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Pesticide Training Course UC Davis, Safety. Part 5 of 5

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Basic safety on crop and pesticide use

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Pesticide Training Course UC Davis, Safety. Part 5 of 5

  1. 1. Prepared by Mark Bell, Mark Henderson and Frank Zalom with input from Ehsan Ehsanullah and Tom Brown
  2. 2. Course objectives  Know key points in the application and safe use of pesticides  Note: At the end, participants will take a review quiz to show they can recall all the key points.  Support materials – fact sheets and check lists, review quiz,
  3. 3. Course structure Pesticides Defining pests Defining pesticides Do I need to spray? About equipment? Safety
  4. 4. Safety – Pesticide Label  Be sure  Crop is on the label.  Pest is on the label.  To follow label directions for mixing.  To follow label directions for protective clothing.  To check for other precautions (e.g., limitations on harvested produce).
  5. 5. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label  Signal words are…  "CAUTION,“  "WARNING," and  "DANGER" (in order of increasing toxicity)  Indicates the relative acute toxicity, or short-term effects, of the active ingredients to humans. They do not refer to long-term effects to humans nor do they indicate the effect on aquatic invertebrates.
  6. 6. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label  Active ingredient  What is it?  The active ingredient (a.i.) is the material in the pesticide formulation that actually destroys the target pest or performs the desired function. Pesticide labels are required by law to show the active ingredient and its percentage.
  7. 7. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label  Other (or inert) ingredients?  Inert ingredients are all materials in the pesticide formulation other than the active ingredient.  These ingredients do not work to control the pest, but help dissolve the active ingredient, improve or enhance pesticide activity.  Some inert ingredients may be toxic or hazardous to humans.
  8. 8. Safety – Pesticide Label About the label  Trade names  The trade name is any brand name that is used exclusively by one manufacturer for a product containing the pesticide chemical. There may be several trade names for a single product, thus making it confusing.  Do not rely on brand names to identify pesticides.
  9. 9. Safety – Pesticide Label Surfactants  What is a surfactant?  Added to decrease surface tension of the applied liquid to improve surface wetting and penetration of the product.  Check the label - surfactants may be added or may come as already included in the product.
  10. 10. Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  11. 11. Safety – Exposure Understand the dangers  When can you be contaminated?  How can you or others be contaminated?  Where is absorption greatest?  What does that mean for protecting yourself and others? Photo: USDA
  12. 12. Safety – Dangers  When are risks the highest for exposure?  Spills and splashes (e.g. mixing)  Spray drift and dust from pesticide application  Skin contact with residues Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  13. 13. Safety – Dangers  Why is mixing so dangerous?  Dealing with pure concentrated product  Greater potential for spills during mixing  Tips:  Mix in a well ventilated area  Wear protective equipment – especially gloves, mask and closed shoes  Stand up-wind when mixing Photo: Fintrac Inc.
  14. 14. Safety – Dangers Mixing  Keep a set of measuring equipment for use only with pesticides.  Clearly label them as "PESTICIDE ONLY"  Store them in a secure area away from food preparation areas. Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  15. 15. Safety – Exposure  Be aware of the where pesticides can enter the body.  How can pesticides enter your body?  through eyes  Breathing – entry into the lungs  through the mouth  through the skin Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  16. 16. Safety - Exposure  Note that there are differences in absorption through skin.  Where is absorption greatest?  Scrotum  Ears  Forehead and Scalp http://extension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/agengi n/g01916.htm
  17. 17. Safety – Exposure  Another way at looking at absorption  Note absorption through the armpit The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  18. 18. Safety - Exposure  What does this mean when applying in the field?  Wear protective equipment  Wash hands before going to the bathroom.  What’s the difference between absorption on the forearm and forehead?  When hot and sweaty, do you wipe your arm on your forehead? http://extension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/agengi n/g01916.htm
  19. 19. Safety – Protective Gear  Personal Protective Equipment  Minimum:  rubber gloves,  eye protection,  long-sleeved shirt,  long pants,  mask,  closed shoes  Avoid using cotton gloves or lightweight dust masks that may absorb the spray and increase contact with skin.
  20. 20. Safety – Protective Gear  Is this person ready to apply pesticide?  What is good?  Has a hat and long sleeves  What is not so good?  No protection for eyes, mouth or hands.  Shoes? Photo IDRC
  21. 21. Safety – Protective Gear  Equipment care: Goggles, boots and gloves  Wash frequently.  Use warm soapy water and a brush to clean most protective gear.  Repair or replace any ripped or damaged gear. The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  22. 22. Safety – Protective Gear  Equipment care: Clothes  Do not re-wear contaminated clothes until they have been washed.  Wash clothing used to apply pesticides separately from all other clothes. The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  23. 23. Safety – Good Practices  Before you spray…  Check the label  First put on all protective equipment  Inspect sprayer and hose to ensure there are no leaks  Check area to make sure there are no:  People  Pets/Livestock  Check for ponds, streams, wells, other water sources. Photo: Ron Horii – Santa Teresa County Park Don’t spray near streams
  24. 24. Safety – Good Practices  Does water quality have any effect?  Yes  Rule of thumb: Use water only if you can see a coin dropped in the bottom of a bucket of water Photo IRRI
  25. 25. Safety – Good Practices  While Spraying… As much as possible  Spray away from the body  Do not let yourself become soaked with pesticide  Avoid walking through spray  Stand upwind  Avoid spraying straight overhead  Be mindful of drift (wind carrying pesticide droplets)
  26. 26. Safety – Good Practices  Wash hands before:  Eating  Going to bathroom  Smoking  Do not wipe forearm on forehead when sweaty.  Keep foods away from pesticides and sprayed areas. Keep covered. Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555 Pesticide residue on person’s hands seen under florescent light. Photo: International Potato Center
  27. 27. Safety – Good Practices  Take a shower as soon after application as possible.  Wash clothing separately from other laundry.  Never smoke, drink, eat, or use the bathroom after pesticide application without washing first. Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  28. 28. Safety – Cleaning Equipment  When finished using sprayer…  Try to not have any excess pesticide in the tank.  Rinse tank by running fresh water through the sprayers.  Do not leave sprayer in the field.  Do not allow equipment to sit for a long time with pesticide in the tank. This may clog or corrode the machine.
  29. 29. Safety – Cleaning Equipment  Rinse the outside of the sprayer thoroughly with water (avoiding the engine)  Check pesticide label for clean up procedures Photo: Tim McCabe, USDA
  30. 30. Safety - Disposal  What can be done about pesticide excess?  Don’t create any excess!  Only mix the amount of pesticide that you need for the job.  If you make excess try to use the pesticide on another appropriate site.  Store in a clearly marked container for later use.  Follow label guidelines for disposal.
  31. 31. Safety – Disposal  How about pouring excess pesticide down the drain?  Absolutely NOT!  Why?  Ground water pollution  River/aquatic pollution Diagram: USDS Picture: UC IPM
  32. 32. Safety - Disposal  What to do about empty pesticide containers?  Read the label  Typically - Rinse 3 times  Puncture the container (so it can not be reused)  Dispose in a landfill or recycle  Never use empty pesticide containers for other purposes (e.g. storing water).
  33. 33. Safety – Disposal Diagram: Purdue Pesticide Program – Purdue Univ. Cooperative Extension Empty container into spray tank
  34. 34. Safety – Disposal Diagram: Purdue Pesticide Program – Purdue Univ. Cooperative Extension Rinse container with water, shake, add to tank and repeat
  35. 35. Safety – Disposal Diagram: Purdue Pesticide Program – Purdue Univ. Cooperative Extension Destroy and dispose of container
  36. 36. Safety – Reentry into the field  When is it safe to reenter the field after spraying (without protective gear)?  When the plants are dry?  No  Check the pesticide label?  Yes
  37. 37. Safety - Reentry  Check for “REI” or the “Restricted Entry Interval” Sample Label Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  38. 38. Safety - Reentry  Post a sign so others will know not to enter the field during the Restricted Entry Interval. Photo: Forestry Suppliers Inc.
  39. 39. Safety – Product marketing  What may prevent you selling a product treated with pesticide?  Application is too close to sale date.  How can you be sure if you are okay?  Read the label!  Note any limitations in the country importing your product.
  40. 40. Safety – Storage  Store all chemicals in the original labeled containers  Lock in cabinet or shed, away from food or feeds, and out of the reach of children, unauthorized persons, pets, and livestock.  Keep spraying and mixing equipment locked up as well. Photo: Pesticide Management Education Program – Cornell Cooperative Extension
  41. 41. Safety – Storage  Children make up the largest non-agrarian pesticide victims  Never store pesticides in unmarked or incorrect containers The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides – UC IPM
  42. 42. Safety - Spills  Pesticide spills can occur at any time  First protect yourself, others, animals, and water sources  Be sure to wear protective gear  Control  Stop the spill from continuing  Contain  Stop spill from spreading  Use dirt to barricade a liquid pesticide  Clean Up  Do not hose down the spill. This will make the situation worse.  Soak up liquid with saw dust, dirt, clay, etc.  Sweep spill into plastic containers for later disposal.
  43. 43. What can be done during pesticide emergencies? Photo: Ambulancesimulator.com
  44. 44. Safety – First Aid Symptoms  Dizziness  Headache, blurred vision  Sweating too much  Stomach cramps, vomiting  Eye irritation  Skin rashes  Trouble breathing  Chest pains Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  45. 45. Safety – First Aid  If pesticide is in eyes, rinse immediately with clean water for about 15 minutes.  If pesticide gets on clothing or skin take clothes off immediately and wash skin with soap and water.  The faster you act, the less likely harm will occur. Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  46. 46. Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555 Safety – First Aid  Call the nearest place for medical care.  All pesticide labels have emergency first aid information. Picture: Bayer CropScience – Admire 2 label
  47. 47. Safety – First Aid  What should you do if pesticides are inhaled?  First leave the contaminated area.  Loosen clothing for better breathing.  Give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if breathing has stopped.  Try to calm down exposed person.  Get immediate medical care. Illustrations: Pesticide Safety for Small Farms, UC ANR Pub. 21555
  48. 48. Safety – First Aid  What should you do if pesticide is swallowed?  Follow label’s instructions.  Drink 1 liter of milk or water if person is conscious if the pesticide is not corrosive or petroleum based, induce vomiting.  Get immediate medical care.
  49. 49. References  UC IPM http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/index.html  Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides. UC IPM  Pesticide Safety for Small Farmers. A Growers Guide to Pesticide Safety. UC ANR  Pesticide Safety: A Reference manual for Private Applicators. UC IPM
  50. 50. Prepared by Mark Bell, Mark Henderson and Frank Zalom with input from Ehsan Ehsanullah and Tom Brown

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