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Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng


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Dwarf Apple Orchards Tree denisity and orchard systems by T Robinson and S Hoying, Cornell, 2014 english

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Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng

  1. 1. Apple Orchard Systems: Tree Density, Rootstocks and Pruning Systems Terence Robinson and Steve Hoying Dept. of Horticulture, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456
  2. 2. Umbrella tree (100 trees / ha) Central Leader (500 trees / ha ) Slender Spindle (1,500 trees / ha) The evolution of orchard systems in the USA Vertical Axis (1,200 trees / ha) Tall Spindle (2,500 trees / ha )
  3. 3. Pedestrian Orchards -1980’s Multiple Rows using M.9 Moderate yields and moderate light interception High yields but poor quality fruit in the middle row High yields and high light interception Geneva Y trellis/M.26
  4. 4. Vertical Axis- 1,500 trees/ha In the late 1980’s tall orchards (again) Precision V-trellis 2,000 trees/ha
  5. 5. Mid -1990’s - Super High Densities (5,000 trees/ha) Super Spindle / M.9 V Super Spindle/M.9
  6. 6. Late 1990’s- Tall Spindle/M.9
  7. 7. 0 50 100 150 200 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Effect of Tree Density on Cumulative Yield 5382 Tree/ha 3262 Trees/ha 2243 Trees/ha 1655 Trees/ha 1283 Trees/ha 1026 Trees/ha 840 Trees/ha 598 Trees/ha
  8. 8. 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 Tree Density (trees/ha) Effect of Tree Density on 7 Yr. Cumulative Yield McIntosh Gala Fuji Empire Tree density had a highly significant negative effect on cumulative yield per tree but a highly significant positive effect on yield per ha. The cumulative yield per ha of the highest tree density was 3X greater than the lowest density
  9. 9. Geneva Y-trellis/M.26
  10. 10. 50 100 150 200 250 300 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Canopy Light Interception (%) Pal. Trellis Y-trellis Sl. Spindle Vert. Axis y = -20 + 4.4x r2 = 0.84 成熟的果园产量更高 (1,500-2,000蒲式耳/英亩) 伸手即摘果园的采光量中等,产量也中等, 除非行间距 7-8 英尺 (210-240 cm) 高树截光更多, 产量也更大 70-75% 的采光量最佳 树高= 行间距 * 0.9 会达到 70-75% 的采光量
  11. 11. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1,100 5 10 15 20 Year Annual Yield of 5 Systems Super Spindle (2178 tr/ac) Tall Spindle (1340 tr/ac) Vertical Axis (908 tr/ac) Vertical Axis (622 tr/ac) Central Leader (340 tr/ac)
  12. 12. 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Tree Density (trees/acre) NPV20years($/acre) 2010 2003 Profitability of Apple Orchards in NY over 20 Years
  13. 13. The answer depends on price What is the optimum planting density? -15,000 -10,000 -5,000 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Tree Density (trees/acre) NPV20years($/acre) $10/bushel $8/bushel $6/bushel
  14. 14. • Our results indicate that the New York growers should increase planting density from 1,500 trees/ha to 2,500-3,300 trees/ha in a system we call the “Tall Spindle” Economic Summary
  15. 15. Apple Rootstocks: The Foundation of High-Density Orchards
  16. 16. Benefits of Dwarfing Rootstocks •Early of cropping (precocity) • Shorter time to payback initial investment •Improved yield/unit land area (productivity) • Annual profitability •Reduced tree size (dwarfing level) • Ease and cost of spraying • Ease and cost of picking • Ease and cost of pruning
  17. 17. The Apple Tree Vegetative Parts Fruit Leaf Solar Radiation Rootstock Amount of Fruit (kg) Trunk Cross- Sectional Area (cm2)% Light Interception Seedling Rootstocks promote production of wood Dwarfing rootstock promote production of fruit
  18. 18. Current Apple Rootstocks: • Currently in the United States the most common apple rootstocks are M.9, M.26, B.9. • 60% of the rootstocks are M.9, • 20% are B.9, • 10% are M.26, • 4% are M.7, • 3% are MM.111 • In China most apple rootstocks are seedling
  19. 19. Challenges with Current Apple Rootstocks: • Over the last 60 years, growers worldwide have used the Malling series of rootstocks from England. However their limitations are: • lack of winter hardiness, • lack of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, • susceptibility to fire blight bacterial disease, • burrknots, • poor anchorage, • root suckers, • sensitivity to apple replant disease, • brittle graft unions. • lack of precocity.
  20. 20. The Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding and Development Program Joint Program with USDA and Cornell University Dr. Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle and Terence Robinson Goal: Produce a series of rootstocks which are resistant to important rootstock diseases and insects that are dwarfing, productive and efficient. • Resistance to fire blight • Resistance to Phytophthora root rot • Resistance to woolly apple aphid • Cold tolerant • Resistant to apple replant disease.
  21. 21. The Geneva® rootstocks are a distinct genetic group from most commercial rootstocks PiAu5111MW G3007 G.935 O.3 G5179 G.202 G.30 G.11 B.9 M.8 M.20 J.9 JM.10 J-TE-G Pi80 M.9 M.9T337 V.2 M? P.1 P.14 G.16 V.1 G.41 M.27 G.65 M.10 M.13 M.26 Alnarp PiAu514 M.1 M.2 M.4 M.11 M.3 PiAu5683 M.7 PiAu5111 P.18 R.5 V.7 J-TE-C M.25 MM.106 MM.111 B.491 B.118 Maruba NAGA Novole V.7 V.2 V.1 R.5 PiAu5683 PiAu514 PiAu5111 Pi80 P.18P.14 P.1O.3 Novole M.9T337 NAGA MM.111 MM.106 Maruba M.27 M.26 M.25 M.20 M.13 M.11 M.10 M? M.9 M.8 M.7 M.4 M.3 M.2 M.1 J-TE-G J-TE-C JM.10 J.9 G.65 G.30 G.16 G.11 B.9 B.118 B.491 Alnarp G.935G5179 G.202 G.41 G3007 1.001.00 0.470.47 IIII -0.06-0.06 -0.59-0.59 -1.86-1.86-1.11-1.11 -1.03-1.03 -0.59-0.59 -1.19-1.19 -0.15-0.15 IIIIII -0.52-0.52 0.140.14 0.810.81 M.9 or Malling Cluster Commercial Apple Rootstocks Represent a Very Restricted Gene Pool
  22. 22. Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size M.27 Size M.9 T337 M.26 Size M.7-MM106 Size Seedling Size G.65 G.41 G.16 G.202 G.30 New Releases G.210G.214 M.9 PAJ 2 G.11 G.935 G.969 G.890 G.213G.222
  23. 23. Propagation of Geneva® Rootstocks • Rootstocks are propagated in the USA by stoolbed. • The Geneva rootstocks are started using Tissue Culture - Tissue Culture to induce greater juvenility in stoolbed - Tissue Culture plants as then planted in stoolbeds
  24. 24. Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock from tissue culture plants
  25. 25. Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock in propagation beds
  26. 26. There is Variability in Root Architecture among Geneva Stocks
  27. 27. Drought Affects Root System Characteristics
  28. 28. Many Geneva Rootstocks have Tolerance to Replant Disease
  29. 29. Fine Root Trait in Associated with Replant Disease Tolerance G214
  30. 30. Geneva Rootstocks have High Yield Efficiency
  31. 31. There are Many New Geneva Rootstock Selections to Test 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 M27 CG2034 CG4202 JM4 CG4088 CG5757 CG2406 CG2022 CG5030 CG11 M9 CG3007 PiAu5111 CG4003 CG6874 CG4214 M26 JM10 CG4004 CG7480 CG4019 CG4049 CG6969 CG5087 CG5202 CG8534 CG4814 JM1 CG4011 CG5935 CG6006 CG5257 MM106 CG5012 M7 CG6210 CG6879 CG8189 PiAu514 PiAu568 CG6976 B118 CG5890 CG6001 CG6253 CG4013 JTEB JM2 CG4213 JTEC CG5463 CG6589 CG6024 TrunkX-Sect.Area(cm2) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 YieldEfficiency(kg/cm2TCA)
  32. 32. 在中国测试新砧木的可能性 G.11 针对活力强的品种 G.41 针对活力较弱的品 种或重茬 G.935 或 G.202 针对活 力很弱的品种 我们计划和中国的大学合作,建立几个评估性果园
  33. 33. 2013- Six Leading Production Systems in the World Tall Spindle Super Spindle Precision V-Trellis Solaxe Bi-Axis Bi-Axis Solaxe Mur Frutiere (Fruiting Wall)
  34. 34. Tree Density In-Row Between Row System (trees/ha) (cm) (m) Tall Spindle (free) 2,500-3,300 90-120 3.3-3.6 Super Spindle (free) 5,000-6,000 50-60 3-3.3 Bi-Axis (free) 1,800-2,500 120 3.3-3.6 Solaxe (semi-organized) 1,500-2,500 120-180 3.6-4.5 Precision V-trellis (organized) 2,500-5,000 60-90 4-5 Fruiting Wall (free) 2,500-3,300 90-120 3.3-3.6 Leading Apple Orchard Systems in the World
  35. 35. • Optimum Economic Tree Density •2500-3,000 trees/ha • High Early Production (Feathered trees+minimal pruning) • 150t/ha in first 5 years • High Mature Yields (High light interception 70-75%) • Tree height=0.9*row width (~ 3-3.3m) • 65t/ha with Gala • 75t/ha with Fuji • High Fruit Quality (Good light distribution in the canopy) • thin conical canopy • no permanent branches (limb renewal pruning = removal of limbs larger than 2 cm diameter. • columnarized (simplified) fruiting branches • balanced vigor and calm trees • Improved Labor Efficiency • Simplified pruning recipe • Partial mechanization of dormant pruning and tree training (30-40% reduction in labor costs) • Summer side wall shearing for summer pruning. Principles of the Tall Spindle System
  36. 36. Production potential in the second year 0 fruits 5 fruits 10-15 fruits 20-50 fruits
  37. 37. Brookfield Gala/G.41 New York State 10 branches at planting (2006) 40 fruits in the second leaf (2007) With the Tall Spindle we can achieve high early yields with highly feathered trees.
  38. 38. The Potential Fuji/CG.007 85 fruits/tree in the second leaf X 3374 trees/ha = 43 t/ha
  39. 39. Managing Feathered Trees With the Tall Spindle we suggest removing 1-2 of the most vigorous feathers at planting and tying the rest below horizontal soon after planting.
  40. 40. Up to 3 feathers can be removed With Whips, tree should not be headed.
  41. 41. 促进早产的策略 -定植时不进行修剪 (除了去除过大的侧枝以外) -定植后尽快将侧枝压倒水平线以下
  42. 42. End of First Year All Feathers tied down at planting Tree at end of second year Feathers tied down in year 1 Tree at end of second year Feathers left erect in year 1
  43. 43. Grow the tree to the top wire (10 ft) by the end of the second year Gala/M.9 Honeycrisp/M.9
  44. 44. 嘎拉/M.9 第五年,80吨/公顷
  45. 45. New York targets for early yield: • 10 t/ha in the second leaf • 25 t/ha in the third leaf • 45 t/ha in the fourth leaf • 70 t/ha in the fifth leaf A total of 150 t/ha over the first 5 years 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 598 840 1026 1283 1655 2243 3262 5382 Density ( tr/ha ) AccumulatedYield5years(t/ah)
  46. 46. Common Error: Excessive crop load in the 2-4th Years We use a strict program of crop load management in the first 5 years. For non biennial bearing varieties we limit crop load to 5 fruits/cm2 TCA For biennial bearing varieties we limit crop load to 4 fruits/cm2 TCA Approximate number of fruits / tree 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year 0 20 40 80 120
  47. 47. Concepts of Pruning – Limb Renewal Pruning
  48. 48. Common Error: Allowing large branches to remain in the tree Large upper branches cause shade on lower canopy Large branches export carbohydrates to trunk and root system.
  49. 49. “Large Branches Create Large Trees” 20 40 60 80 100 TrunkX-Sect.Area(cm2 ) 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 Tree Density (trees/ha) Effect of Tree Density on Tree Size McIntosh Gala Fuji Empire
  50. 50. Simple Recipe for Pruning Mature Tall Spindle Trees 1. Limit height by cutting leader to a fruitful side branch at optimum tree height 2. Remove 2-3 branches per year larger than 2cm (2 cut rule) – Remember "large branches create large trees” 3. “Columnarize” or simplify each remaining branch so that it has a single axis and is left long and pendant
  51. 51. • High fruit quality requires good light distribution and calm trees. • Limb renewal pruning is the single most important pruning concept for mature high density orchards. • Large limbs lead to large root systems and greater tree vigor. Pruning concepts of Large Fuji Trees
  52. 52. Removal of large limbs should be done over a 3 year period
  53. 53. Mature Tree Canopy Management • "The best way of restricting vegetative growth is to produce apples." • Use Nutrition to achieve calm tree growth. • Use Pruning to open gaps in the canopy without stimulating vigor. • Remove 2-3 large branches (diam.~4cm) each year. Do not shorten other branches. Allow them to become pendant before shortening. • Modify summer pruning to allow replacement branches to develop on the trunk.
  54. 54. After Several Years of Renewal Pruning the tree has few large branches
  55. 55. Precision V-Trellis Benefits - high tree densities, high mature yields, systematized pruning, adaptable to platforms, less expensive tree, adaptable to platfomrs, reduced sunburn. Negatives points – Costly trellis, costly tree training and development, complicated management.
  56. 56. Super Spindle Benefits - high tree densities, high early productions, simple pruning, high fruit quality, adaptable to platforms. Negative Points – High investment, excessive vigor in the top, requires low tree costs, not more profitable than lower densities.
  57. 57. Solaxe
  58. 58. Solaxe Benefits: Control of excessive vigor, high production, low alternate bearing. Negative Points: • At densities above 2000 tr/ha the large branches in the top create shading problems of the lower canopy. • The chimney space is wasted. • The chimney does not allow shoots for renewal shoots. • High hand labor costs to do spur extinction and limb bending. • It is useful for areas with excessive vigor or semi-dwarf rootstocks.
  59. 59. Vertical Axis
  60. 60. Bi-Axis Benefits:- moderate densities but high number of leaders per acre, high yields, high fruit quality, reduced vigor in each leader, adaptable to platforms and mechanical pruning. Negative points: Requires a 2 stem tree from the nursery.
  61. 61. Bi-Axis
  62. 62. Fruiting Wall, (Mur Frutiere) Benefits include- mechanical pruning, reduction of costs, high yields high fruit quality. Negative points – vigor can be excessive, fruits size can be smaller.
  63. 63. Fruiting Wall, (Mur Frutiere)
  64. 64. • For most growers the Tall Spindle is the best. • Optimum Economic Tree Density 2,500-3,000 trees/ha • High early production 150 t/ha in first 5 years • High mature yields 75 t/ha with Fuji • High Fruit Quality thin conical canopy • Improved labor efficiency Simplified pruning recipe with partial mechanization of dormant pruning and tree training and summer side wall shearing for summer pruning. • Where vigor is too high the Bi-Axis is an option • With pears and OHF rootstocks • Where tree cost is low the Super Spindle is an option • With spur or semi-spur type varieties the Fruiting Wall is very interesting. • The Precision V- or Vertical Trellis have little potential where sunburn is a problem. Which System is Best
  65. 65. New Directions: Partial Mechanization of Dormant Pruning
  66. 66. The simple pruning recipe of the Tall Spindle is well adapted to the use of motorized platforms to reduce pruning costs - The best fruit growers in NY have reported reductions in dormant pruning labor of 25-40% if the trees are grown in the Tall Spindle system.
  67. 67. Dormant Pruning with a 2-Row Platform
  68. 68. Partial Mechanization of Dormant Pruning and Hand Thinning can Reduce Labor Costs by 25-50%
  69. 69. New Directions: Mechanical Summer Pruning with the Tall Spindle Benefits include reduction of costs, improved fruit quality. Timing: June, July, August
  70. 70. Mechanization of Summer Pruning Width 75cm Width 1.5m Goal is to have a narrow fruiting wall with good light distribution but not create a vigor response in the tree and reduce pruning costs by 2/3. With tall spindle the canopy should be an angled wall 1.5m wide at base and 75cm feet wide at top. The pruning strategy is to use mechanized pruning for 2 years then a corrective dormant pruning to remove limbs that have become too large and open up the canopy.
  71. 71. 6th Lead Fuji with Mechanical Sidewall Shearing
  72. 72. 6th Lead Gala with Mechanical Sidewall Shearing
  73. 73. • For most growers the Tall Spindle is a great system. • Optimum Economic Tree Density • High Early Production • High mature yields • High Fruit Quality • Partial Mechanization of Pruning for Improved Labor Efficiency. • Biggest mistakes are: • Initial branches not tied down • Not growing the tree to 3m height fast enough • Excessive cropping in years 2-4 • Too many large branches when trees are mature Conclusions
  74. 74. Thank you for your attention