Solar pv – balance of systems

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  • http://www.newforestsolar.com/page/how_solar_photovoltaics_work
  • http://nature-log.blogspot.in/2011/04/solar-trackers-what-are-they-and-how.htmlhttp://www.pv-magazine.com/archive/articles/beitrag/the-art-of-anchoring-solar-arrays-_100001186/86/?tx_ttnews[backCat]=38&cHash=cec03430a266f6fd496f9c184598ad48
  • http://img.tootoo.com/mytootoo/upload/50/505722/product/505722_f4e81d74fef32fa2f45bde3031a41bb9.jpg
  • http://www.dordt.edu/images/academics/programs/engineering/senior_design/2004/solar_tracking/1_big.jpg
  • http://www.dordt.edu/images/academics/programs/engineering/senior_design/2004/solar_tracking/1_big.jpg
  • Solar pv – balance of systems

    1. 1. Solar PV – Balance of SystemsMadhavan Nampoothiri, IPLON GmbHMeenakshi College, Chennai – February 2, 2012
    2. 2. Overview• About iPLON GmbH• What is BOS?• Inverters• Mounting structures• Cables and connectors• Performance monitoring systems• Conclusion
    3. 3. About iPLON GmbHGerman company with a strong Indian connection!
    4. 4. The Indian connection- Founded by Mr. Victor Thamburaj- Alumnus of IIT Madras- Worked in senior positions in German companies before starting iPLON- Trained Electrical Engineer
    5. 5. Schwäbisch Hall – A charming small town in South Germany
    6. 6. iPLON GmbH- Total lifecycle management of Solar farms- Installed more than 150 MWp in Germany and Italy- Located in Schwäbisch Hall, North of Stuttgart- India office in Chennai
    7. 7. Products and Services of iPLON Trans- System Environ- AC Power former / Engineerin Training ApplicationString Inverter mental Metering Grid g Reviews Comission & andMonitoring Monitoring Sensors (Evc. connected Document. ing Worksho Application Monitoring Point) comp. Project ps Monitoring Mgmt. SupportSolar Infranet(iAT, iMT, Internet connectivity) EPC Services O&M
    8. 8. What is BOS?Everything in the “gap” between PV modules & theGrid
    9. 9. PV System
    10. 10. PV modules – The most visible part of a PV system
    11. 11. BOS – The unglamorous cousins of PV modules – Power Electronics • Inverters – Mounting Structures • Racking - Fixed tilt • Tracking systems – Single axis – Dual axis – Cables and connectors – Performance monitoring systems • Weather stations • Local monitoring(SCADA – PC based) • Remote monitoring(Web based)
    12. 12. PV System PV modules Inverter Mounting Structure
    13. 13. InvertersDC to AC Converter
    14. 14. What Inverters are good for..• Converting DC to AC Fancy Fourier Transformation
    15. 15. Inverter features• High Efficiency• Low standby loss• Frequency regulation(50 Hz in India)• Harmonic distortion control• Ease of servicing• Reliability• Power correction factor
    16. 16. Type of Inverters• Central Inverters(Dominant in emerging markets)• String Inverters(Preferred in European markets)• Micro- Inverters(Still in development)
    17. 17. Central-Inverters vs.String-Inverters
    18. 18. Central Inverter PVModul Still on DC e Level! Field Termin al Central Inverter Field Termin al
    19. 19. String Inverter PVModule Already on AC level! Inverter Grid Inverter
    20. 20. Typical String-InvertersSource: SMA, Power One, Kaco
    21. 21. Typical Technical Data Source: SMA
    22. 22. Typical Central InvertersSource: SMA, Power One
    23. 23. Typical Technical Data Source: SMA
    24. 24. Topology• Two options: –Design for „Central Inverters“ –Design for „String Inverters“
    25. 25. Central Inverters
    26. 26. Central Inverters
    27. 27. String Inverters
    28. 28. String Inverters
    29. 29. Comparison Central StringCosts + +Maintenance + ++Size of plant Large scale only Small to very largeEfficiency + ++ (individual MPP tracking)MPP Tracking O ++Cables O ++
    30. 30. Mounting StructuresModules’ long lasting companion
    31. 31. The support..
    32. 32. Mounting structures• The structuring that supports the modules• Typically aluminum, galvanised iron• Should be corrosion resistant• Choose depending on soil, wind and weather conditions!• Overwhelming majority : Fixed tilt• Rare: Single or double-axis trackers
    33. 33. Mounting Structures• Fixed Tilt• Single Axis• Double Axis
    34. 34. Fixed tilt in Open AreasSource: Schletter
    35. 35. Fixed tilt in Open AreasSource: Schletter
    36. 36. Fixed tilt in Open Areas(Adjustable)Source: Schletter
    37. 37. Tracking systemsType of Tracking systems – Manually operated – Motor operated • Single Axis • Dual axis
    38. 38. Manually operatedAvailable in both single axis and dual axis modes
    39. 39. Motor OperatedSource: Linak AS
    40. 40. Motor OperatedSingle axis Dual axis Source: Linak AS
    41. 41. Cable and ConnectorsThe electricity carriers
    42. 42. CablesSource: LAPP
    43. 43. ConnectorsSource: Amphenol Source: MC Source: MC
    44. 44. Performance monitoring systemsOperation and Maintenance
    45. 45. Remote Monitoring• Remote Monitoring – Gain insights into string current – String voltage – Inverter performance – Error-messages – Weather conditions
    46. 46. Weather measurement• Energy output directly related to ambient conditions like – Amount of sunlight(Irradiation) – PV Module temperature – Ambient temperature
    47. 47. Irradiation sensors
    48. 48. Module and ambient temperature meaurement
    49. 49. Data logging and energy metering
    50. 50. iPLON Systems
    51. 51. Performance Monitoring Systems– Weather stations– Local monitoring(SCADA – PC based)– Remote monitoring(Web based)
    52. 52. PERFORMANCE RATIO
    53. 53. Performance Ratio• Performance Ratio = Most important factor of a Solar PV System! – Performance independent from weather condition – True efficiency of the plant
    54. 54. InstallationConcept – to - reality
    55. 55. Installation – Also part of BOS– Engineering and Design– Project Management– Civil work – Laying foundation for mounting structures and installation of modules on mounting structures – DC/AC cabling – Transformer and switch yard construction
    56. 56. Conclusion
    57. 57. Appendix• Resources – SMA.com? – Sunchaser.com? – Others?
    58. 58. Typical Technical Data(String Inverter)Source: Power One
    59. 59. Typical Technical Data(StringInverter) Source: Kaco
    60. 60. Typical Technical Data(CentralInverter) Source: Power One

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