansion card that can  input and output sound  under control ...
Part 4:  Storage Devices
What are Types of Storage Devices? Figure 9. Classification of storage devices. Storage Devices Primary Storage Secondary ...
What is Primary Storage? <ul><li>Primary storage is computer  memory that is directly accessible to the CPU  of a computer...
What is ROM? <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored i...
What is RAM? <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers.  </li></ul><ul><li>It takes t...
What is Secondary Storage? <ul><li>Secondary storage  is computer memory that is  not directly accessible  to the CPU of a...
Secondary Storage  <ul><li>3.5” Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be  read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity: ...
Secondary Storage <ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be  read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of disk rotation ...
Secondary Storage 650 650 650 Data capacity (MB) Read & write Read but write once Read only Data can be CD-RW CD-R CD-Rom
Secondary Storage Single layer: 4.7  Double layer: 8.5 Single layer: 4.7  Double layer: 8.5 Single layer: 4.7  Double laye...
What are the Different Between DVD-R and DVD+R? <ul><li>The DVD-R format was developed by Pioneer in the autumn of 1997. I...
Secondary Storage Figure 14. A C-R disk. Figure 15. A CD-RW disk.
Secondary Storage Figure 16. A DVD-R disk. Figure 17. A DVD+RW disk.
Secondary Storage <ul><li>USB flash drives  </li></ul><ul><li>They are flash memory data storage devices integrated with a...
Secondary Storage <ul><li>Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. SD card, CF card, xD card, Microdrive, Memory Stick </li></u...
Various Types of Memory Cards Figure 20. Various types of memory cards. Microdrive Memory Stick xD card CF Card SD Card SM...
Part 5:  Output Devices
What is an output device? <ul><li>Output devices include any hardware that translate information processed by the computer...
Output Devices <ul><li>A  monitor  is a piece of electrical equipment which displays texts and images.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>The performance parameters of a monitor are: </li></ul><ul><li>Luminance  </li></ul><ul><li>Size, measured diagona...
<ul><li>Response time   The amount of time a pixel in an LCD monitor takes to go from active (black) to inactive (white) a...
Output Devices <ul><li>A  printer  produces a  hard copy  (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents sto...
Output Devices <ul><li>Inkjet printers  operates by propelling  tiny droplets of liquid ink  onto paper.  </li></ul><ul><l...
Output Devices <ul><li>Laser printer </li></ul><ul><li>Laser printers employ a  xerographic  printing process. </li></ul><...
Task 3 (Group Work) <ul><li>You are divided into  groups of 4 . </li></ul><ul><li>Select  ONE laser printer  and  ONE inkj...
Output Devices <ul><li>A  loudspeaker  is an electromechanical transducer which  converts an electrical signal into sound....
References Wikipedia. (2007l). Sound Card. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_card Wikipedia....
References Wikipedia. (2007t). DVD+R. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD%2BR Wikipedia. (2007z)...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Lesson 2 Ppt V6

17,331 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
4 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
17,331
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
79
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,532
Comments
4
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lesson 2 Ppt V6

  1. 1. Hardware of Personal Computers Topic 4
  2. 2. Part 1: Introduction
  3. 3. What are Basic Hardware of a Personal Computer? <ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>CPU (Microprocessor) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion cards </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disc drive </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary storage (Hard disk) </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul>Figure 1. Basic hardware of a PC. (Wikipedia, 2007a)
  4. 4. What is a Hardware? <ul><li>Hardware is the general term that is used to describe physical artifacts of a technology. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classification of Hardware Figure 2. Classification of Hardware. Input Devices 1 Processing Unit 2 Storage Devices 3 Output Devices 4 Key: Data flow
  6. 6. Part 2: Input Devices
  7. 7. What is an Input Device? <ul><li>A hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. (Wikipedia 2007b) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Input Devices a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object and converts it to a digital image (Wikipedia 2007e) Scanner a pointing device by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. (Wikipedia 2007d) Mouse for the input of text and characters and also to control the operation of a computer (Wikipedia 2007c) Keyboard
  9. 9. Input Devices a real-time camera (usually, though not always, a video camera) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web (Wikipedia, 2007g) WebCam an electronic device used to capture and store photographs electronically in a digital format (Wikipedia, 2007h) Digital Camera an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. (Wikipedia, 2007f) Microphone
  10. 10. Part 3: Processing Unit
  11. 11. What is a Processing Unit? <ul><li>A central processing unit (CPU), is the component in a digital computer that interprets computer program instructions and processes data. (Wikipedia, 2007i) </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 major CPU manufacturers for personal computers. Intel http:// www.intel.com / AMD http://www.amd.com </li></ul>Figure 3. Intel Celern 2.66GHz CPU (Front) Figure 4. Intel Celern 2.66GHz CPU (Back)
  12. 12. How fast is a CPU? <ul><li>When you choose a CPU, you should consider its speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of a CPU is determined by 2 main factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of cache memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The higher the value , the faster the CPU will be. </li></ul>The clock frequency of a CPU Figure 5. The clock frequency of a CPU.
  13. 13. What are Intel CPU Families for Desktop Computers? <ul><li>There are 3 Intel CPU families for desktop computers: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Core Processor http://www.intel.com/products/desktop/processors/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pentium Processor http://www.intel.com/products/desktop/processors/pentium.htm </li></ul><ul><li>3. Celeron http://www.intel.com/products/desktop/processors/celeron.htm </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are AMD CPU Families for Desktop Computers? <ul><li>There are 3 AMD CPU Families for Desktop Computers: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Athlon 64 FX http://www.amd.com/us-en/Processors/ProductInformation/0,,30_118_9485_9488,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>2. Athlon 64 x 2 Dual – Core http://www.amd.com/us-en/Processors/ProductInformation/0,,30_118_9485_13041,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>3. Athlon 64 http://www.amd.com/us-en/Processors/ProductInformation/0,,30_118_9485_9487,00.html </li></ul>
  15. 15. TASK 1 (Individual work) <ul><li>You have learnt some searching skills for search engines, now you need to search the basic configurations and prices of the following CPUs. </li></ul><ul><li>Please complete TABLE 1 and post it in the forum . </li></ul>
  16. 16. TASK 1 (TABLE 1) AMD CPU Intel CPU Price (HK$) Cache Memory L2 (MB) Clock Frequency (GHz) Athlon 64 ADA 3200-CN Athlon 64 FX – 51/940 Celeron D356 Core 2 Due E6700 CPU Model
  17. 17. TASK 2 (Group Work) <ul><li>You are divided into groups of 4 . </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the above CPU models , which are suitable for home PC or office PC used. </li></ul><ul><li>Give brief reasons . </li></ul><ul><li>Please post your group discussion results in the forum . </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is a motherboard? <ul><li>A motherboard is the central circuit board making up a personal computer. (Wikipedia, 2007j) </li></ul>Figure 6. A motherboard. CPU RAM slot
  19. 19. Motherboard <ul><li>A personal computer is built with the CPU, main memory, and other essential components on the motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices are typically attached to the motherboard via edge connectors and cables. </li></ul><ul><li>In modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate these &quot;peripherals&quot; into the motherboard. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is a Video Card? <ul><li>A video card is to generate and output images to a display . (Wikipedia, 2007k) </li></ul>Figure 7. A video card.
  21. 21. A Video Card <ul><li>If the video card is integrated in the motherboard , it will use the computer RAM memory (lower throughput). If it is not integrated, the video card will have its own video memory which is called Video RAM or VRAM. </li></ul><ul><li>The VRAM capacity of most modern video cards range from 128 to 2048 MB (workstation graphics cards). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, the VRAM was based on DDR technology, standing out DDR2, GDDR3 and GDDR4. The memory clock rate is between 400 MHz and 1.6 GHz. </li></ul><ul><li>A very important element of the video memory is the Z-buffer, which manages the depth coordinates in 3D graphics. (Wikipedia, 2007k) </li></ul>
  22. 22. What is a Sound Card? <ul><li>A sound card is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Many computers have sound capabilities built in on the motherboard , while others require these expansion cards if audio capability is desired. (Wikipedia, 2007l) </li></ul>Figure 8. A sound card.
  23. 23. Part 4: Storage Devices
  24. 24. What are Types of Storage Devices? Figure 9. Classification of storage devices. Storage Devices Primary Storage Secondary Storage Read-Only Memory (ROM) Random-Access Memory (RAM)
  25. 25. What is Primary Storage? <ul><li>Primary storage is computer memory that is directly accessible to the CPU of a computer without the use of computer's input/output channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage is used to store data that is likely to be in active use. (Wikipedia, 2007m) </li></ul>
  26. 26. What is ROM? <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored in ROM cannot be modified . </li></ul><ul><li>ROM is a non-volatile storage . Data remains unchanged even after switching off the computer. (Wikipedia, 2007n) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. EPROM, EEPROM </li></ul>Figure 10. An EPROM. (Wikipedia, 2007n)
  27. 27. What is RAM? <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes the form of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order (random). </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored in RAM can be modified . </li></ul><ul><li>RAM is a volatile storage . Data will lose after switching off the computer. (Wikipedia, 2007o) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. DDRam, DDR-2 Ram </li></ul>Figure 11. Two 512 MB DDRam.
  28. 28. What is Secondary Storage? <ul><li>Secondary storage is computer memory that is not directly accessible to the CPU of a computer, requiring the use of computer's input/output channels. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to store data that is NOT in active use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually slower than primary storage but it always has higher storage capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>It is non-volatile. Data remains unchanged even after switching off the computer. (Wikipedia, 2007p) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Secondary Storage <ul><li>3.5” Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity: 1.44 MB (Wikipedia, 2007q) </li></ul>Figure 12. A floppy disk.
  30. 30. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of disk rotation usually 7200 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity : 80GB, 160GB, 250GB, 300GB etc (Wikipedia, 2007r) </li></ul>Figure 13. A Hard disk.
  31. 31. Secondary Storage 650 650 650 Data capacity (MB) Read & write Read but write once Read only Data can be CD-RW CD-R CD-Rom
  32. 32. Secondary Storage Single layer: 4.7 Double layer: 8.5 Single layer: 4.7 Double layer: 8.5 Single layer: 4.7 Double layer: 8.5 Data capacity (GB) Read & write Read but write once Read only Data can be DVD-RW /DVD+RW DVD-R /DVD+R DVD
  33. 33. What are the Different Between DVD-R and DVD+R? <ul><li>The DVD-R format was developed by Pioneer in the autumn of 1997. It is supported by most DVD players, and is approved by the DVD Forum . (Wikipedia, 2007s) </li></ul><ul><li>DVD+R was developed in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>This format is a competing format to the DVD-R format, which is developed by the DVD Forum, it has not been approved by the DVD Forum, which claims that the DVD+R format is not an official DVD format. (Wikipedia, 2007t) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Secondary Storage Figure 14. A C-R disk. Figure 15. A CD-RW disk.
  35. 35. Secondary Storage Figure 16. A DVD-R disk. Figure 17. A DVD+RW disk.
  36. 36. Secondary Storage <ul><li>USB flash drives </li></ul><ul><li>They are flash memory data storage devices integrated with a USB interface. </li></ul><ul><li>They are typically small, lightweight, removable and rewritable . (Wikipedia, 2007u) </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity: 512MB, 1GB, 2GB, 4GB, etc </li></ul>Figure 18. An USB flash drive.
  37. 37. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. SD card, CF card, xD card, Microdrive, Memory Stick </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity: 512 MB, 1GB, 2GB, 4GB etc </li></ul>Figure 19. A SD card.
  38. 38. Various Types of Memory Cards Figure 20. Various types of memory cards. Microdrive Memory Stick xD card CF Card SD Card SM Card
  39. 39. Part 5: Output Devices
  40. 40. What is an output device? <ul><li>Output devices include any hardware that translate information processed by the computer into a form that humans can understand . </li></ul>
  41. 41. Output Devices <ul><li>A monitor is a piece of electrical equipment which displays texts and images. </li></ul><ul><li>It generated a temporary record because the record disappear when power off. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 major types of monitors: Cathode Ray Tube ( CRT ) and Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD ) (Wikipedia, 2007v) </li></ul>Figure 21. A 14” LCD monitor.
  42. 42. <ul><li>The performance parameters of a monitor are: </li></ul><ul><li>Luminance </li></ul><ul><li>Size, measured diagonally For CRT the viewable size is one inch smaller then the tube itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Dot pitch Describes the distance between pixels of the same color. In general, the lower the dot pitch (e.g. 0.24), the sharper the picture will appear. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Response time The amount of time a pixel in an LCD monitor takes to go from active (black) to inactive (white) and back to active (black) again. It is measured in milliseconds (ms). Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Refresh rate The number of times in a second that a display is illuminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Display resolution The number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Output Devices <ul><li>A printer produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper . </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 major types of printers. They are inject printer and laser printer . </li></ul><ul><li>The resolution of a printer is measured in dots per inch ( dpi ). The higher the value, the better the quality. (Wikipedia, 2007w) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Output Devices <ul><li>Inkjet printers operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the most common type of computer printer for the general consumer due to their low cost, high quality of output, capability of printing in vivid colour , and ease of use. (Wikipedia, 2007x) </li></ul>Figure 22. An HP Inkjet K5400dn printer. (HP, 2007a)
  46. 46. Output Devices <ul><li>Laser printer </li></ul><ul><li>Laser printers employ a xerographic printing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Laser printers are available in both colour and black & white varieties. (Wikipedia, 2007y) </li></ul>Figure 23. An HP LaserJet 1022 printer. (HP, 2007b)
  47. 47. Task 3 (Group Work) <ul><li>You are divided into groups of 4 . </li></ul><ul><li>Select ONE laser printer and ONE inkjet printers </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the features (print speed, print volume per month, print resolution, printer price, print cost per page) of the laser printer and the inkjet printer. </li></ul><ul><li>Please post your group discussion results in the forum . </li></ul>
  48. 48. Output Devices <ul><li>A loudspeaker is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. (Wikipedia, 2007z) </li></ul>Figure 24. Loudspearkers
  49. 49. References Wikipedia. (2007l). Sound Card. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_card Wikipedia. (2007k). Video Card. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_card Wikipedia. (2007j). Motherboard. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motherboard Wikipedia. (2007i). Central Processing Unit. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cpu Wikipedia. (2007h). Digital Camera. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_camera Wikipedia. (2007g). Webcam. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webcam Wikipedia. (2007f). Microphone. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microphone Wikipedia. (2007e). Image Scanner. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_scanner Wikipedia. (2007d). Mouse (Computing). Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse_%28computing%29 Wikipedia. (2007c). Computer Keyboard. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_keyboard Wikipedia. (2007b). Input Device. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Input_device Wikipedia. (2007a). Personal Computer. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer HP. (2007b). HP Olaser Jet 1022. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://h10010.www1.hp.com/wwpc/hk/zh/ho/WF05a/1090037-1090121-1090401-1090401-1091129-12094322.html HP. (2007a). HP Officejet Pro K5400dn. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://h10010.www1.hp.com/wwpc/hk/zh/sm/WF06b/1090037-1090093-1095469-1095469-12224252-12973294-78107983.html
  50. 50. References Wikipedia. (2007t). DVD+R. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD%2BR Wikipedia. (2007z). Loudspeaker. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loudspeaker Wikipedia. (2007y). Laser Printer. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_printer Wikipedia. (2007x). Inkject Printer. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkjet_printer Wikipedia. (2007w). Computer Printer. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_printer Wikipedia. (2007v). Computer Display. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_display Wikipedia. (2007u). USB Flash Drive. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usb_flash_drive Wikipedia. (2007s). DVD-R. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD-R Wikipedia. (2007r). Hard Disk Drive. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk Wikipedia. (2007q). Floppy Disk. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floppy_disk Wikipedia. (2007p). Secondary Storage. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_storage Wikipedia. (2007o). Random Access Memory. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAM Wikipedia. (2007n). Read-only Memory. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Read-only_memory Wikipedia. (2007m). Primary Storage. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_storage

×