LED vs Fluorescent Lamps


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T12 production ended July 2012. Your decision point is a migration to T8 and new ballasts or T5 and new fixtures - or LED. You know that your energy costs are going up by 40% in the next couple of years and likely 100% over the next 10. Why not use todays money to light your path to future profitability. The highest ROI is LED.

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LED vs Fluorescent Lamps

  1. 1. LED vs. FluorescentAn IP UtiliNET Energy Services White PaperCurrent generation lighting solutions are based on 200 year old technology that wasinvented to simulate a flame and are known to be as much as 80% inefficient. Untilrecently, the lighting industry has offered incremental choice while expanding the use ofdangerous Mercury in major lighting technologies. This paper helps the reader to makean informed decision when considering Tubular LED Lamps. The ROI Advantage Reader ROI – Learn about: A. Fluorescent as compared to LED Tube Lamps B. Energy and Environmental benefits of LED Tube Lamps C. The Long Term sustainable benefits of LED Tube Lamps D. Significant Fluorescent Price Increases – 2010/11
  2. 2. Are LED Lamps Expensive? An investment of $30.00 that returns $221.00 is a 635% RETURN ON INVESTMENT or a 90% per year return.Executive Summary OverviewThe lighting industry and the people that it serves are undergoing disruptive change. Thetechnology that is leading this change is Solid State or Light Emitting Diode (LED)technology. Beginning with the invention of the ARC lamp in 1809, there have beenthree major inventions that have impacted the lighting systems that are in use today;Platinum Filament/1820, Mercury Vapour/1901, and Tungsten Filament/1906.Fluorescent lamps were patented in 1927 as a derivative of the 1906 invention ofMercury Vapour lamps. From 1906 and through today, there has been an explosion oflamp, fixture, and control systems that are based on these original inventions. Due to thematurity of these systems, the light is effective and in most cases balanced.There are two kinds of light - the glow that illumines, and the glare that obscures.~James ThurberThe first silicon based LED or luminescent silicon was observed in 1907. It was notcommercialized until 1961 and was not commercially viable until 1962. Since then, aswith all technology innovations, adaptation has led to the expansion of technology.Today, there are hundreds of emerging LED lamps, fixture options, dynamic and fixedcolour choices, and control systems that exceed much of the functional capability of 100plus year old incandescent and mercury-vapour based technology. A new era of lightingscience is now a daily reality.This paper focuses the reader on Fluorescent Tube Type or what are more commonlyrecognized TX type lamps and presents a comparison for LED migration. This paperalso introduces the IP UtiliNET naming convention. We find this helpful when comparingthe T-Type Fluorescent, T-Type LED lamps, Fixtures, Power type, and control systemsmany of which are evolving or not yet invented.With the advent of LED lamp technologies, business leaders and consumers have acritical opportunity and an environmental responsibility to make an informed decisionregarding the use of current and next generation LED lighting technology. This paperdiscards fluff and industry bias so that an informed decision can be made.©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. Business Challenge – Fluorescent or LED? Fluorescent Tube lamps, a type of Mercury Vapour lamp, are the typical choice for industrial and commercial facility lighting solutions. These lamps have improved incrementally with the latest innovation, T5 coming to market in 1995. Fluorescent lamps contain mercury atoms that must be ionized or “started” before they will produce light. The starting ionization comes from an electrical arc which can be in the thousands of volts and is produced by various types of starter or ballast technologies. Fluorescent lighting solutions have three main parts. They are theFluorescent Lamp Tube, the Fixture, and the Ballast. In this paper, we are contrasting 1927 traditional fluorescent technology to LED and find that our customers are confused by industry language so let’s clear that up; The table below provides lamp information. For clarity, let’s first define “TX” technology in terms of the original code and intended use. The letter T designates “Tubular” and the following numeric character - X - indicates the diameter of a tube in eighths of an inch. Efficiency and Cost are separate factors to consider and are part of lamp evaluation. LAMP Thickness Efficiency Cost T12 1 ½ inch thick or 12/8 of an Least Efficient $1.25 to $2.00 per lamp inch in diameter Lowest Lamp, Ballast, and $1.63 Average cost Fixture Cost T8 1 inch thick or 8/8 of an Better efficiency $1.75 to $2.50 per lamp inch in diameter 40% as compared to T12 $3.00 Avg / 46% over T12 cost increases by 46% T5 5/8 inch thick or 12/8 of an Highest efficiency $5.50 to $10.50 per lamp inch in diameter Requires dedicated lamp 51% as compared to T12 $8.00 Avg / 80% over T12 fixture and ballast Cost increases by 80% proprietary ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. The second factor to consider are fixtures (or troffers). A “TX” lamp gives off light in a360 degree radius. This means that up to half of the light generated is reflected from thefixture and is lost as heat versus used to efficiently light the space. When a lamp isfurther away from a reflector, as is the case with T5, it will disperse light and reflect lesswhich leads to lower lighting values. This is one of the reasons that T5 lamps requirenew fixtures. Fixtures are painted white due to the need to reflect light. Thus, various manufacturers will offer lamps and troffers in various wattages often matched to the actual lamp type. If lamps and fixtures were not confusing enough, the industry has added various innovations in starting and current limiting technology as shown by the drawing to the left and below right. The original starter was improved upon by a Semi-ResonantStarter. A semi-resonant starter uses a double wound transformer to heat the Tubeelectrodes via a capacitor. The capacitor is used to heat the powered end of thefluorescent lamps which in turn excites the trapped gas in theglass tube. This produces light in 3-5 seconds. Thistechnology is most often used in 5 ft. and longer tubes on 240V power. They are generally incompatible with “betterefficiency” T8 tubes, because T8s actually have a higherstarting voltage than T12 and will not dependably start in lowtemperatures. T12’s using semi-resonant starters are beingphased out in many countries.Electronic Ballasts, the most common in US systems use an oscillator instead of astarter or SRS and capacitor circuit. Ballast will adjust the main voltage AC to highfrequency AC while providing smooth current flow to the lamp, effectively regulating thevoltage for longer life. The T5 lamp uses a specially tuned ballast and lamp connectorsthat render the fixture useless for anything but T5 lamps. Starters, Semi-ResonantStarters, and Ballasts produce heat, require excess energy, and require periodicreplacement while adding another level of cost and confusion to lighting technology.©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5.  Current Generation LED Tube Lamps LED tube lamps are disruptive to any of the existing fluorescent technologies in the market today. The technology was first observed in 1907 and commercialized in 1962. The technology is well proven with existing LED’s that were made in the 1970’s and 1980’s with some still in service today. Current generation LED tube lamps are an effective replacement for any of the T12 or T8 lamps and do not require a complete fixture. T5 lamp migrations within the fluorescent family will require a lamp, a fixture, and ballast. As those components fail, the business will find itself locked into that and only that technology. LED lamps reduce the total cost of operations, reduce the cost of maintenance, reduce plant cooling requirements and provide a next generation lighting solution that is typically designed to integrate with current and future renewable energy technologies. The table on page 3 reflects a transition cost within the fluorescent family. A T5 in a perfect environment may have a lifetime of 20,000 hours versus LED which are rated at 50,000 hours or 2.5 Times the life expectancy of T5 lamps. Since fixture and ballast replacements are required for T5 the net reality of a T5 decision leads to a scant 8% improvement difference as compared to a T8 replacement. LED replacement lamps snap right into T12 and T8 fixtures. When considering the cost of the T5 lamp and the fact that more lamps are needed in new fixtures, when T5 replaces either T12 or T8, does it make sense to spend 50% more for the lamp, plus additional lamps, plus the short and long term cost of new fixtures and ballast, plus the added cost of EPA mandated commercial disposal? LED replacement lamps are left standing when others fail and do not require a special fixture, do not require ballast technology, and therefore provide significant reduction in capital costs.©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 5
  6. 6. An LED solution will typically eliminate cyclical and expensive light, light fixture, and cooling upgrades while providing luminosity that exceeds the existing fluorescent or incandescent lamp solutions.  Environmental Considerations LEDs offer innovation that leads to environmental consciousness while providing reduced power consumption and environmentally beneficial sustainability. LEDs do not use harmful mercury and can be recycled in any form factor without special handling and disposal fees. Lamps containing Mercury require licensed disposal for commercial industries (US EPA) as well as manifesting (US DOD) when transporting expired lamps. Even some of the legacy ballasts contain PCB’s which require additional safety procedures when handling and disposing. Mercury based lamps come under strict air quality rules per US EPA. Mercury is hazardous to humans and when airborne in buildings it constitutes a risk that causes EPA to recommend evacuation of people and pets and subjects the business to very specific handling procedures.Of the Phosphor used in Fluorescent and Compact Fluorescent lamps, more than half isderived from rare earths, with multiples up to 5 used to create a “white” light. These rareearths are mined in China. Due to new tariffs and export quotas prices of rare earthshave shot up as much as 3500% since the first month of 2010. This is resulting in lampprice increases of 25% to 38% in 2011/12. You are the Judge and the JuryLED is a current enabling technology that will render fluorescent lamps obsolete overtime. Whether your view is from an energy savings perspective, a cooling and plantoperations perspective, a maintenance perspective, or an environmental perspective,the leadership decision leads to LED. LEDs are not fixture dependent, do not requireballasts, operate at 10-15 degrees above nominal temperature, have extremely long lifetimes and do not require specialized licensing and handling.©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 6
  7. 7. Solution DescriptionCongratulations, you’re either on the fence or moving forward with a decision. Our All-Property LED solutions and e-lifecycle services will take you from planning throughexecution and disposal. This paper is focused on the business case for Tube lampmigration so we will spend some time in this section providing further detail. The scopeof work is similar to relamping with the exception of removing the ballast. The workconsists of assessing and documenting current state, removing the existing lamps,elimination and removal of the ballast from the fixture, replacing the lamps with LEDtubes, and then turning the power back on. We provide disposal on-site or transport tothe recovery facility with EPA certificates of disposal for your mercury based lightingsolution. IP UtiliNET naming conventions for LED Tube Lamps Using the industry recognized rules for “TX” lamps (page 3 of this document) and the known thickness of our replacement LED lamp - .875 as illustrated in this picture the math provides aT7 or 7/8 of an inch in size. It is highly likely that in the future other lamps will beproduced in sizes that equate to TX. IP UtiliNET has advanced the naming conventionby adding additional definition. Specifically: T7s where s denotes Solid State Device (SSD) technology T7sd where d denotes dimmable T7s-A denotes AC based SSD lamp technology T7s-G denotes DC based SSD lamp technologyThe G stands for Galvanic Power which is the original name for DC. Operating like abattery, the power does not fluctuate like AC. LEDs are natively powered by DC andmost of the heat is produced by the electronics that are used to convert AC to DC power.DC powered LED lamps are expected to add up 35% to 50% more lifetime and removeadditional heat from the lamps. The industry is moving in this direction with wholly newstandards for control systems and emerging technologies.©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 7
  8. 8. Today, IP UtiliNET is leading with LED relamping and working with manufacturers andindustry associations to develop the next generation DC based control and distributionsystems. Some points of light – LED vs. FluorescentFluorescent lamps radiate their light output in equal amounts surrounding the body of thelamp. This equates to wasted energy when placed in a fixture. While the lamp mayproduce sufficient light, the optical efficiency is diluted to 85-90% or a loss of 15% ofgenerated light plus loss due to heat output from the fixture. LEDs by contrast providereduced reflected light and more linear efficiency when converting power to light.T5 lamps are designed to operate within fairly narrow temperature ranges. At either endof these ranges, the T5 output will degrade and the bulb will fail. LEDs are the only lighttype that increase in efficiency when the temperature drops.Fluorescent lamps without a phosphorescent coating to convert UV to visible light emitultraviolet light. A phosphorescent coating can be added, to produce a UVA, UVB, orvisible light spectrum. All fluorescent tubes that are used for domestic and commerciallighting are mercury (Hg) UV emission bulbs at heart. LEDs produce no significantamount of UV radiation.The latest generations of premium LEDs have been tested to LM-79 specifications andhave proven that they will lose no more than 15% of the lumen output over a 50,000hour rated lifetime. LEDs also handle on/off cycles better than other lamps such as T5.An LED is instant on at maximum output while the T5 may take several minutes to getup to its full operating level. You are the Designer, Judge, and the JuryLED technology makes much more sense when considering acquisition, operations,maintenance, and replacement cost. As with any emerging technology there arechoices. LED is exciting technology that offers wholly new basic replacement capabilitiesas well as an emerging range of fixtures, control systems, power choices, and endlesscombinations of colors. To be sure, we are living in exciting times and for thosecommitted to making the journey, we are committed to serving you well.©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 8
  9. 9. Solution Benefits A Migration to LED will provide the best Return on Investment as compared to any type of Fluorescent. LED Tube lamps will:  Reduce power consumption in ranges typically close to 78%  Provide a cost reduced migration plan from T12 and T8 without the need for a new fixture.  Dramatically reduce the operating temperature and reduce the effect of lighting on the cooling plant. This reduces power consumption, cost of operations, and cost of maintenance  Move to instant on bulbs, most of which are dimmable  Eliminate the power consuming, heat producing ballasts from the fixtures as these are no longer needed.  Migrate from an expected lifetime (T5) of 20,000 hours to a rated lifetime (LED) of 50, 000 hours.  Eliminate the ballast replacement technology and related labour costs forever Fluorescent or LED?  Eliminate as much as 2.5X the labour cost when LEDMore Choice with LED: relamping is eventually required Color Tuning?  Eliminate the current environmental risk and avoid “Mercury” lamp based EPA and DOD scrutiny and threat of fines AC or DC Power?  Choose dimmable when requiredPolicy Based Controls?  Choose colours when specified Analytics?  More useful and tested in harsh environments, unlike T5 lamps  As standards continue to evolve choose to implement DC based fixtures with control systems that lead to “all property”, individual room, and individual fixture controls  Introduce many types of sensors that are just not possible with fluorescent ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 9
  10. 10. Technical SpecificationsFor the purpose of this paper, we used Cardinal lighting solutions for T8 and T12replacements. These lamps can use the same fixtures when replacing with LED.Cardinal™ Linear LightsCardinal Linear lights are high quality replacements ofstandard fluorescent tubes (T8 and T12) and provideelectrical savings of 35% to 50%. Installation is easy,these linear lights use the same terminal connections asfluorescent tubes, and a universal power supply insidethe light eliminates the need for ballast. Super HighOutput surface mount device LEDs are employed toprovide 50,000+ hours of lifetime at high-efficacy of>100lms/watt. Exceptional thermal management isachieved with an aluminium core LED PCB which isthermally bonded to the ribbed aluminium heat sink witha ‘D’ channel extrusion. The outer shell is a robustdesign with a shatterproof polycarbonate lens available inclear, ribbed or frosted. Solid brass, nickel-platedterminal pins are installed in tough polycarbonate end-caps that are fastened with screws to the aluminiumcore. Measured Lamp Electrical Values Measured Lamp Photometric Values Voltage: 120.0 V Radiant Flux: 4749 mW Current: 0.174 A Luminous Flux: 1778 Lumens Watts: 18.03 W Lamp Efficacy: 98.6 Lumens per Watt Power Factor: 0.903 CCT: 4154 K Temperature: 25.0 °C CRI (Ra): 81.2 Chromaticity (x): 0.3763 Chromaticity (y): 0.3829 Chromaticity (u): 0.2200 Chromaticity (v): 0.5037 Duv: 0.0037©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 10
  11. 11. Target Market IP UtiliNET Energy Services provides LED relamping and custom lighting services to individual site and campus customers who seek to reduce acquisition, operations, and maintenance costs. In an era of budgetary consciousness, our team is focused on solutions that reduce budgetary consumption. We are focused on solutions at the campus and individual building level. With a widening range of Federal, State & Local, and Enterprise customers we continue to excel through focused services to our customer base. Our customers use our factual data and professional evaluations to make LED migration decisions. Our assessments and recommendations are property inclusive. In all cases, we carefully evaluate our customers’ existing facility, external, and parking lot lighting needs. We then issue a detailed financial summary with supporting work detail for comparative purposes. With a GO decision, we conduct the work and remove the excess for environmentally beneficial disposal. Simple, Sustainable, Smart©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 11
  12. 12. Summary LED technology is the next generation of lighting technology and delivers significant energy and environmental benefit to customers. We are helping to address the question of how to move forward, while our customers make decisions on when. In creating this paper, we wanted to clarify some of the decision points regarding fluorescent versus LED tube lamps. This is especially important for the customer who is considering proprietary and dedicated T5 replacement. We recommend that our customers also closely examine the current and expected price increases that are resulting from Rare Earth price increases. The economic and environmental choice is clearly LED. Many of the lighting manufacturers and service providers are fighting this technology as it will affect their business and industry. They will yield over time, especially as the informed buyer is armed with facts that lead to a decision to move forward. Soon, and driven by decision makers armed with factual data, the services industry will realize that LED solutions offer wholly new opportunities to create more ergonomic and efficient workplaces.  We would appreciate the opportunity to serve you well IP UtiliNET Energy Services PO Box 1802 Buford, GA 30519 USA Email: info@iputilinet.com Website: http://www.iputilinet.com Tel: 877-901-6947 Fax: 678-954-6915©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 12