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Harvesting Quality Mandarins
Cindy Fake
University of California Cooperative Extension
October 2012
Mandarin Harvesting, Quality, & Maturity
1. Mandarin Quality
• Factors & Standards
2. Field Practices
• Growing practices ...
To receive the best prices in markets,
Georgian mandarins must be:
• Grown using good practices to produce good
tasting fr...
Terminology
• °Brix = “sugars” = Total Soluble Solids (TSS)
• Acidity = titratable acidity, Total Acidity (TA),
not the sa...
Mandarin Fruit Quality Factors
• Maturity
• Sugars/TSS (total
soluble solids ): acid
ratio
• Juice content
• Firmness
• Ap...
Quality & Maturity Standards
EU standards – Minimum maturity
1. Minimum juice content:
33% Mandarins (except Clementines)
...
Quality & Maturity Standards
EU standards – Minimum maturity
Why is Maturity Important?
• Immature fruit is subject to
– Shriveling
– Mechanical damage
– Physiological disorders
– Sho...
When is fruit mature enough to pick?
• Color: at least1/3 of fruit must be properly colored
• No longer rock hard; softeni...
Quality Standards: Standard Pack
• Fruit fairly uniform in size
• EU minimum size =43 mm, 10% tolerance in size
range
• Pa...
Mandarin Defects: rough or thick skin
Consequences of Poor Cultural Practices
• Excess water and/or N =>
– Lack of flavor
– Puffiness
– Delayed maturity
– Short...
Mandarin Defects: Misshapen Fruit
Mandarin Defects:
Rind Breakdown and Decay/Rot
Defects: dirt or foreign material:
sooty mold & scale honeydew
Mandarin Defects: Insect & Mite Damage
California red scale Citrus thripsRust mite damage
Best Production Practices
for High Quality Fruit
Best Production Practices for High Quality Fruit
Timely pruning
• Open up canopy to increase light & air
– Reduces scale p...
Best Production Practices for High Quality Fruit
• Use mulch or compost to keep
tree roots healthy
• Do not dig soil aroun...
Best Production Practices for High Quality Fruit
• Prevent or manage pests that affect
fruit quality
• Prevent diseases su...
Good Harvesting Practices
• Pick DRY fruit
– Wet fruit is more easily bruised as
cells are swollen with water
– Wet fruit ...
Good Harvesting Practices
• Always cut fruit from tree
• Use sharp clippers and clip
stem as short as possible
These long ...
Good Harvesting Practices
• Cut and remove diseased fruit first
so fungal spores don’t scatter
• Do not pick fruit off the...
Sorting Practices
• Do not expect to sell all your fruit – sort for quality!
• Cull any rind defects that will shorten she...
Storage Practices
• Only store DRY fruit
• Optimum temperature 7.2°C
• Optimum relative humidity
(RH) = 85-90%
• Cool stor...
Packing Practices
• Do not squeeze the fruit into the box
• Do not stack bagged fruit more than 3 or 4 high
• Do not pack ...
Maturity Testing
• Important objective measures
of fruit maturity
• Must meet standards for exports or for high end
market...
Juice Content = % juice
• Weigh 10 mandarins, record weight.
• Weigh the juice container,
record weight.
• Juice the manda...
Total Soluble Solids (TSS)
• °Brix, TSS = measurement of
sugar content or sweetness
• Measured with temperature-compensati...
Titratable Acidity (TA)
• Critical measurement for Georgian
mandarins
• Quality issue with fruit is high
acidity, not low ...
Sugar: Acid Ratio (TSS:TA)
• Sugar: Acid Ratio is the major component of
mandarin flavor
• Early in season, TSS:TA is low ...
Points to remember
• Quality fruit is mature fruit
• Quality standards are based on
size, color, and freedom from defects
...
Questions?
Thank you!
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4 harvesting quality mandarins

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Harvesting quality mandarins by Cindy Fake COunty Extension (UCCE), California

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4 harvesting quality mandarins

  1. 1. Harvesting Quality Mandarins Cindy Fake University of California Cooperative Extension October 2012
  2. 2. Mandarin Harvesting, Quality, & Maturity 1. Mandarin Quality • Factors & Standards 2. Field Practices • Growing practices that promote quality • Harvesting practices 3. Assessing Maturity & Quality • Maturity tests
  3. 3. To receive the best prices in markets, Georgian mandarins must be: • Grown using good practices to produce good tasting fruit of the right size • Picked at maturity, using good harvest practices • Free of major cosmetic defects • Able to surpass minimum maturity standards for juice content and sugar to acid ratio (TSS:TA) • Packed and stored properly to maintain quality
  4. 4. Terminology • °Brix = “sugars” = Total Soluble Solids (TSS) • Acidity = titratable acidity, Total Acidity (TA), not the same as pH • Maturity = having completed natural growth & development • Minimum maturity = standards fruit must reach before treatment or shipping • Defect = visual damage, such as cuts, scars, dirt, decay or other foreign matter
  5. 5. Mandarin Fruit Quality Factors • Maturity • Sugars/TSS (total soluble solids ): acid ratio • Juice content • Firmness • Appearance: freedom from defects or rot • Color : 75% of surface • Size • Shape • Peel thickness • Ease of peeling • Seed content • Flavor or taste
  6. 6. Quality & Maturity Standards EU standards – Minimum maturity 1. Minimum juice content: 33% Mandarins (except Clementines) 2. Coloring: typical of the variety >1/3 of fruit surface 3. Sugar: Acid ratio Satsumas > 6.5% TSS:1% acid - too low for consumer! California Legal Maturity • 8% Total Soluble Solids (°Brix):1 % acids – still too low for consumer! – Sugars rise as mature, acids decline
  7. 7. Quality & Maturity Standards EU standards – Minimum maturity
  8. 8. Why is Maturity Important? • Immature fruit is subject to – Shriveling – Mechanical damage – Physiological disorders – Shorter shelf life • Sugars are preservatives and also act like antifreeze • Taste is important to consumers: • Immature citrus have high acid and low sugars, and taste sour
  9. 9. When is fruit mature enough to pick? • Color: at least1/3 of fruit must be properly colored • No longer rock hard; softening • Fruit “gives” with finger pressure • Peel has “give” = slightly loose • Taste may still be slightly tart in early season, but must be “sweet-tart” so is palatable • Early picking should be “picked to color” AND taste!
  10. 10. Quality Standards: Standard Pack • Fruit fairly uniform in size • EU minimum size =43 mm, 10% tolerance in size range • Packed in boxes or cartons and arranged according to the approved and recognized methods • Tightly packed and well filled but no “excessive or unnecessary bruising” because of overfilling • Container shall be at least level full at time of packing
  11. 11. Mandarin Defects: rough or thick skin
  12. 12. Consequences of Poor Cultural Practices • Excess water and/or N => – Lack of flavor – Puffiness – Delayed maturity – Short shelf life • Water stress, irregular or inadequate water – dry sections, bitter or sour flavor
  13. 13. Mandarin Defects: Misshapen Fruit
  14. 14. Mandarin Defects: Rind Breakdown and Decay/Rot
  15. 15. Defects: dirt or foreign material: sooty mold & scale honeydew
  16. 16. Mandarin Defects: Insect & Mite Damage California red scale Citrus thripsRust mite damage
  17. 17. Best Production Practices for High Quality Fruit
  18. 18. Best Production Practices for High Quality Fruit Timely pruning • Open up canopy to increase light & air – Reduces scale pests and sooty mold – Increases inside fruit which is protected from hail • Prune out overly vigorous branches that produce ugly fruit (gourmands ) – Usually produce unattractive fruit – Rough, misshapen fruit – Thick skins – Overly large fruit • Prune out dead or crossing branches that may damage fruit
  19. 19. Best Production Practices for High Quality Fruit • Use mulch or compost to keep tree roots healthy • Do not dig soil around tree roots • Use fertilizer to keep trees healthy and productive • Mature tree needs 0.2-0.5 kg actual Nitrogen per year; depending on size of tree • Reduce N applications after spring growth flush • Stop N fertilization in July • Too much N late in season leads to puffiness & ugly fruit
  20. 20. Best Production Practices for High Quality Fruit • Prevent or manage pests that affect fruit quality • Prevent diseases such as Citrus scab or Brown rot before they happen • Manage insect and mite pests through appropriate sprays and encouraging natural enemies
  21. 21. Good Harvesting Practices • Pick DRY fruit – Wet fruit is more easily bruised as cells are swollen with water – Wet fruit promotes fungus which may cause decay • Handle fruit as gently as possible • Prevent damage to mandarin rind: – Clip fingernails or wear gloves – Pour fruit gently into container – Do not overfill containers
  22. 22. Good Harvesting Practices • Always cut fruit from tree • Use sharp clippers and clip stem as short as possible These long stems will damage other fruit These short stems will minimize damage to other fruit
  23. 23. Good Harvesting Practices • Cut and remove diseased fruit first so fungal spores don’t scatter • Do not pick fruit off the ground • If branches are heavy with fruit, prop them up off the ground at least 1 month before harvest • Sanitary practices – Clean hands – Use hand cleaner after touching infected fruit – Wash hands after using bathroom
  24. 24. Sorting Practices • Do not expect to sell all your fruit – sort for quality! • Cull any rind defects that will shorten shelf life • Keep cull pile away from trees or packing area • Handle diseased fruit carefully so spores do not spread • Clean hands & equipment after any infected fruit • Keep to a similar size range in each container vs.
  25. 25. Storage Practices • Only store DRY fruit • Optimum temperature 7.2°C • Optimum relative humidity (RH) = 85-90% • Cool storage with airflow • Avoid build up of ethylene • Maximum 20-25 cm depth of fruit for storage
  26. 26. Packing Practices • Do not squeeze the fruit into the box • Do not stack bagged fruit more than 3 or 4 high • Do not pack too much ahead of time • Fingernails! - Wear gloves
  27. 27. Maturity Testing • Important objective measures of fruit maturity • Must meet standards for exports or for high end markets • Fruit is judged by color standards and • Maturity Testing : 3 major tests: • Juice Content (%) • Sugar: Acid Ratio, based on: • Total Soluble Solids (TSS) = Sugars • Titratable acidity (total acids) • Most buyers will want to taste as well
  28. 28. Juice Content = % juice • Weigh 10 mandarins, record weight. • Weigh the juice container, record weight. • Juice the mandarins. Strain juice into container. • Weigh the juice, then subtract the weight of the container. • Juice %= Weight of juice ÷Total fruit weight x 100
  29. 29. Total Soluble Solids (TSS) • °Brix, TSS = measurement of sugar content or sweetness • Measured with temperature-compensating refractometer • Be sure the glass surface is clean & dry • Place a few drops of juice on the glass • Close the lid • Look through the eyepiece and read where the juice sits on the scale • Clean and dry the refractometer immediately
  30. 30. Titratable Acidity (TA) • Critical measurement for Georgian mandarins • Quality issue with fruit is high acidity, not low sugars • Measure of total acidity of the juice • Not the same as pH • Measured by using a measured amount of a base (NaOH) and a color indicator to bring the juice solution to neutrality • The acidity is then calculated with a standard formula ml NaOH x 0.064 = citric acid concentration
  31. 31. Sugar: Acid Ratio (TSS:TA) • Sugar: Acid Ratio is the major component of mandarin flavor • Early in season, TSS:TA is low because sugar is low and acid is high • As fruit ripens, sugars increase and acid decreases • Sugar: Acid ratio = °Brix ÷ Citric Acid Concentration • Consumer preference for sugar content varies with markets, so KNOW your market!
  32. 32. Points to remember • Quality fruit is mature fruit • Quality standards are based on size, color, and freedom from defects • To the consumer, quality is all about flavor! • Flavor preferences always favor sweetness • Maturity standards are based on color, juice content, sugar content and acid content. • Good growing practices and good harvesting practices will bring higher prices for fruit.
  33. 33. Questions? Thank you!

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