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Apple Orchard Systems: Tree Density,
Rootstocks and Pruning Systems
Terence Robinson and Steve Hoying
Dept. of Horticulture, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456
Umbrella tree (100 trees / ha)
Central Leader (500 trees / ha )
Slender Spindle (1,500 trees / ha)
The evolution of orchard systems in the USA
Vertical Axis (1,200 trees / ha)
Tall Spindle
(2,500 trees / ha )
Pedestrian Orchards -1980’s Multiple Rows using M.9
Moderate yields and moderate light
interception
High yields but poor quality fruit in the
middle row
High yields and
high light
interception
Geneva Y trellis/M.26
Vertical Axis- 1,500 trees/ha
In the late 1980’s tall orchards (again)
Precision V-trellis 2,000 trees/ha
Mid -1990’s - Super High Densities (5,000 trees/ha)
Super Spindle / M.9 V Super Spindle/M.9
Late 1990’s-
Tall Spindle/M.9
0
50
100
150
200
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Year
Effect of Tree Density on Cumulative Yield
5382 Tree/ha
3262 Trees/ha
2243 Trees/ha
1655 Trees/ha
1283 Trees/ha
1026 Trees/ha
840 Trees/ha
598 Trees/ha
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000
Tree Density (trees/ha)
Effect of Tree Density on 7 Yr. Cumulative Yield
McIntosh
Gala
Fuji
Empire
Tree density had a highly significant negative effect on cumulative yield per
tree but a highly significant positive effect on yield per ha. The cumulative
yield per ha of the highest tree density was 3X greater than the lowest density
Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng
Geneva Y-trellis/M.26
50
100
150
200
250
300
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Canopy Light Interception (%)
Pal. Trellis
Y-trellis
Sl. Spindle
Vert. Axis
y = -20 + 4.4x
r2 = 0.84
成熟的果园产量更高 (1,500-2,000蒲式耳/英亩)
伸手即摘果园的采光量中等,产量也中等,
除非行间距 7-8 英尺 (210-240 cm)
高树截光更多,
产量也更大
70-75% 的采光量最佳
树高= 行间距 * 0.9 会达到 70-75% 的采光量
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
1,100
5 10 15 20
Year
Annual Yield of 5 Systems
Super Spindle (2178 tr/ac)
Tall Spindle (1340 tr/ac)
Vertical Axis (908 tr/ac)
Vertical Axis (622 tr/ac)
Central Leader (340 tr/ac)
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Tree Density (trees/acre)
NPV20years($/acre)
2010
2003
Profitability of Apple Orchards in NY over 20 Years
The answer depends on price
What is the optimum planting density?
-15,000
-10,000
-5,000
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Tree Density (trees/acre)
NPV20years($/acre)
$10/bushel
$8/bushel
$6/bushel
• Our results indicate that the New York growers should increase planting density
from 1,500 trees/ha to 2,500-3,300 trees/ha in a system we call the “Tall Spindle”
Economic Summary
Apple Rootstocks: The Foundation of High-Density
Orchards
Benefits of Dwarfing Rootstocks
•Early of cropping (precocity)
• Shorter time to payback initial
investment
•Improved yield/unit land area
(productivity)
• Annual profitability
•Reduced tree size (dwarfing level)
• Ease and cost of spraying
• Ease and cost of picking
• Ease and cost of pruning
The Apple Tree
Vegetative
Parts
Fruit
Leaf
Solar Radiation
Rootstock
Amount of
Fruit (kg)
Trunk Cross-
Sectional Area
(cm2)% Light Interception
Seedling Rootstocks promote production of wood
Dwarfing rootstock promote production of fruit
Current Apple Rootstocks:
• Currently in the United States the most common apple
rootstocks are M.9, M.26, B.9.
• 60% of the rootstocks are M.9,
• 20% are B.9,
• 10% are M.26,
• 4% are M.7,
• 3% are MM.111
• In China most apple rootstocks are seedling
Challenges with Current Apple Rootstocks:
• Over the last 60 years, growers worldwide have used the
Malling series of rootstocks from England. However their
limitations are:
• lack of winter hardiness,
• lack of resistance to Phytophthora root rot,
• susceptibility to fire blight bacterial disease,
• burrknots,
• poor anchorage,
• root suckers,
• sensitivity to apple replant disease,
• brittle graft unions.
• lack of precocity.
The Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding and
Development Program
Joint Program with USDA and Cornell University
Dr. Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle and Terence Robinson
Goal: Produce a series of rootstocks which are resistant to important rootstock
diseases and insects that are dwarfing, productive and efficient.
• Resistance to fire blight
• Resistance to Phytophthora root rot
• Resistance to woolly apple aphid
• Cold tolerant
• Resistant to apple replant disease.
The Geneva® rootstocks are a distinct genetic group
from most commercial rootstocks
PiAu5111MW
G3007
G.935
O.3
G5179
G.202
G.30
G.11
B.9
M.8
M.20
J.9
JM.10
J-TE-G
Pi80
M.9
M.9T337
V.2
M?
P.1
P.14
G.16
V.1
G.41
M.27
G.65
M.10
M.13
M.26
Alnarp
PiAu514
M.1
M.2
M.4
M.11
M.3
PiAu5683
M.7
PiAu5111
P.18
R.5
V.7
J-TE-C
M.25
MM.106
MM.111
B.491
B.118
Maruba
NAGA
Novole
V.7
V.2
V.1
R.5
PiAu5683
PiAu514
PiAu5111
Pi80
P.18P.14
P.1O.3
Novole
M.9T337
NAGA
MM.111
MM.106
Maruba
M.27
M.26
M.25
M.20
M.13
M.11
M.10 M?
M.9
M.8
M.7
M.4
M.3
M.2
M.1
J-TE-G
J-TE-C
JM.10
J.9
G.65
G.30
G.16
G.11
B.9
B.118
B.491
Alnarp
G.935G5179
G.202
G.41
G3007
1.001.00
0.470.47
IIII -0.06-0.06
-0.59-0.59
-1.86-1.86-1.11-1.11
-1.03-1.03
-0.59-0.59
-1.19-1.19
-0.15-0.15
IIIIII
-0.52-0.52
0.140.14
0.810.81
M.9 or
Malling
Cluster
Commercial Apple Rootstocks Represent a Very Restricted Gene Pool
Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size
M.27 Size
M.9 T337
M.26 Size
M.7-MM106 Size
Seedling Size
G.65 G.41
G.16
G.202 G.30
New
Releases
G.210G.214
M.9 PAJ 2
G.11 G.935
G.969 G.890
G.213G.222
Propagation of Geneva® Rootstocks
• Rootstocks are propagated in the USA by stoolbed.
• The Geneva rootstocks are started using Tissue Culture
- Tissue Culture to induce greater juvenility in stoolbed
- Tissue Culture plants as then planted in stoolbeds
Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock from tissue culture plants
Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock in propagation beds
There is Variability in Root Architecture among Geneva Stocks
Drought Affects Root System Characteristics
Many Geneva Rootstocks have Tolerance to Replant Disease
Fine Root Trait in Associated with Replant Disease Tolerance
G214
Geneva Rootstocks have High Yield Efficiency
There are Many New Geneva Rootstock Selections to Test
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
M27
CG2034
CG4202
JM4
CG4088
CG5757
CG2406
CG2022
CG5030
CG11
M9
CG3007
PiAu5111
CG4003
CG6874
CG4214
M26
JM10
CG4004
CG7480
CG4019
CG4049
CG6969
CG5087
CG5202
CG8534
CG4814
JM1
CG4011
CG5935
CG6006
CG5257
MM106
CG5012
M7
CG6210
CG6879
CG8189
PiAu514
PiAu568
CG6976
B118
CG5890
CG6001
CG6253
CG4013
JTEB
JM2
CG4213
JTEC
CG5463
CG6589
CG6024
TrunkX-Sect.Area(cm2)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
YieldEfficiency(kg/cm2TCA)
在中国测试新砧木的可能性
G.11 针对活力强的品种
G.41 针对活力较弱的品
种或重茬
G.935 或 G.202 针对活
力很弱的品种
我们计划和中国的大学合作,建立几个评估性果园
2013- Six Leading Production Systems in the World
Tall Spindle Super Spindle Precision V-Trellis
Solaxe
Bi-Axis
Bi-Axis Solaxe Mur Frutiere (Fruiting Wall)
Tree Density In-Row Between Row
System (trees/ha) (cm) (m)
Tall Spindle (free) 2,500-3,300 90-120 3.3-3.6
Super Spindle (free) 5,000-6,000 50-60 3-3.3
Bi-Axis (free) 1,800-2,500 120 3.3-3.6
Solaxe (semi-organized) 1,500-2,500 120-180 3.6-4.5
Precision V-trellis (organized) 2,500-5,000 60-90 4-5
Fruiting Wall (free) 2,500-3,300 90-120 3.3-3.6
Leading Apple Orchard Systems in the World
• Optimum Economic Tree Density
•2500-3,000 trees/ha
• High Early Production (Feathered trees+minimal pruning)
• 150t/ha in first 5 years
• High Mature Yields (High light interception 70-75%)
• Tree height=0.9*row width (~ 3-3.3m)
• 65t/ha with Gala
• 75t/ha with Fuji
• High Fruit Quality (Good light distribution in the canopy)
• thin conical canopy
• no permanent branches (limb renewal pruning =
removal of limbs larger than 2 cm diameter.
• columnarized (simplified) fruiting branches
• balanced vigor and calm trees
• Improved Labor Efficiency
• Simplified pruning recipe
• Partial mechanization of dormant pruning and tree
training (30-40% reduction in labor costs)
• Summer side wall shearing for summer pruning.
Principles of the Tall Spindle System
Production potential in the second year
0 fruits 5 fruits 10-15 fruits 20-50 fruits
Brookfield Gala/G.41
New York State
10 branches at planting (2006)
40 fruits in the second leaf
(2007)
With the Tall Spindle we can achieve high early yields
with highly feathered trees.
The Potential
Fuji/CG.007
85 fruits/tree in the
second leaf X 3374
trees/ha = 43 t/ha
Managing Feathered Trees
With the Tall Spindle we suggest removing 1-2 of the most vigorous feathers at
planting and tying the rest below horizontal soon after planting.
Up to 3 feathers can be removed With Whips, tree should not be headed.
促进早产的策略
-定植时不进行修剪 (除了去除过大的侧枝以外)
-定植后尽快将侧枝压倒水平线以下
End of First Year
All Feathers tied down at planting
Tree at end of
second year
Feathers tied
down in year 1
Tree at end of
second year
Feathers left
erect in year 1
Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng
Grow the tree to the top wire (10 ft) by the end of the second year
Gala/M.9 Honeycrisp/M.9
Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng
嘎拉/M.9 第五年,80吨/公顷
New York targets for early yield:
• 10 t/ha in the second leaf
• 25 t/ha in the third leaf
• 45 t/ha in the fourth leaf
• 70 t/ha in the fifth leaf
A total of 150 t/ha over the first 5 years
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
598 840 1026 1283 1655 2243 3262 5382
Density ( tr/ha )
AccumulatedYield5years(t/ah)
Common Error: Excessive crop load in the 2-4th Years
We use a strict program of crop load management in the first 5 years.
For non biennial bearing varieties we limit crop load to 5 fruits/cm2 TCA
For biennial bearing varieties we limit crop load to 4 fruits/cm2 TCA
Approximate number of fruits / tree
1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
0 20 40 80 120
Concepts of Pruning – Limb Renewal Pruning
Common Error: Allowing large branches to remain in the tree
Large upper branches cause
shade on lower canopy
Large branches export
carbohydrates to trunk and
root system.
“Large Branches Create Large Trees”
20
40
60
80
100
TrunkX-Sect.Area(cm2
)
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000
Tree Density (trees/ha)
Effect of Tree Density on Tree Size
McIntosh
Gala
Fuji
Empire
Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng
Simple Recipe for Pruning Mature Tall Spindle Trees
1. Limit height by cutting leader to a fruitful
side branch at optimum tree height
2. Remove 2-3 branches per year larger than
2cm (2 cut rule)
– Remember "large branches create
large trees”
3. “Columnarize” or simplify each
remaining branch so that it has a single
axis and is left long and pendant
• High fruit quality requires good
light distribution and calm
trees.
• Limb renewal pruning is the
single most important pruning
concept for mature high density
orchards.
• Large limbs lead to large root
systems and greater tree vigor.
Pruning concepts of Large Fuji Trees
Removal of large limbs should be done over a 3 year period
Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng
Mature Tree Canopy Management
• "The best way of restricting vegetative growth is to produce
apples."
• Use Nutrition to achieve calm tree growth.
• Use Pruning to open gaps in the canopy without stimulating
vigor.
• Remove 2-3 large branches (diam.~4cm) each year. Do not shorten
other branches. Allow them to become pendant before shortening.
• Modify summer pruning to allow replacement branches to
develop on the trunk.
After Several Years of Renewal Pruning the tree has few large
branches
Precision V-Trellis
Benefits - high tree densities, high mature yields, systematized
pruning, adaptable to platforms, less expensive tree, adaptable to
platfomrs, reduced sunburn.
Negatives points – Costly trellis, costly tree training and
development, complicated management.
Super Spindle
Benefits - high tree densities, high early
productions, simple pruning, high fruit quality,
adaptable to platforms.
Negative Points – High investment, excessive vigor
in the top, requires low tree costs, not more
profitable than lower densities.
Solaxe
Solaxe
Benefits: Control of excessive vigor, high production,
low alternate bearing.
Negative Points:
• At densities above 2000 tr/ha the large
branches in the top create shading problems of
the lower canopy.
• The chimney space is wasted.
• The chimney does not allow shoots for renewal
shoots.
• High hand labor costs to do spur extinction and
limb bending.
• It is useful for areas with excessive vigor or
semi-dwarf rootstocks.
Vertical Axis
Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng
Bi-Axis
Benefits:- moderate densities but high number of
leaders per acre, high yields, high fruit quality, reduced
vigor in each leader, adaptable to platforms and
mechanical pruning.
Negative points: Requires a 2 stem tree from the
nursery.
Bi-Axis
Fruiting Wall, (Mur Frutiere)
Benefits include- mechanical pruning, reduction
of costs, high yields high fruit quality.
Negative points – vigor can be excessive, fruits
size can be smaller.
Fruiting Wall,
(Mur Frutiere)
• For most growers the Tall Spindle is the best.
• Optimum Economic Tree Density 2,500-3,000 trees/ha
• High early production 150 t/ha in first 5 years
• High mature yields 75 t/ha with Fuji
• High Fruit Quality thin conical canopy
• Improved labor efficiency Simplified pruning recipe with
partial mechanization of dormant pruning and tree training
and summer side wall shearing for summer pruning.
• Where vigor is too high the Bi-Axis is an option
• With pears and OHF rootstocks
• Where tree cost is low the Super Spindle is an option
• With spur or semi-spur type varieties the Fruiting
Wall is very interesting.
• The Precision V- or Vertical Trellis have little potential
where sunburn is a problem.
Which System is Best
New Directions: Partial Mechanization of Dormant Pruning
The simple pruning recipe of the Tall Spindle is well adapted to
the use of motorized platforms to reduce pruning costs
- The best fruit growers in NY have reported reductions in dormant pruning labor
of 25-40% if the trees are grown in the Tall Spindle system.
Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng
Dormant Pruning with a 2-Row Platform
Partial Mechanization of Dormant Pruning and Hand Thinning can
Reduce Labor Costs by 25-50%
New Directions: Mechanical Summer Pruning with the Tall Spindle
Benefits include reduction of costs,
improved fruit quality.
Timing: June, July, August
Mechanization of Summer Pruning
Width 75cm
Width 1.5m
Goal is to have a narrow fruiting wall
with good light distribution but not
create a vigor response in the tree and
reduce pruning costs by 2/3.
With tall spindle the canopy should be
an angled wall 1.5m wide at base and
75cm feet wide at top.
The pruning strategy is to use
mechanized pruning for 2 years then a
corrective dormant pruning to remove
limbs that have become too large and
open up the canopy.
6th Lead Fuji with Mechanical Sidewall Shearing
6th Lead Gala with Mechanical Sidewall Shearing
• For most growers the Tall Spindle is a great system.
• Optimum Economic Tree Density
• High Early Production
• High mature yields
• High Fruit Quality
• Partial Mechanization of Pruning for Improved Labor
Efficiency.
• Biggest mistakes are:
• Initial branches not tied down
• Not growing the tree to 3m height fast enough
• Excessive cropping in years 2-4
• Too many large branches when trees are mature
Conclusions
Thank you for your attention

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Ppt fruit-apple-tree-orchard-systems-robinson-cornell-2014-eng

  • 1. Apple Orchard Systems: Tree Density, Rootstocks and Pruning Systems Terence Robinson and Steve Hoying Dept. of Horticulture, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456
  • 2. Umbrella tree (100 trees / ha) Central Leader (500 trees / ha ) Slender Spindle (1,500 trees / ha) The evolution of orchard systems in the USA Vertical Axis (1,200 trees / ha) Tall Spindle (2,500 trees / ha )
  • 3. Pedestrian Orchards -1980’s Multiple Rows using M.9 Moderate yields and moderate light interception High yields but poor quality fruit in the middle row High yields and high light interception Geneva Y trellis/M.26
  • 4. Vertical Axis- 1,500 trees/ha In the late 1980’s tall orchards (again) Precision V-trellis 2,000 trees/ha
  • 5. Mid -1990’s - Super High Densities (5,000 trees/ha) Super Spindle / M.9 V Super Spindle/M.9
  • 7. 0 50 100 150 200 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Effect of Tree Density on Cumulative Yield 5382 Tree/ha 3262 Trees/ha 2243 Trees/ha 1655 Trees/ha 1283 Trees/ha 1026 Trees/ha 840 Trees/ha 598 Trees/ha
  • 8. 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 Tree Density (trees/ha) Effect of Tree Density on 7 Yr. Cumulative Yield McIntosh Gala Fuji Empire Tree density had a highly significant negative effect on cumulative yield per tree but a highly significant positive effect on yield per ha. The cumulative yield per ha of the highest tree density was 3X greater than the lowest density
  • 11. 50 100 150 200 250 300 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Canopy Light Interception (%) Pal. Trellis Y-trellis Sl. Spindle Vert. Axis y = -20 + 4.4x r2 = 0.84 成熟的果园产量更高 (1,500-2,000蒲式耳/英亩) 伸手即摘果园的采光量中等,产量也中等, 除非行间距 7-8 英尺 (210-240 cm) 高树截光更多, 产量也更大 70-75% 的采光量最佳 树高= 行间距 * 0.9 会达到 70-75% 的采光量
  • 12. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1,100 5 10 15 20 Year Annual Yield of 5 Systems Super Spindle (2178 tr/ac) Tall Spindle (1340 tr/ac) Vertical Axis (908 tr/ac) Vertical Axis (622 tr/ac) Central Leader (340 tr/ac)
  • 13. 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Tree Density (trees/acre) NPV20years($/acre) 2010 2003 Profitability of Apple Orchards in NY over 20 Years
  • 14. The answer depends on price What is the optimum planting density? -15,000 -10,000 -5,000 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Tree Density (trees/acre) NPV20years($/acre) $10/bushel $8/bushel $6/bushel
  • 15. • Our results indicate that the New York growers should increase planting density from 1,500 trees/ha to 2,500-3,300 trees/ha in a system we call the “Tall Spindle” Economic Summary
  • 16. Apple Rootstocks: The Foundation of High-Density Orchards
  • 17. Benefits of Dwarfing Rootstocks •Early of cropping (precocity) • Shorter time to payback initial investment •Improved yield/unit land area (productivity) • Annual profitability •Reduced tree size (dwarfing level) • Ease and cost of spraying • Ease and cost of picking • Ease and cost of pruning
  • 18. The Apple Tree Vegetative Parts Fruit Leaf Solar Radiation Rootstock Amount of Fruit (kg) Trunk Cross- Sectional Area (cm2)% Light Interception Seedling Rootstocks promote production of wood Dwarfing rootstock promote production of fruit
  • 19. Current Apple Rootstocks: • Currently in the United States the most common apple rootstocks are M.9, M.26, B.9. • 60% of the rootstocks are M.9, • 20% are B.9, • 10% are M.26, • 4% are M.7, • 3% are MM.111 • In China most apple rootstocks are seedling
  • 20. Challenges with Current Apple Rootstocks: • Over the last 60 years, growers worldwide have used the Malling series of rootstocks from England. However their limitations are: • lack of winter hardiness, • lack of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, • susceptibility to fire blight bacterial disease, • burrknots, • poor anchorage, • root suckers, • sensitivity to apple replant disease, • brittle graft unions. • lack of precocity.
  • 21. The Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding and Development Program Joint Program with USDA and Cornell University Dr. Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle and Terence Robinson Goal: Produce a series of rootstocks which are resistant to important rootstock diseases and insects that are dwarfing, productive and efficient. • Resistance to fire blight • Resistance to Phytophthora root rot • Resistance to woolly apple aphid • Cold tolerant • Resistant to apple replant disease.
  • 22. The Geneva® rootstocks are a distinct genetic group from most commercial rootstocks PiAu5111MW G3007 G.935 O.3 G5179 G.202 G.30 G.11 B.9 M.8 M.20 J.9 JM.10 J-TE-G Pi80 M.9 M.9T337 V.2 M? P.1 P.14 G.16 V.1 G.41 M.27 G.65 M.10 M.13 M.26 Alnarp PiAu514 M.1 M.2 M.4 M.11 M.3 PiAu5683 M.7 PiAu5111 P.18 R.5 V.7 J-TE-C M.25 MM.106 MM.111 B.491 B.118 Maruba NAGA Novole V.7 V.2 V.1 R.5 PiAu5683 PiAu514 PiAu5111 Pi80 P.18P.14 P.1O.3 Novole M.9T337 NAGA MM.111 MM.106 Maruba M.27 M.26 M.25 M.20 M.13 M.11 M.10 M? M.9 M.8 M.7 M.4 M.3 M.2 M.1 J-TE-G J-TE-C JM.10 J.9 G.65 G.30 G.16 G.11 B.9 B.118 B.491 Alnarp G.935G5179 G.202 G.41 G3007 1.001.00 0.470.47 IIII -0.06-0.06 -0.59-0.59 -1.86-1.86-1.11-1.11 -1.03-1.03 -0.59-0.59 -1.19-1.19 -0.15-0.15 IIIIII -0.52-0.52 0.140.14 0.810.81 M.9 or Malling Cluster Commercial Apple Rootstocks Represent a Very Restricted Gene Pool
  • 23. Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size M.27 Size M.9 T337 M.26 Size M.7-MM106 Size Seedling Size G.65 G.41 G.16 G.202 G.30 New Releases G.210G.214 M.9 PAJ 2 G.11 G.935 G.969 G.890 G.213G.222
  • 24. Propagation of Geneva® Rootstocks • Rootstocks are propagated in the USA by stoolbed. • The Geneva rootstocks are started using Tissue Culture - Tissue Culture to induce greater juvenility in stoolbed - Tissue Culture plants as then planted in stoolbeds
  • 25. Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock from tissue culture plants
  • 26. Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock in propagation beds
  • 27. There is Variability in Root Architecture among Geneva Stocks
  • 28. Drought Affects Root System Characteristics
  • 29. Many Geneva Rootstocks have Tolerance to Replant Disease
  • 30. Fine Root Trait in Associated with Replant Disease Tolerance G214
  • 31. Geneva Rootstocks have High Yield Efficiency
  • 32. There are Many New Geneva Rootstock Selections to Test 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 M27 CG2034 CG4202 JM4 CG4088 CG5757 CG2406 CG2022 CG5030 CG11 M9 CG3007 PiAu5111 CG4003 CG6874 CG4214 M26 JM10 CG4004 CG7480 CG4019 CG4049 CG6969 CG5087 CG5202 CG8534 CG4814 JM1 CG4011 CG5935 CG6006 CG5257 MM106 CG5012 M7 CG6210 CG6879 CG8189 PiAu514 PiAu568 CG6976 B118 CG5890 CG6001 CG6253 CG4013 JTEB JM2 CG4213 JTEC CG5463 CG6589 CG6024 TrunkX-Sect.Area(cm2) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 YieldEfficiency(kg/cm2TCA)
  • 33. 在中国测试新砧木的可能性 G.11 针对活力强的品种 G.41 针对活力较弱的品 种或重茬 G.935 或 G.202 针对活 力很弱的品种 我们计划和中国的大学合作,建立几个评估性果园
  • 34. 2013- Six Leading Production Systems in the World Tall Spindle Super Spindle Precision V-Trellis Solaxe Bi-Axis Bi-Axis Solaxe Mur Frutiere (Fruiting Wall)
  • 35. Tree Density In-Row Between Row System (trees/ha) (cm) (m) Tall Spindle (free) 2,500-3,300 90-120 3.3-3.6 Super Spindle (free) 5,000-6,000 50-60 3-3.3 Bi-Axis (free) 1,800-2,500 120 3.3-3.6 Solaxe (semi-organized) 1,500-2,500 120-180 3.6-4.5 Precision V-trellis (organized) 2,500-5,000 60-90 4-5 Fruiting Wall (free) 2,500-3,300 90-120 3.3-3.6 Leading Apple Orchard Systems in the World
  • 36. • Optimum Economic Tree Density •2500-3,000 trees/ha • High Early Production (Feathered trees+minimal pruning) • 150t/ha in first 5 years • High Mature Yields (High light interception 70-75%) • Tree height=0.9*row width (~ 3-3.3m) • 65t/ha with Gala • 75t/ha with Fuji • High Fruit Quality (Good light distribution in the canopy) • thin conical canopy • no permanent branches (limb renewal pruning = removal of limbs larger than 2 cm diameter. • columnarized (simplified) fruiting branches • balanced vigor and calm trees • Improved Labor Efficiency • Simplified pruning recipe • Partial mechanization of dormant pruning and tree training (30-40% reduction in labor costs) • Summer side wall shearing for summer pruning. Principles of the Tall Spindle System
  • 37. Production potential in the second year 0 fruits 5 fruits 10-15 fruits 20-50 fruits
  • 38. Brookfield Gala/G.41 New York State 10 branches at planting (2006) 40 fruits in the second leaf (2007) With the Tall Spindle we can achieve high early yields with highly feathered trees.
  • 39. The Potential Fuji/CG.007 85 fruits/tree in the second leaf X 3374 trees/ha = 43 t/ha
  • 40. Managing Feathered Trees With the Tall Spindle we suggest removing 1-2 of the most vigorous feathers at planting and tying the rest below horizontal soon after planting.
  • 41. Up to 3 feathers can be removed With Whips, tree should not be headed.
  • 43. End of First Year All Feathers tied down at planting Tree at end of second year Feathers tied down in year 1 Tree at end of second year Feathers left erect in year 1
  • 45. Grow the tree to the top wire (10 ft) by the end of the second year Gala/M.9 Honeycrisp/M.9
  • 48. New York targets for early yield: • 10 t/ha in the second leaf • 25 t/ha in the third leaf • 45 t/ha in the fourth leaf • 70 t/ha in the fifth leaf A total of 150 t/ha over the first 5 years 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 598 840 1026 1283 1655 2243 3262 5382 Density ( tr/ha ) AccumulatedYield5years(t/ah)
  • 49. Common Error: Excessive crop load in the 2-4th Years We use a strict program of crop load management in the first 5 years. For non biennial bearing varieties we limit crop load to 5 fruits/cm2 TCA For biennial bearing varieties we limit crop load to 4 fruits/cm2 TCA Approximate number of fruits / tree 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year 0 20 40 80 120
  • 50. Concepts of Pruning – Limb Renewal Pruning
  • 51. Common Error: Allowing large branches to remain in the tree Large upper branches cause shade on lower canopy Large branches export carbohydrates to trunk and root system.
  • 52. “Large Branches Create Large Trees” 20 40 60 80 100 TrunkX-Sect.Area(cm2 ) 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 Tree Density (trees/ha) Effect of Tree Density on Tree Size McIntosh Gala Fuji Empire
  • 54. Simple Recipe for Pruning Mature Tall Spindle Trees 1. Limit height by cutting leader to a fruitful side branch at optimum tree height 2. Remove 2-3 branches per year larger than 2cm (2 cut rule) – Remember "large branches create large trees” 3. “Columnarize” or simplify each remaining branch so that it has a single axis and is left long and pendant
  • 55. • High fruit quality requires good light distribution and calm trees. • Limb renewal pruning is the single most important pruning concept for mature high density orchards. • Large limbs lead to large root systems and greater tree vigor. Pruning concepts of Large Fuji Trees
  • 56. Removal of large limbs should be done over a 3 year period
  • 58. Mature Tree Canopy Management • "The best way of restricting vegetative growth is to produce apples." • Use Nutrition to achieve calm tree growth. • Use Pruning to open gaps in the canopy without stimulating vigor. • Remove 2-3 large branches (diam.~4cm) each year. Do not shorten other branches. Allow them to become pendant before shortening. • Modify summer pruning to allow replacement branches to develop on the trunk.
  • 59. After Several Years of Renewal Pruning the tree has few large branches
  • 60. Precision V-Trellis Benefits - high tree densities, high mature yields, systematized pruning, adaptable to platforms, less expensive tree, adaptable to platfomrs, reduced sunburn. Negatives points – Costly trellis, costly tree training and development, complicated management.
  • 61. Super Spindle Benefits - high tree densities, high early productions, simple pruning, high fruit quality, adaptable to platforms. Negative Points – High investment, excessive vigor in the top, requires low tree costs, not more profitable than lower densities.
  • 63. Solaxe Benefits: Control of excessive vigor, high production, low alternate bearing. Negative Points: • At densities above 2000 tr/ha the large branches in the top create shading problems of the lower canopy. • The chimney space is wasted. • The chimney does not allow shoots for renewal shoots. • High hand labor costs to do spur extinction and limb bending. • It is useful for areas with excessive vigor or semi-dwarf rootstocks.
  • 66. Bi-Axis Benefits:- moderate densities but high number of leaders per acre, high yields, high fruit quality, reduced vigor in each leader, adaptable to platforms and mechanical pruning. Negative points: Requires a 2 stem tree from the nursery.
  • 68. Fruiting Wall, (Mur Frutiere) Benefits include- mechanical pruning, reduction of costs, high yields high fruit quality. Negative points – vigor can be excessive, fruits size can be smaller.
  • 70. • For most growers the Tall Spindle is the best. • Optimum Economic Tree Density 2,500-3,000 trees/ha • High early production 150 t/ha in first 5 years • High mature yields 75 t/ha with Fuji • High Fruit Quality thin conical canopy • Improved labor efficiency Simplified pruning recipe with partial mechanization of dormant pruning and tree training and summer side wall shearing for summer pruning. • Where vigor is too high the Bi-Axis is an option • With pears and OHF rootstocks • Where tree cost is low the Super Spindle is an option • With spur or semi-spur type varieties the Fruiting Wall is very interesting. • The Precision V- or Vertical Trellis have little potential where sunburn is a problem. Which System is Best
  • 71. New Directions: Partial Mechanization of Dormant Pruning
  • 72. The simple pruning recipe of the Tall Spindle is well adapted to the use of motorized platforms to reduce pruning costs - The best fruit growers in NY have reported reductions in dormant pruning labor of 25-40% if the trees are grown in the Tall Spindle system.
  • 74. Dormant Pruning with a 2-Row Platform
  • 75. Partial Mechanization of Dormant Pruning and Hand Thinning can Reduce Labor Costs by 25-50%
  • 76. New Directions: Mechanical Summer Pruning with the Tall Spindle Benefits include reduction of costs, improved fruit quality. Timing: June, July, August
  • 77. Mechanization of Summer Pruning Width 75cm Width 1.5m Goal is to have a narrow fruiting wall with good light distribution but not create a vigor response in the tree and reduce pruning costs by 2/3. With tall spindle the canopy should be an angled wall 1.5m wide at base and 75cm feet wide at top. The pruning strategy is to use mechanized pruning for 2 years then a corrective dormant pruning to remove limbs that have become too large and open up the canopy.
  • 78. 6th Lead Fuji with Mechanical Sidewall Shearing
  • 79. 6th Lead Gala with Mechanical Sidewall Shearing
  • 80. • For most growers the Tall Spindle is a great system. • Optimum Economic Tree Density • High Early Production • High mature yields • High Fruit Quality • Partial Mechanization of Pruning for Improved Labor Efficiency. • Biggest mistakes are: • Initial branches not tied down • Not growing the tree to 3m height fast enough • Excessive cropping in years 2-4 • Too many large branches when trees are mature Conclusions
  • 81. Thank you for your attention