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Pesticide-Training-Course-UCD Intro to basics

An introductory Pesticide use Training Course, developed by UC IPM with IPO at UC Davis

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Pesticide-Training-Course-UCD Intro to basics

  1. 1. Prepared by Mark Bell, Mark Henderson and Frank Zalom with input from Ehsan Ehsanullah and Tom Brown
  2. 2. Course objectives Know key points in the application and safe use of pesticides Note: At the end, participants will take a review quiz to show they can recall all the key points. Support materials – fact sheets and check lists, review quiz,
  3. 3. Course structure Pesticides Defining pests Defining pesticides Do I need to spray? About equipment? Safety
  4. 4. Defining pests What is a pest? “Any organism that damages crops” Do all pests need to be controlled? No Why? Only important if cause economic loss Other reasons? e.g., Long term build up
  5. 5. Defining pests What are the options for controlling pests? Cultural – such as variety and hand weeding Biological control - e.g., Lady bugs eat aphids Pesticide Note: All photos UC IPM – unless otherwise indicated
  6. 6. Defining pests What are the major types of pests? Weeds Insects Diseases Mites Rodents Snails & slugs
  7. 7. Defining pests – why important? Weeds Insects Disease Mites Rodents Snails/ slugs Compete for water nutrients and light  Reduce fruit quality ()   () () () Reduce leaf area (PS)      Reduce nutrient flow in plant  PS = photosynthesis
  8. 8. About Weeds Not all weeds are the same Grasses Broadleaves Sedges
  9. 9. About Weeds What characterizes Grasses? Leaves are narrow, arranged in sets of two; stems are rounded or flattened.
  10. 10. About Weeds What characterizes Broadleaves? Leaves are wide, veins branch out in different directions.
  11. 11. About Weeds What characterizes Sedges? Leaves are narrow, arranged in sets of three; stems are triangular in cross section.
  12. 12. About weeds Why is this important? Can you control a grass with a broadleaf herbicide? Rarely! Do different broadleaves need different types of herbicide? Often – as do different grasses and different sedges The exception to all is when a non-selective herbicide can be used to control everything
  13. 13. About Diseases Not all diseases are the same Bacteria Fungal Viruses
  14. 14. About Diseases Just like weeds, each disease and each type almost always needs a different treatment Viruses can almost never be controlled by chemicals Viruses are usually spread by insects – so insect control may be the best form of control for viruses
  15. 15. About Diseases Note that many diseases (especially bacteria and viruses) spread by contact. Thus it is important to advise orchard growers to sterilize any pruning equipment or other equipment used to chop branches, etc..
  16. 16. Course structure Pesticides Defining pests Defining pesticides Do I need to spray? About equipment? Safety
  17. 17. Defining Pesticides What is a pesticide? A pesticide is any material (natural, organic, or synthetic) used to control, prevent, kill, suppress, or repel pests.
  18. 18. Defining Pesticides Match the pesticide with... what it controls… Insecticides Herbicides Fungicides Rodenticides Miticides Molluscicides Diseases Insects Weeds Snails and slugs Rats and mice Mite
  19. 19. Defining Pesticides Will different pesticides control other types of pests? For example, will a herbicide control insects? Almost never!
  20. 20. Defining Pesticides If you have more than one type of problem pest (say a disease and an insect), can you mix pesticides? Sometimes, but read the label Many times mixing products will mean products do not work
  21. 21. Defining Pesticides "Pesticides" come in different forms. The most common are: Water soluble (WS) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC) Wettable powders (WP)
  22. 22. Defining Pesticides Which requires constant agitation in the tank? Water soluble Emulsifiable concentrates Wettable powders Why? Because they separate out of solution What happens if they separate out of solution? Uneven chemical application – uneven control Unhappy customers!  
  23. 23. Defining Pesticides Which causes greater nozzle wear? Water soluble Emulsifiable concentrates Wettable powders
  24. 24. Defining Pesticides Match the following: Contact pesticide Systemic pesticide Moves through the plant to have its effect. Must hit the target pest or coat the plant being protected. Requires complete coverage of the plant for best effect.
  25. 25. Defining Pesticides What is the difference between a selective and a non- selective herbicide? A non-selective herbicide ….. Kills all weeds (and the crop!) A Selective herbicide…. Kills certain weeds in certain crops
  26. 26. Defining Pesticides What was used here – a selective or a non-selective herbicide? A Selective herbicide…. has only affected the weed – not the crop
  27. 27. Defining Pesticides What is LD50? LD50 tells about the toxicity or danger of a product to humans and animals. LD50 is the dose required to kill half a non-target population of animals (usually rats). Which is safer? Product A LD50 = 750 Product B LD50 = 1750 Why? Because more of product B is required to have the same toxic effect. Aim to use products with an LD50 of more than 1000.
  28. 28. Defining Pesticides All products carry key “signal” words on the label telling about the potential dangers of a product Look for Caution Warning Danger Which do you think is most dangerous? Which is least dangerous?
  29. 29. Course structure Pesticides Defining pests Defining pesticides Do I need to spray? About equipment? Safety
  30. 30. Do I need to spray? Before using a pesticide here’s 5 questions you should ask….. A common type of home garden application equipment, the compressed air sprayer. Illustration by D. Kidd.(Photo IRRI)
  31. 31. Do I need to spray? 1. What is causing the problem? Is the pest really the cause of the problem? 2. What are the control options? Are there other options to a pesticide? 3. Are there enough pests to justify a pesticide spray?
  32. 32. Do I need to spray? 4. What products are both available and effective? Is there a product to control the pest and suitable for use in the target crop? Is it the right time to control and use the product? Will spraying be economic? 5. Is the product safe for the crop, the environment and beneficial insects? Will there be residues on the produce or land?
  33. 33. Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  34. 34. Do I need to spray? Project targets for pesticides Low toxicity (LD50 should be over 1000) Comply with “Pesticide Evaluation Report and Safer Use Action Plan” (PERSUAP) Consistent with UC Davis IPM guidelines. Control serious pests of grapes, pomegranates, stone fruit, (especially apricots), almonds, melons and major vegetables. Can be used with a wheel barrow sprayers.
  35. 35. Course structure Pesticides Defining pests Defining pesticides Do I need to spray? About equipment? Safety
  36. 36. About equipment Parts of a sprayer – even simple sprayers have the same components as more complex ones Name and function? Nozzle - influences rate and droplet size Hose – takes product from tank or reservoir to application nozzle Tank – holds mixed product Trigger – on and off switch ? ? ? ? ? Pump – generates application pressure
  37. 37. Mid-size Pesticide Sprayer 114 Liter (30 gallon) tank on a 4 wheel push cart
  38. 38. Mid-size Pesticide Sprayer 3 horse power Honda engine and GE 75 Pump Pump capable of 45.5Liters/minute Pump pressure = 4.57kg/sq cm (65psi) 30 meter long 0.95cm hose with hand-size spray gun
  39. 39. About equipment Droplet size and Coverage? What size droplets do you want? Big droplets? Small droplets? Depends on the product and crop.
  40. 40. About equipment When are larger droplets and partial coverage okay? If systemic – product will move through the plant to have its effect. When are smaller droplets with greater coverage better? For contact products or if the plant is dormant
  41. 41. About equipment In orchards, you often want smaller droplets and you should spray to “run-off” or “drip”.
  42. 42. About equipment Nozzles Which is a Hollow cone? Flat fan? Solid cone? Summary of the main types of spray nozzles, their usage and characteristics. [Note: 1 psi = 6.89 k Pa or 1 kPa = 0.145 psi] (Photos Bugwood and IRRI)
  43. 43. About equipment How do nozzles affect flow rate and droplet size? Type of nozzle Most common use Operating pressure in kilopascals (kPa) Remarks Hollow cone Low volume insecticides and fungicides. Special herbicide application. 400-800 Moderate pressure. Small droplets. Good penetration of foliage Solid cone High volume insecticides and fungicides 400-2500 High pressure. Small droplets. Good penetration of foliage Fan Herbicides 200-200 Low pressure. Large droplets. Less drift. Summary of the main types of spray nozzles, their usage and characteristics. [Note: 1 psi = 6.89 k Pa or 1 kPa = 0.145 psi]
  44. 44. About equipment About Pressure What happens to droplet size if you increase pressure? Decrease droplet size What happens if pressure varies? Get variable coverage on target crop Unhappy customers! Constant pressure is critical.
  45. 45. About equipment Review If the equipment below is the same, then which do you think has the greater application pressure (A or B)? Why? A B
  46. 46. About equipment Review Which gives better coverage (A or B)? Which should be used for a contact pesticide (A or B)? A B
  47. 47. About equipment We have seen that droplet size is affected by nozzle type and pressure We’ve seen that smaller droplets lead to better coverage, but…. If too small, you get drift
  48. 48. About equipment What is drift? Drift is when product moves through the air away from the target crop to other areas Drift increases as wind speed increases, and As droplet size decreases
  49. 49. About equipment Is Drift good or bad or it doesn’t matter? Bad – Drift wastes product and potentially endangers other crops, people and the environment. How do you reduce drift? Avoid spraying in high winds Avoid excessive application pressure and very small droplets
  50. 50. About equipment What are the best wind conditions to spray in? It doesn’t matter Only when there is no wind Only when there is a light breeze Only when there is a strong breeze
  51. 51. About equipment Approx. air speed (m/s) Description Visible signs Spraying <0.3 Calm Smoke rises vertically Avoid spraying on warm sunny days 0.6-0.9 Light air Direction shown by smoke drift Avoid spraying on warm sunny days 0.9-1.81 Light breeze Leaves rustle, wind felt on face Ideal spraying 1.81-2.7 Gentle breeze Leaves and twigs in constant motion Avoid spraying herbicides 2.7-4.0 Moderate Small branches moved, raises dust or loose paper Spraying inadvisable
  52. 52. About equipment Calibration What is calibration? The amount of output per unit time from your sprayer – often given as liters/minute Why do you need to calibrate your equipment? To know how much product to add.
  53. 53. About equipment What is the goal of an application? Apply a certain amount of product to each tree With small orchards, calibration is best by trial and error Many times the goal is spray-to-drip What is spray-to-drip? The plant is fully covered to the point that further spray will “drip” off.
  54. 54. About equipment Calibration Before calibration and use, always check and repair the sprayer Filters, strainers are clean Tank is clean, free from sediment Nozzle is working properly Notes: Never clean nozzles with wire Never clean nozzles by blowing with your mouth
  55. 55. About equipment Practical : How do I calibrate? For spraying orchard crops…… Fill your sprayer with water to a known volume or level Set the sprayer at the pressure you will use when spraying Spray a known number of trees (e.g., 3, 5 or 10) - spray each tree to “drip”. Add up the total time required to spray all trees. Note: Only record time spent spraying, not the time moving between trees
  56. 56. About equipment Practical : How do I calibrate? (continued) When finished, note how much liquid was applied? Either read off water remaining in the tank and calculate as Initial volume-final volume = applied volume, or Note the volume of liquid required to refill the tank back to the original level As a point of reference: In California, it often takes between 1-2 minutes to spray a single tree of 2-3 m height.
  57. 57. About equipment Practical Your calibration will be = (liquid applied)l/(time required to apply)min = l/min
  58. 58. About equipment Practical Now how much product do you need? In general, recommendations for Orchards are as ppm or concentration Field crops as rate active ingredient (or product) per ha.
  59. 59. About equipment Practical How much liquid do you need in each tank load? Volume required = # trees x average volume applied per tree Then add 5-10% How much product do you need? Calculate based on the volume above to give the concentration needed
  60. 60. About equipment Practical example Total volume required # trees = 10 Average volume applied per tree = 5 l Volume required = 10 x 5 = 50 l Volume to add = 50 + 5 = 55 l How much product do you need? Target concentration = 5% product So product required = 55 l * 5% = 2.75 l product Always check whether recommendation is product or active ingredient
  61. 61. About equipment Practical example (continued) Total volume required = 55 l Product required = 2.75 l Filling tank 52.25 l water + 2.75 l product = 55 l
  62. 62. About equipment What happens to sprayer output if… You increase pressure? You apply a higher volume per unit time Do you need more or less product? Same if recommendation is based on concentration of spray However, you should need less time to spray-to-drip.
  63. 63. About equipment Calibration How do you change your application rate? Nozzle Pressure Speed
  64. 64. About equipment What happens to calibration if… You change nozzle(s)? Nozzles have a direct impact on output Higher flow nozzles increase volume applied for the same amount of time.
  65. 65. About equipment Before mixing your pesticide find out: How many trees will you spray Remember from earlier experience how much water you spray per tree and how much pesticide you use per liter.
  66. 66. About equipment Now calculate how much pesticide is needed for 20 trees, if you spray 5 l/tree and need a product concentration of 10%? How many tanks do you need if your tank has a 50 l capacity? Discuss
  67. 67. About equipment Apple Orchard Mixed Family Farm Now you can estimate spray volumes for any number of trees and product required.
  68. 68. Course structure Pesticides Defining pests Defining pesticides Do I need to spray? About equipment? Safety
  69. 69. Safety – Pesticide Label Be sure Crop is on the label. Pest is on the label. To follow label directions for mixing. To follow label directions for protective clothing. To check for other precautions (e.g., limitations on harvested produce).
  70. 70. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label Signal words are… "CAUTION,“ "WARNING," and "DANGER" (in order of increasing toxicity) Indicates the relative acute toxicity, or short-term effects, of the active ingredients to humans. They do not refer to long-term effects to humans nor do they indicate the effect on aquatic invertebrates.
  71. 71. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label Active ingredient What is it? The active ingredient (a.i.) is the material in the pesticide formulation that actually destroys the target pest or performs the desired function. Pesticide labels are required by law to show the active ingredient and its percentage.
  72. 72. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label Other (or inert) ingredients? Inert ingredients are all materials in the pesticide formulation other than the active ingredient. These ingredients do not work to control the pest, but help dissolve the active ingredient, improve or enhance pesticide activity. Some inert ingredients may be toxic or hazardous to humans.
  73. 73. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label Trade names The trade name is any brand name that is used exclusively by one manufacturer for a product containing the pesticide chemical. There may be several trade names for a single product, thus making it confusing. Do not rely on brand names to identify pesticides.
  74. 74. Safety – Pesticide Label Surfactants What is a surfactant? Added to decrease surface tension of the applied liquid to improve surface wetting and penetration of the product. Check the label - surfactants may be added or may come as already included in the product.
  75. 75. Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  76. 76. Safety – Exposure Understand the dangers When can you be contaminated? How can you or others be contaminated? Where is absorption greatest? What does that mean for protecting yourself and others? Photo: USDA
  77. 77. Safety – Dangers When are risks the highest for exposure? Spills and splashes (e.g. mixing) Spray drift and dust from pesticide application Skin contact with residues Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  78. 78. Safety – Dangers Why is mixing so dangerous? Dealing with pure concentrated product Greater potential for spills during mixing Tips: Mix in a well ventilated area Wear protective equipment – especially gloves, mask and closed shoes Stand up-wind when mixing Photo: Fintrac Inc.
  79. 79. Safety – Dangers Mixing Keep a set of measuring equipment for use only with pesticides. Clearly label them as "PESTICIDE ONLY" Store them in a secure area away from food preparation areas. Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  80. 80. Safety – Exposure Be aware of the where pesticides can enter the body. How can pesticides enter your body? through eyes Breathing – entry into the lungs through the mouth through the skin Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  81. 81. Safety - Exposure Note that there are differences in absorption through skin. Where is absorption greatest? Scrotum Ears Forehead and Scalp n/g01916.htm
  82. 82. Safety – Exposure Another way at looking at absorption Note absorption through the armpit The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  83. 83. Safety - Exposure What does this mean when applying in the field? Wear protective equipment Wash hands before going to the bathroom. What’s the difference between absorption on the forearm and forehead? When hot and sweaty, do you wipe your arm on your forehead? n/g01916.htm
  84. 84. Safety – Protective Gear Personal Protective Equipment Minimum: rubber gloves, eye protection, long-sleeved shirt, long pants, mask, closed shoes Avoid using cotton gloves or lightweight dust masks that may absorb the spray and increase contact with skin.
  85. 85. Safety – Protective Gear Is this person ready to apply pesticide? What is good? Has a hat and long sleeves What is not so good? No protection for eyes, mouth or hands. Shoes? Photo IDRC
  86. 86. Safety – Protective Gear Equipment care: Goggles, boots and gloves Wash frequently. Use warm soapy water and a brush to clean most protective gear. Repair or replace any ripped or damaged gear. The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  87. 87. Safety – Protective Gear Equipment care: Clothes Do not re-wear contaminated clothes until they have been washed. Wash clothing used to apply pesticides separately from all other clothes. The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  88. 88. Safety – Good Practices Before you spray… Check the label First put on all protective equipment Inspect sprayer and hose to ensure there are no leaks Check area to make sure there are no: People Pets/Livestock Check for ponds, streams, wells, other water sources. Photo: Ron Horii – Santa Teresa County Park Don’t spray near streams
  89. 89. Safety – Good Practices Does water quality have any effect? Yes Rule of thumb: Use water only if you can see a coin dropped in the bottom of a bucket of water Photo IRRI
  90. 90. Safety – Good Practices While Spraying… As much as possible Spray away from the body Do not let yourself become soaked with pesticide Avoid walking through spray Stand upwind Avoid spraying straight overhead Be mindful of drift (wind carrying pesticide droplets)
  91. 91. Safety – Good Practices Wash hands before: Eating Going to bathroom Smoking Do not wipe forearm on forehead when sweaty. Keep foods away from pesticides and sprayed areas. Keep covered. Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555 Pesticide residue on person’s hands seen under florescent light. Photo: International Potato Center
  92. 92. Safety – Good Practices Take a shower as soon after application as possible. Wash clothing separately from other laundry. Never smoke, drink, eat, or use the bathroom after pesticide application without washing first. Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  93. 93. Safety – Cleaning Equipment When finished using sprayer… Try to not have any excess pesticide in the tank. Rinse tank by running fresh water through the sprayers. Do not leave sprayer in the field. Do not allow equipment to sit for a long time with pesticide in the tank. This may clog or corrode the machine.
  94. 94. Safety – Cleaning Equipment Rinse the outside of the sprayer thoroughly with water (avoiding the engine) Check pesticide label for clean up procedures Photo: Tim McCabe, USDA
  95. 95. Safety - Disposal What can be done about pesticide excess? Don’t create any excess! Only mix the amount of pesticide that you need for the job. If you make excess try to use the pesticide on another appropriate site. Store in a clearly marked container for later use. Follow label guidelines for disposal.
  96. 96. Safety – Disposal How about pouring excess pesticide down the drain? Absolutely NOT! Why? Ground water pollution River/aquatic pollution Diagram: USDS Picture: UC IPM
  97. 97. Safety - Disposal What to do about empty pesticide containers? Read the label Typically - Rinse 3 times Puncture the container (so it can not be reused) Dispose in a landfill or recycle Never use empty pesticide containers for other purposes (e.g. storing water).
  98. 98. Safety – Disposal Diagram: Purdue Pesticide Program – Purdue Univ. Cooperative Extension Empty container into spray tank
  99. 99. Safety – Disposal Diagram: Purdue Pesticide Program – Purdue Univ. Cooperative Extension Rinse container with water, shake, add to tank and repeat
  100. 100. Safety – Disposal Diagram: Purdue Pesticide Program – Purdue Univ. Cooperative Extension Destroy and dispose of container
  101. 101. Safety – Reentry into the field When is it safe to reenter the field after spraying (without protective gear)? When the plants are dry? No Check the pesticide label? Yes
  102. 102. Safety - Reentry Check for “REI” or the “Restricted Entry Interval” Sample Label Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  103. 103. Safety - Reentry Post a sign so others will know not to enter the field during the Restricted Entry Interval. Photo: Forestry Suppliers Inc.
  104. 104. Safety – Product marketing What may prevent you selling a product treated with pesticide? Application is too close to sale date. How can you be sure if you are okay? Read the label! Note any limitations in the country importing your product.
  105. 105. Safety – Storage Store all chemicals in the original labeled containers Lock in cabinet or shed, away from food or feeds, and out of the reach of children, unauthorized persons, pets, and livestock. Keep spraying and mixing equipment locked up as well. Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  106. 106. Safety – Storage Children make up the largest non-agrarian pesticide victims Never store pesticides in unmarked or incorrect containers The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  107. 107. Safety - Spills Pesticide spills can occur at any time First protect yourself, others, animals, and water sources Be sure to wear protective gear Control Stop the spill from continuing Contain Stop spill from spreading Use dirt to barricade a liquid pesticide Clean Up Do not hose down the spill. This will make the situation worse. Soak up liquid with saw dust, dirt, clay, etc. Sweep spill into plastic containers for later disposal.
  108. 108. What can be done during pesticide emergencies? Photo:
  109. 109. Safety – First Aid Symptoms Dizziness Headache, blurred vision Sweating too much Stomach cramps, vomiting Eye irritation Skin rashes Trouble breathing Chest pains Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  110. 110. Safety – First Aid If pesticide is in eyes, rinse immediately with clean water for about 15 minutes. If pesticide gets on clothing or skin take clothes off immediately and wash skin with soap and water. The faster you act, the less likely harm will occur. Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  111. 111. Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555 Safety – First Aid Call the nearest place for medical care. All pesticide labels have emergency first aid information. Picture: Bayer CropScience – Admire 2 label
  112. 112. Safety – First Aid What should you do if pesticides are inhaled? First leave the contaminated area. Loosen clothing for better breathing. Give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if breathing has stopped. Try to calm down exposed person. Get immediate medical care. Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  113. 113. Safety – First Aid What should you do if pesticide is swallowed? Follow label’s instructions. Drink 1 liter of milk or water if person is conscious if the pesticide is not corrosive or petroleum based, induce vomiting. Get immediate medical care.
  114. 114. References UC IPM Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides. UC IPM Pesticide Safety for Small Farmers. A Growers Guide to Pesticide Safety. UC ANR Pesticide Safety: A Reference manual for Private Applicators. UC IPM

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An introductory Pesticide use Training Course, developed by UC IPM with IPO at UC Davis


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