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Barcelona Declaration
of Measurement Principles:

          Validated Metrics
     Social Media Measurement

           October 7, 2010

             Global Alliance
                 ICCO
     Institute for Public Relations
  Public Relations Society of America
 AMEC U.S. & Agency Leaders Chapter
Why Are We Here? For the Common
             Good of Our Industry.
• The communications landscape is changing rapidly

• A lack of clear standards and approaches to PR measurement
results in the profession not always being taken seriously; it doesn‟t
count unless you can count it

• AVEs, random use of multipliers, and other silly metrics and
practices diminish the integrity of the profession and the market size

•As a profession, we spend more time arguing amongst ourselves
rather than building the field

•We are at a moment in time to make difference, and alter the path
we are on, taking advantage of the opportunity to “own” the new
communications environment
To Be Successful

• The Standards will be business-focused as opposed to
  academic, highly theoretical, and grounded in real PR
  practice.

• This is the first time the PR industry will be able to hold
  its head high in terms of its professional standards, and
  practitioners using them should have a seat at the
  proverbial table.
Seven Principles Adopted on June 17, 2010
1. Importance of Goal Setting and Measurement
2. Measuring the Effect on Outcomes is Preferred to
   Measuring Outputs
3. The Effect on Business Results Can and Should Be
   Measured Where Possible
4. Media Measurement Requires Quantity and Quality
5. AVEs are not the Value of Public Relations
6. Social Media Can and Should be Measured
7. Transparency and Replicability are Paramount to
   Sound Measurement
Principle 1:Importance of Goal Setting
             and Measurement
•Goal-setting and measurement are fundamental
aspects of any public relations program

•Goals should be as quantitative as possible and
address who, what, when and how much the PR
program is intended to affect

•Measurement should take a holistic approach,
including representative traditional and social media;
changes in awareness among key stakeholders,
comprehension, attitude, and behavior as applicable;
and effect on business results
Principle 2: Measuring the Effect on
     Outcomes is Preferred to Measuring
                   Outputs
•Outcomes include shifts in awareness, comprehension, attitude and
behavior related to purchase, donations, brand equity, corporate reputation,
employee engagement, public policy, investment decisions, and other shifts
in stakeholders regarding a company, NGO, government or entity, as well
as the stakeholder‟s own beliefs and behaviors

•Practices for measuring the effect on outcomes should be tailored to the
business objectives of the PR activities. Quantitative measures such as
benchmark and tracking surveys, are often preferable. However, qualitative
methods can be well suited or used to supplement quantitative measures

•Standard best practices in survey research including sample design,
question wording and order, and statistical analysis should be applied in
total transparency
Principle 3: The Effect on Business Results
 Can and Should Be Measured Where Possible
•To measure business results from consumer or brand marketing,
models that determine the effects of the quantity and quality of PR
outputs on sales or other business metrics, while accounting for
other variables, are a preferred choice. Related points are:

 Clients are creating demand for market mix models to evaluate
  the effect on consumer marketing
 The PR industry needs to understand the value and implications
  of market mix models for accurate evaluation of consumer
  marketing PR, in contrast to other measurement approaches
 The PR industry needs to develop PR measures that can provide
  reliable input into market mix models
 Survey research can also be used to isolate the change in
  purchasing, purchase preference or attitude shift resulting from
  exposure to PR initiatives
Principle 4: Media Measurement
             Requires Quantity and Quality
Overall clip counts and general impressions are usually meaningless.
Instead, media measurement, whether in traditional or online channels,
should account for:

•Impressions among the stakeholder or audience

•Quality of the media coverage including:
         Tone
         Credibility and Relevance of the Medium to the Stakeholder
                 or Audience
         Message Delivery
         Inclusion of a 3rd party or company spokesperson
         Prominence as Relevant to the Medium

•Quality can be negative, positive, or neutral
Principle 5: AVEs are Not the Value
                  of Public Relations
•Advertising Value Equivalents (AVEs) do not measure the value of public
relations and do not inform future activity; they measure the cost of media
space and are rejected as a concept to value public relations

•Where a comparison has to be made between the cost of space from
earned versus paid media, validated metrics should be used, stated for
what they are, and reflect:
    •negotiated advertising rates relevant to the client, as available
    •quality of the coverage (see Principle 2), including negative results
    •physical space of the coverage, and the portion of the coverage that is
    relevant

•Multipliers intended to reflect a greater media cost for earned versus paid
media should never be applied unless proven to exist in the specific case
Principle 6: Social Media Can and
                       Should Be Measured
• Social media measurement is a discipline, not a tool; but there is no
  “single metric”
• Organizations need clearly defined goals and outcomes for social media
• Media content analysis should be supplemented by web and search
  analytics, sales and CRM data, survey data and other methods
• Evaluating quality and quantity is critical, just as it is with conventional
  media
• Measurement must focus on “conversation” and “communities” not just
  “coverage”
• Understanding reach and influence is important, but existing sources are
  not accessible, transparent or consistent enough to be reliable;
  experimentation and testing are key to success
Principle 7: Transparency and Replicability
        are Paramount to Sound Measurement

PR measurement should be done in a manner that is transparent and
replicable for all steps in the process, including specifying:

Media Measurement:
•Source of the content (print, broadcast, internet, consumer
generated media) along with criteria used for collection
•Analysis methodology – for example, whether human or automated,
tone scale, reach to target, content analysis parameters

Surveys:
•Methodology –sampling frame and size, margin of error, probability
or non-probability
•Questions – all should be released as asked (wording and order)
•Statistical methodology- how specific metrics are calculated
Next Steps
Two AMEC task forces were set-up to discuss “what‟s next”
toward more standardized measurements: one on „validated
metrics‟ and one on „social media metrics.‟ The goals of these
taskforces:

    •How do we define „validated metrics‟ in terms of initial
    replacements of AVEs, but to a broader resonance down
    the road.
    •The focus is to deliver a practical Framework or Grid in
    which to display a variety of metrics that can be used for
    each type of organizational situation.
    •Goal is to make sure everyone in the industry is on the
    same road, relegating „output metrics‟ to their place in
    relating them to real business outcomes.
    •Must be practical and flexible, not theoretical or academic
Barcelona Declaration
of Measurement Principles

      Validated Metrics Taskforce


     Metrics Framework: Version 2
Brand /           Awareness             Knowledge              Interest               Intent /              Action
Product                                                                               Support
Marketing
Public Relation   • Content creation    • Content creation     • Content creation     • Content creation
Activity          • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media    • Traditional Media    • Traditional Media
                    outreach              outreach               outreach               outreach
                  • Social media        • Social media         • Social media         • Social media
                    outreach              outreach               outreach               outreach
                  • Influencer          • Influencer           • Influencer           • Influencer
                    outreach              outreach               outreach               outreach
                  • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder          • Stakeholder          • Stakeholder
                    outreach              outreach               outreach               outreach
                  • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches      • Events/speeches      • Events/speeches
Intermediary      • Impressions/        • Key message          •   Key message        • Endorsement
                    target audience       alignment                alignment
Effect
                    impressions         • Accuracy of facts    •   Endorsement
                  • Audience reach                             •   Frequency of
                  • Number of                                      (positive)
                    articles/ number                               mentions
                    of articles in                             •   Media inquiries
                    target media                               •   Number of “Fans”
                  • Video views                                •   Links
                  • Frequency                                  •   Retweets
                  • Prominence
Target            • Unaided             • Knowledge of         • Relevance (to        • Attitude change     •   Sales
Audience Effect     awareness             product attributes     themselves)          • Stated intention    •   Market share
                  • Aided awareness       and features         • Requests for         • Requests for        •   Cost savings
(Consumer /
                                                                 information            quote               •   Leads generated
Customer)                                                          • Visitors to      • Trial
                                                                     website          • Links to site
                                                                   • Calls
                                                               • Event/meeting
                                                                 attendance
Reputation        Awareness             Knowledge             Interest               Intent /               Action
Building                                                                             Support

Public Relation   • Content creation    • Content creation    • Content creation     • Content creation
Activity          • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media    • Traditional Media
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Social media        • Social media        • Social media         • Social media
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Influencer          • Influencer          • Influencer           • Influencer
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder          • Stakeholder
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches      • Events/speeches
Intermediary      • Impressions/        • Key message         •   Key message        • Endorsement
                    target audience       alignment               alignment
Effect
                    impressions         • Accuracy of facts   •   Endorsement
                  • Audience reach                            •   Frequency of
                  • Number of                                     (positive)
                    articles/ number                              mentions
                    of articles in                            •   Media inquiries
                    target media                              •   Number of “Fans”
                  • Video views                               •   Links
                  • Frequency                                 •   Retweets
                  • Prominence
Target            • Unaided             • Knowledge of        • Relevance (to        • Attitude change      •   Sales
Audience Effect     awareness             company profile       themselves)          • Uplift in            •   Market share
                  • Aided awareness       and offer           • Requests for           reputation drivers   •   Share price
(Multiple
                                                                information          • Links to site        •   Talent retention
Stakeholders)                                                     • Visitors to                                 and recruitment
                                                                    website
                                                                  • Calls
                                                              • Event/meeting
                                                                attendance
Issues            Awareness             Knowledge             Interest               Intent /              Action
Advocacy /                                                                           Support
Support
Public Relation   • Content creation    • Content creation    • Content creation     • Content creation
Activity          • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media    • Traditional Media
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Social media        • Social media        • Social media         • Social media
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Influencer          • Influencer          • Influencer           • Influencer
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder          • Stakeholder
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches      • Events/speeches
Intermediary      • Impressions/        • Key message         •   Key message        • Endorsement
                    target audience       alignment               alignment
Effect
                    impressions         • Accuracy of facts   •   Endorsement
                  • Audience reach                            •   Frequency of
                  • Number of                                     (positive)
                    articles/ number                              mentions
                    of articles in                            •   Media inquiries
                    target media                              •   Number of “Fans”
                  • Video views                               •   Links
                  • Frequency                                 •   Retweets
                  • Prominence
Target            • Unaided             • Knowledge of        • Relevance (to        • Attitude change     • Letters of support
Audience Effect     awareness             issue                 themselves)          • Stated support        (to congressmen
                  • Aided awareness     • Knowledge of        • Requests for         • Links to site         etc)
(Public)
                                          client POV            information                                • Registrations to
                                                                  • Visitors to                              join support group
                                                                    website                                • Donations /
                                                                  • Calls                                    sponsorship
                                                              • Event/meeting                              • Legislation
                                                                attendance                                   passed/ blocked
                                                                                                           • Cost savings
Employee          Awareness             Knowledge               Interest            Intent /             Action
Engagement                                                                          Support

Public Relation   • Internal            • Internal              • Internal          • Internal
Activity            newsletters           newsletters             newsletters         newsletters
                  • Intranet            • Intranet              • Intranet          • Intranet
                  • Town halls /        • Town halls /          • Town halls /      • Town halls /
                    events                events                  events              events
                  • Social media        • Social media          • Social media      • Social media
                    outreach              outreach                outreach            outreach
Intermediary
Effect




Target            • % reading           • Knowledge of          • Requests for      • Attitude change    • Employee
Audience Effect     newsletters /         CEO vision              information       • Endorsement          turnover
                    visiting intranet   • Knowledge of              • Visitors to   • Participation in   • Employee
(Employees)
                                          company                     intranet        initiatives          productivity
                                          strategy / values /       • Calls                              • Recruitment
                                          polices               • Town hall /
                                                                  meeting
                                                                  attendance
                                                                • Mentions in
                                                                  employee blogs
Investor          Awareness             Knowledge             Interest               Intent /              Action
Relations                                                                            Support

Public Relation   • Content creation    • Content creation    • Content creation     • Content creation
Activity          • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media    • Traditional Media
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Social media        • Social media        • Social media         • Social media
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Influencer          • Influencer          • Influencer           • Influencer
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder          • Stakeholder
                    outreach              outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches      • Events/speeches
Intermediary      • Impressions/        • Key message         •   Key message        • Endorsement
                    target audience       alignment               alignment
Effect
                    impressions         • Accuracy of facts   •   Endorsement
                  • Audience reach                            •   Frequency of
                  • Number of                                     (positive)
                    articles/ number                              mentions
                    of articles in                            •   Media inquiries
                    target media                              •   Number of “Fans”
                  • Video views                               •   Links
                  • Frequency                                 •   Retweets
                  • Prominence
Target            • Unaided             • Knowledge of        • Requests for         • Attitude change     • Impact on share
Audience Effect     awareness             company profile       information          • Endorsement           price
                  • Aided awareness       and offer               • Visitors to                            • Impact on
(Financial
                                                                    website                                  earnings multiple
Community)                                                        • Calls                                  • Impact on
                                                              • Event/meeting                                earnings per
                                                                attendance                                   share
Crisis and        Awareness              Knowledge             Interest               Intent /              Action
Issues                                                                                Support
Management
Public Relation   • Content creation     • Content creation    • Content creation     • Content creation
Activity          • Traditional Media    • Traditional Media   • Traditional Media    • Traditional Media
                    outreach               outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Social media         • Social media        • Social media         • Social media
                    outreach               outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Influencer           • Influencer          • Influencer           • Influencer
                    outreach               outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Stakeholder          • Stakeholder         • Stakeholder          • Stakeholder
                    outreach               outreach              outreach               outreach
                  • Events/speeches      • Events/speeches     • Events/speeches      • Events/speeches
Intermediary      Balanced (not total)   • Key message         •   Key message        • Endorsement
                  coverage in:             alignment               alignment          • Balanced
Effect
                  • Impressions/         • Accuracy of facts   •   Endorsement          coverage
                  target audience        • Balanced            •   Frequency of
                  impressions              coverage                (positive)
                  • Audience reach                                 mentions
                  •Number of articles/                         •   Media inquiries
                  number of articles                           •   Number of “Fans”
                  in target media                              •   Links
                  •Video views                                 •   Retweets
                  •Frequency
                  •Prominence
Target            Increase or            • Knowledge of        • Relevance (to        • Minimal attitude    • Belief in the
Audience Effect   decrease                 facts of the          audience)              change (towards       client‟s brand
                  (dependent on            situation           • Requests for           client's            • Maintain share
(Multiple
                  objective) in:         • Knowledge of          information            reputation)           price /earnings
Stakeholders)     •Unaided                 client POV             • Visitors to                               multiple
                  awareness                                         website                                 • Maintain market
                  •Aided awareness                                • Calls                                     share / sales /
                                                               • Event/meeting                                customers
                                                                 attendance
Barcelona Declaration
of Measurement Principles

        Social Media Taskforce


     Metrics Framework: Version 2
Prior Work: Barcelona Principle #6
Recommendation #1.
             Focus on Outcomes
Need to define outcomes and goals in advance – getting on the social media
bandwagon is good, but evaluation of success is ultimately tied to goals
    1. PRSA “Business Outcomes” -- http://comprehension.prsa.org/?p=628
    2. Altimeter “Social Marketing Analytics” -- http://bit.ly/dldIHf

Can‟t define or manage purely within PR/communications silos
     Need to engage stakeholders across the organization
     Need to define linkages with business process, marketing objectives, etc.
     Need to integrate social media with other data (web analytics, search data,
     sales reports, surveys) to evaluate trends and correlate data for insight

Outcomes will likely span multiple business goals
    Advocacy and relationships, not just product awareness and sales
    Brand associations, brand preference, thought leadership, differentiation
    “Voice of the customer”  customer retention, better products, etc.
Recommendation #2.
               Starter Set of KPIs
Basic quantitative data is easy to measure – useful but not terribly valuable
      # of blog/video/content posts, # of Facebook posts, # of tweets
      # of blog/video views, # of Facebook fans, # of Twitter followers
      # of comments, # of linkbacks, # of likes, # of retweets
      # of unique visits/visitors, X:XX time spent on site/content
Need to get into more quality and context, similar to media analysis
      % accuracy/consistency of messaging
      % favorable (positive, negative, neutral, mixed)
      % of endorsement/opinion/advocacy/call to action
      % of dislikes/badvocates
      % share of conversation (overall or by topic)
      Brand associations and differentiation
      Targeted stakeholders vs. broad audience
      Benchmarking over time and against competitors
Fits into “validated metrics” framework from post-AVE task force (see next slide)
Social/           Awareness              Knowledge /            Interest /                Intent / Support          Action
Community                                Understanding          Consideration             / Preference
Engagement
Public            • # assets created     • # assets created     • # assets created        • # assets created
Relations         • # blog posts         • # blog posts         • # blog posts            • # blog posts
                  • # videos/podcasts    • # videos/podcasts    • # videos/podcasts       • # videos/podcasts
Activity
                  • # Facebook posts     • # Facebook posts     • # Facebook posts        • # Facebook posts
                  • # Twitter posts      • # Twitter posts      • # Twitter posts         • # Twitter posts
                  • # blogger events     • # blogger events     • # blogger events        • # blogger events
                  • # bloggers briefed   • # bloggers briefed   • # bloggers briefed      • # bloggers briefed
                  • # community site     • # community site     • # community site        • # community site
                    posts and events       posts and events       posts and events          posts and events
                  • Offline community    • Offline community    • Offline community       • Offline community
                    events/speeches        events/speeches        events/speeches           events/speeches
Intermediary      • Owned media site     • X:XX time spent      •   X:XX time spent       •   X:XX time spent
                    visitors per day       on site/channel          on site/channel           on site/channel
Effect
                  • Earned media         • % share of           •   % share of            •   Expressed
                    site visitors/day      conversation             conversation              recommendations
                  • Social network       • Site surveys and     •   Expressed             •   # Facebook fans
                    channel visitors       feedback forms           opinions              •   # Twitter followers
                  • # video views        • Key message          •   # Facebook fans       •   # Retweets
                  • % share of             alignment            •   # Twitter followers   •   # Comments
                    conversation         • Expressed            •   # Retweets            •   # Likes
                  • Target reach by        opinions             •   # Comments            •   # Linkbacks
                    demographics         • Accuracy of facts    •   # Likes               •   Offline media
                  • Prominence           • Offline media        •   # Linkbacks               inquiries
                  • Offline media          impressions and
                                                                •   Offline media
                    impressions            messaging                inquiries
Target            • Unaided              • Knowledge of         • Relevance (to           •   Attitude change       •   Downloads
Audience Effect     awareness              product attributes     themselves)             •   Brand preference      •   Leads/sales
                  • Aided awareness        and features         • Requests for            •   Stated intention      •   Revenue
(Consumer /
                                         • Brand association      information             •   RFPs/RFQs             •   Market share
Customer)                                  & differentiation    • Event attendance        •   Product trials        •   Cost savings
                                                                • Advocacy                •   Advocacy              •   Advocacy
Recommendation #3.
             Influence Rating/Ranking
“Influence” and “authority” are domain-dependent and often client-specific
      Generic online “influence” ratings are inherently limited
      Influencers should be identified and rated using custom criteria
      Audience definition and demographics are critically important
“Influence” and “popularity” aren‟t the same
      Can‟t measure influence or authority strictly via linkbacks
      HP Labs research**: less chatty people may be more influential
      Influencing someone to buy vs. influencing a conversation
Influence is multi-level, online and offline
      Can‟t measure influence or authority strictly via online conversation
      Need multiple data sources to fully assess (web, surveys, CRM, call center)
Influence can change over time based on commentary, behavior, audience
      Similar to editorial credibility, online influence is a variable asset

** HP Labs research sources:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/35401457/Influence-and-Passivity-in-Social-Media-HP-Labs-Research
http://h30507.www3.hp.com/t5/Data-Central/What-makes-a-tweet-influential-New-HP-Labs-social-media-research/bc-p/81883#M20
Recommendation #4.
                      Content Sourcing
Not all sources are created equal** – know what you‟re getting / not getting
      Ask: What content is included? Which channels? How deep?
      Ask: Is the data captured and stored, or just streamed? If stored, how long?
      Ask: Are multiple languages captured? Via native-language queries?
      Ask: How is the data calculated? What are the formulas?
Garbage in, garbage out – critical challenges for analytics and measurement
      Data quality and consistency issues are pervasive
      Online content captures a lot from bots, spam blogs and aggregators
      Need to filter, apply quality control, inspect sources to ensure good data
      Data consistency over time – problems with vendors adding new sources
      International variations – some tools good for U.S. but not deep elsewhere
Industry needs better transparency from vendors on content sourcing, quality
Some tools are better at “research and analytics” while others are designed for
“listening and engagement” tools – organizations may need separate toolsets

** Weaver Bimber paper comparing news story searches in Lexis Nexis and Google News:
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/41212210/finding-news-stories-a-comparison-of-searches-using-lexisnexis-and-google-news
Where Do We Go From Here?

1. September 29 – US AMEC taskforces shared its
   recommendations with AMEC International Committee to
   ensure they translate from a global perspective.
2. October 7 – Draft recommendations presented to you today,
   two week comment period begins. Send comments to
   christina.darnowski@prsa.org
3. October 21 – comment period closes.
4. October 22-November 12 – consultation process with key
   organizations including CIPR, GA, PRCA, ICCO, PRSA, etc.
5. November 17 – presentation and discussion of final
   recommendations at AMEC/PRSA Workshop in London with
   participants from PRCA , IPR Commission and CIPR.
Share Your Feedback

              Post comments online:
    www.amecorg.com (AMEC web site)
www.iprmeasure.org (IPR Measurement hub)
http://bit.ly/boOnYb (IPR Conversations blog)

            Email comments to:
       christina.darnowski@prsa.org
London next stop on the journey!



• AMEC partnering with PRSA to run half-day London
  conference, “PR Measurement Metrics –From Concept
  to Implementation Reality”
• David Rockland moderating. Strong speaker line-up
  includes chairs of AMEC taskforces - Tim Marklein,
  Weber Shandwick and Ruth Pestana, Hill & Knowlton
• More details and to book go to:
  http://www.amecorg.com/amec/index.asp

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IPR Measurement Summit -- Barcelona Principles Taskforce Recommendations

  • 1. Barcelona Declaration of Measurement Principles: Validated Metrics Social Media Measurement October 7, 2010 Global Alliance ICCO Institute for Public Relations Public Relations Society of America AMEC U.S. & Agency Leaders Chapter
  • 2. Why Are We Here? For the Common Good of Our Industry. • The communications landscape is changing rapidly • A lack of clear standards and approaches to PR measurement results in the profession not always being taken seriously; it doesn‟t count unless you can count it • AVEs, random use of multipliers, and other silly metrics and practices diminish the integrity of the profession and the market size •As a profession, we spend more time arguing amongst ourselves rather than building the field •We are at a moment in time to make difference, and alter the path we are on, taking advantage of the opportunity to “own” the new communications environment
  • 3. To Be Successful • The Standards will be business-focused as opposed to academic, highly theoretical, and grounded in real PR practice. • This is the first time the PR industry will be able to hold its head high in terms of its professional standards, and practitioners using them should have a seat at the proverbial table.
  • 4. Seven Principles Adopted on June 17, 2010 1. Importance of Goal Setting and Measurement 2. Measuring the Effect on Outcomes is Preferred to Measuring Outputs 3. The Effect on Business Results Can and Should Be Measured Where Possible 4. Media Measurement Requires Quantity and Quality 5. AVEs are not the Value of Public Relations 6. Social Media Can and Should be Measured 7. Transparency and Replicability are Paramount to Sound Measurement
  • 5. Principle 1:Importance of Goal Setting and Measurement •Goal-setting and measurement are fundamental aspects of any public relations program •Goals should be as quantitative as possible and address who, what, when and how much the PR program is intended to affect •Measurement should take a holistic approach, including representative traditional and social media; changes in awareness among key stakeholders, comprehension, attitude, and behavior as applicable; and effect on business results
  • 6. Principle 2: Measuring the Effect on Outcomes is Preferred to Measuring Outputs •Outcomes include shifts in awareness, comprehension, attitude and behavior related to purchase, donations, brand equity, corporate reputation, employee engagement, public policy, investment decisions, and other shifts in stakeholders regarding a company, NGO, government or entity, as well as the stakeholder‟s own beliefs and behaviors •Practices for measuring the effect on outcomes should be tailored to the business objectives of the PR activities. Quantitative measures such as benchmark and tracking surveys, are often preferable. However, qualitative methods can be well suited or used to supplement quantitative measures •Standard best practices in survey research including sample design, question wording and order, and statistical analysis should be applied in total transparency
  • 7. Principle 3: The Effect on Business Results Can and Should Be Measured Where Possible •To measure business results from consumer or brand marketing, models that determine the effects of the quantity and quality of PR outputs on sales or other business metrics, while accounting for other variables, are a preferred choice. Related points are:  Clients are creating demand for market mix models to evaluate the effect on consumer marketing  The PR industry needs to understand the value and implications of market mix models for accurate evaluation of consumer marketing PR, in contrast to other measurement approaches  The PR industry needs to develop PR measures that can provide reliable input into market mix models  Survey research can also be used to isolate the change in purchasing, purchase preference or attitude shift resulting from exposure to PR initiatives
  • 8. Principle 4: Media Measurement Requires Quantity and Quality Overall clip counts and general impressions are usually meaningless. Instead, media measurement, whether in traditional or online channels, should account for: •Impressions among the stakeholder or audience •Quality of the media coverage including: Tone Credibility and Relevance of the Medium to the Stakeholder or Audience Message Delivery Inclusion of a 3rd party or company spokesperson Prominence as Relevant to the Medium •Quality can be negative, positive, or neutral
  • 9. Principle 5: AVEs are Not the Value of Public Relations •Advertising Value Equivalents (AVEs) do not measure the value of public relations and do not inform future activity; they measure the cost of media space and are rejected as a concept to value public relations •Where a comparison has to be made between the cost of space from earned versus paid media, validated metrics should be used, stated for what they are, and reflect: •negotiated advertising rates relevant to the client, as available •quality of the coverage (see Principle 2), including negative results •physical space of the coverage, and the portion of the coverage that is relevant •Multipliers intended to reflect a greater media cost for earned versus paid media should never be applied unless proven to exist in the specific case
  • 10. Principle 6: Social Media Can and Should Be Measured • Social media measurement is a discipline, not a tool; but there is no “single metric” • Organizations need clearly defined goals and outcomes for social media • Media content analysis should be supplemented by web and search analytics, sales and CRM data, survey data and other methods • Evaluating quality and quantity is critical, just as it is with conventional media • Measurement must focus on “conversation” and “communities” not just “coverage” • Understanding reach and influence is important, but existing sources are not accessible, transparent or consistent enough to be reliable; experimentation and testing are key to success
  • 11. Principle 7: Transparency and Replicability are Paramount to Sound Measurement PR measurement should be done in a manner that is transparent and replicable for all steps in the process, including specifying: Media Measurement: •Source of the content (print, broadcast, internet, consumer generated media) along with criteria used for collection •Analysis methodology – for example, whether human or automated, tone scale, reach to target, content analysis parameters Surveys: •Methodology –sampling frame and size, margin of error, probability or non-probability •Questions – all should be released as asked (wording and order) •Statistical methodology- how specific metrics are calculated
  • 12. Next Steps Two AMEC task forces were set-up to discuss “what‟s next” toward more standardized measurements: one on „validated metrics‟ and one on „social media metrics.‟ The goals of these taskforces: •How do we define „validated metrics‟ in terms of initial replacements of AVEs, but to a broader resonance down the road. •The focus is to deliver a practical Framework or Grid in which to display a variety of metrics that can be used for each type of organizational situation. •Goal is to make sure everyone in the industry is on the same road, relegating „output metrics‟ to their place in relating them to real business outcomes. •Must be practical and flexible, not theoretical or academic
  • 13. Barcelona Declaration of Measurement Principles Validated Metrics Taskforce Metrics Framework: Version 2
  • 14. Brand / Awareness Knowledge Interest Intent / Action Product Support Marketing Public Relation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation Activity • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Social media • Social media • Social media • Social media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer outreach outreach outreach outreach • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder outreach outreach outreach outreach • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches Intermediary • Impressions/ • Key message • Key message • Endorsement target audience alignment alignment Effect impressions • Accuracy of facts • Endorsement • Audience reach • Frequency of • Number of (positive) articles/ number mentions of articles in • Media inquiries target media • Number of “Fans” • Video views • Links • Frequency • Retweets • Prominence Target • Unaided • Knowledge of • Relevance (to • Attitude change • Sales Audience Effect awareness product attributes themselves) • Stated intention • Market share • Aided awareness and features • Requests for • Requests for • Cost savings (Consumer / information quote • Leads generated Customer) • Visitors to • Trial website • Links to site • Calls • Event/meeting attendance
  • 15. Reputation Awareness Knowledge Interest Intent / Action Building Support Public Relation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation Activity • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Social media • Social media • Social media • Social media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer outreach outreach outreach outreach • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder outreach outreach outreach outreach • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches Intermediary • Impressions/ • Key message • Key message • Endorsement target audience alignment alignment Effect impressions • Accuracy of facts • Endorsement • Audience reach • Frequency of • Number of (positive) articles/ number mentions of articles in • Media inquiries target media • Number of “Fans” • Video views • Links • Frequency • Retweets • Prominence Target • Unaided • Knowledge of • Relevance (to • Attitude change • Sales Audience Effect awareness company profile themselves) • Uplift in • Market share • Aided awareness and offer • Requests for reputation drivers • Share price (Multiple information • Links to site • Talent retention Stakeholders) • Visitors to and recruitment website • Calls • Event/meeting attendance
  • 16. Issues Awareness Knowledge Interest Intent / Action Advocacy / Support Support Public Relation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation Activity • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Social media • Social media • Social media • Social media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer outreach outreach outreach outreach • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder outreach outreach outreach outreach • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches Intermediary • Impressions/ • Key message • Key message • Endorsement target audience alignment alignment Effect impressions • Accuracy of facts • Endorsement • Audience reach • Frequency of • Number of (positive) articles/ number mentions of articles in • Media inquiries target media • Number of “Fans” • Video views • Links • Frequency • Retweets • Prominence Target • Unaided • Knowledge of • Relevance (to • Attitude change • Letters of support Audience Effect awareness issue themselves) • Stated support (to congressmen • Aided awareness • Knowledge of • Requests for • Links to site etc) (Public) client POV information • Registrations to • Visitors to join support group website • Donations / • Calls sponsorship • Event/meeting • Legislation attendance passed/ blocked • Cost savings
  • 17. Employee Awareness Knowledge Interest Intent / Action Engagement Support Public Relation • Internal • Internal • Internal • Internal Activity newsletters newsletters newsletters newsletters • Intranet • Intranet • Intranet • Intranet • Town halls / • Town halls / • Town halls / • Town halls / events events events events • Social media • Social media • Social media • Social media outreach outreach outreach outreach Intermediary Effect Target • % reading • Knowledge of • Requests for • Attitude change • Employee Audience Effect newsletters / CEO vision information • Endorsement turnover visiting intranet • Knowledge of • Visitors to • Participation in • Employee (Employees) company intranet initiatives productivity strategy / values / • Calls • Recruitment polices • Town hall / meeting attendance • Mentions in employee blogs
  • 18. Investor Awareness Knowledge Interest Intent / Action Relations Support Public Relation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation Activity • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Social media • Social media • Social media • Social media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer outreach outreach outreach outreach • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder outreach outreach outreach outreach • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches Intermediary • Impressions/ • Key message • Key message • Endorsement target audience alignment alignment Effect impressions • Accuracy of facts • Endorsement • Audience reach • Frequency of • Number of (positive) articles/ number mentions of articles in • Media inquiries target media • Number of “Fans” • Video views • Links • Frequency • Retweets • Prominence Target • Unaided • Knowledge of • Requests for • Attitude change • Impact on share Audience Effect awareness company profile information • Endorsement price • Aided awareness and offer • Visitors to • Impact on (Financial website earnings multiple Community) • Calls • Impact on • Event/meeting earnings per attendance share
  • 19. Crisis and Awareness Knowledge Interest Intent / Action Issues Support Management Public Relation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation • Content creation Activity • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media • Traditional Media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Social media • Social media • Social media • Social media outreach outreach outreach outreach • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer • Influencer outreach outreach outreach outreach • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder • Stakeholder outreach outreach outreach outreach • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches • Events/speeches Intermediary Balanced (not total) • Key message • Key message • Endorsement coverage in: alignment alignment • Balanced Effect • Impressions/ • Accuracy of facts • Endorsement coverage target audience • Balanced • Frequency of impressions coverage (positive) • Audience reach mentions •Number of articles/ • Media inquiries number of articles • Number of “Fans” in target media • Links •Video views • Retweets •Frequency •Prominence Target Increase or • Knowledge of • Relevance (to • Minimal attitude • Belief in the Audience Effect decrease facts of the audience) change (towards client‟s brand (dependent on situation • Requests for client's • Maintain share (Multiple objective) in: • Knowledge of information reputation) price /earnings Stakeholders) •Unaided client POV • Visitors to multiple awareness website • Maintain market •Aided awareness • Calls share / sales / • Event/meeting customers attendance
  • 20. Barcelona Declaration of Measurement Principles Social Media Taskforce Metrics Framework: Version 2
  • 21. Prior Work: Barcelona Principle #6
  • 22. Recommendation #1. Focus on Outcomes Need to define outcomes and goals in advance – getting on the social media bandwagon is good, but evaluation of success is ultimately tied to goals 1. PRSA “Business Outcomes” -- http://comprehension.prsa.org/?p=628 2. Altimeter “Social Marketing Analytics” -- http://bit.ly/dldIHf Can‟t define or manage purely within PR/communications silos Need to engage stakeholders across the organization Need to define linkages with business process, marketing objectives, etc. Need to integrate social media with other data (web analytics, search data, sales reports, surveys) to evaluate trends and correlate data for insight Outcomes will likely span multiple business goals Advocacy and relationships, not just product awareness and sales Brand associations, brand preference, thought leadership, differentiation “Voice of the customer”  customer retention, better products, etc.
  • 23. Recommendation #2. Starter Set of KPIs Basic quantitative data is easy to measure – useful but not terribly valuable # of blog/video/content posts, # of Facebook posts, # of tweets # of blog/video views, # of Facebook fans, # of Twitter followers # of comments, # of linkbacks, # of likes, # of retweets # of unique visits/visitors, X:XX time spent on site/content Need to get into more quality and context, similar to media analysis % accuracy/consistency of messaging % favorable (positive, negative, neutral, mixed) % of endorsement/opinion/advocacy/call to action % of dislikes/badvocates % share of conversation (overall or by topic) Brand associations and differentiation Targeted stakeholders vs. broad audience Benchmarking over time and against competitors Fits into “validated metrics” framework from post-AVE task force (see next slide)
  • 24. Social/ Awareness Knowledge / Interest / Intent / Support Action Community Understanding Consideration / Preference Engagement Public • # assets created • # assets created • # assets created • # assets created Relations • # blog posts • # blog posts • # blog posts • # blog posts • # videos/podcasts • # videos/podcasts • # videos/podcasts • # videos/podcasts Activity • # Facebook posts • # Facebook posts • # Facebook posts • # Facebook posts • # Twitter posts • # Twitter posts • # Twitter posts • # Twitter posts • # blogger events • # blogger events • # blogger events • # blogger events • # bloggers briefed • # bloggers briefed • # bloggers briefed • # bloggers briefed • # community site • # community site • # community site • # community site posts and events posts and events posts and events posts and events • Offline community • Offline community • Offline community • Offline community events/speeches events/speeches events/speeches events/speeches Intermediary • Owned media site • X:XX time spent • X:XX time spent • X:XX time spent visitors per day on site/channel on site/channel on site/channel Effect • Earned media • % share of • % share of • Expressed site visitors/day conversation conversation recommendations • Social network • Site surveys and • Expressed • # Facebook fans channel visitors feedback forms opinions • # Twitter followers • # video views • Key message • # Facebook fans • # Retweets • % share of alignment • # Twitter followers • # Comments conversation • Expressed • # Retweets • # Likes • Target reach by opinions • # Comments • # Linkbacks demographics • Accuracy of facts • # Likes • Offline media • Prominence • Offline media • # Linkbacks inquiries • Offline media impressions and • Offline media impressions messaging inquiries Target • Unaided • Knowledge of • Relevance (to • Attitude change • Downloads Audience Effect awareness product attributes themselves) • Brand preference • Leads/sales • Aided awareness and features • Requests for • Stated intention • Revenue (Consumer / • Brand association information • RFPs/RFQs • Market share Customer) & differentiation • Event attendance • Product trials • Cost savings • Advocacy • Advocacy • Advocacy
  • 25. Recommendation #3. Influence Rating/Ranking “Influence” and “authority” are domain-dependent and often client-specific Generic online “influence” ratings are inherently limited Influencers should be identified and rated using custom criteria Audience definition and demographics are critically important “Influence” and “popularity” aren‟t the same Can‟t measure influence or authority strictly via linkbacks HP Labs research**: less chatty people may be more influential Influencing someone to buy vs. influencing a conversation Influence is multi-level, online and offline Can‟t measure influence or authority strictly via online conversation Need multiple data sources to fully assess (web, surveys, CRM, call center) Influence can change over time based on commentary, behavior, audience Similar to editorial credibility, online influence is a variable asset ** HP Labs research sources: http://www.scribd.com/doc/35401457/Influence-and-Passivity-in-Social-Media-HP-Labs-Research http://h30507.www3.hp.com/t5/Data-Central/What-makes-a-tweet-influential-New-HP-Labs-social-media-research/bc-p/81883#M20
  • 26. Recommendation #4. Content Sourcing Not all sources are created equal** – know what you‟re getting / not getting Ask: What content is included? Which channels? How deep? Ask: Is the data captured and stored, or just streamed? If stored, how long? Ask: Are multiple languages captured? Via native-language queries? Ask: How is the data calculated? What are the formulas? Garbage in, garbage out – critical challenges for analytics and measurement Data quality and consistency issues are pervasive Online content captures a lot from bots, spam blogs and aggregators Need to filter, apply quality control, inspect sources to ensure good data Data consistency over time – problems with vendors adding new sources International variations – some tools good for U.S. but not deep elsewhere Industry needs better transparency from vendors on content sourcing, quality Some tools are better at “research and analytics” while others are designed for “listening and engagement” tools – organizations may need separate toolsets ** Weaver Bimber paper comparing news story searches in Lexis Nexis and Google News: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/41212210/finding-news-stories-a-comparison-of-searches-using-lexisnexis-and-google-news
  • 27. Where Do We Go From Here? 1. September 29 – US AMEC taskforces shared its recommendations with AMEC International Committee to ensure they translate from a global perspective. 2. October 7 – Draft recommendations presented to you today, two week comment period begins. Send comments to christina.darnowski@prsa.org 3. October 21 – comment period closes. 4. October 22-November 12 – consultation process with key organizations including CIPR, GA, PRCA, ICCO, PRSA, etc. 5. November 17 – presentation and discussion of final recommendations at AMEC/PRSA Workshop in London with participants from PRCA , IPR Commission and CIPR.
  • 28. Share Your Feedback Post comments online: www.amecorg.com (AMEC web site) www.iprmeasure.org (IPR Measurement hub) http://bit.ly/boOnYb (IPR Conversations blog) Email comments to: christina.darnowski@prsa.org
  • 29. London next stop on the journey! • AMEC partnering with PRSA to run half-day London conference, “PR Measurement Metrics –From Concept to Implementation Reality” • David Rockland moderating. Strong speaker line-up includes chairs of AMEC taskforces - Tim Marklein, Weber Shandwick and Ruth Pestana, Hill & Knowlton • More details and to book go to: http://www.amecorg.com/amec/index.asp