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Solar pv – balance of systems

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Solar pv – balance of systems

  1. 1. Solar PV – Balance of SystemsMadhavan Nampoothiri, IPLON GmbHMeenakshi College, Chennai – February 2, 2012
  2. 2. Overview• About iPLON GmbH• What is BOS?• Inverters• Mounting structures• Cables and connectors• Performance monitoring systems• Conclusion
  3. 3. About iPLON GmbHGerman company with a strong Indian connection!
  4. 4. The Indian connection- Founded by Mr. Victor Thamburaj- Alumnus of IIT Madras- Worked in senior positions in German companies before starting iPLON- Trained Electrical Engineer
  5. 5. Schwäbisch Hall – A charming small town in South Germany
  6. 6. iPLON GmbH- Total lifecycle management of Solar farms- Installed more than 150 MWp in Germany and Italy- Located in Schwäbisch Hall, North of Stuttgart- India office in Chennai
  7. 7. Products and Services of iPLON Trans- System Environ- AC Power former / Engineerin Training ApplicationString Inverter mental Metering Grid g Reviews Comission & andMonitoring Monitoring Sensors (Evc. connected Document. ing Worksho Application Monitoring Point) comp. Project ps Monitoring Mgmt. SupportSolar Infranet(iAT, iMT, Internet connectivity) EPC Services O&M
  8. 8. What is BOS?Everything in the “gap” between PV modules & theGrid
  9. 9. PV System
  10. 10. PV modules – The most visible part of a PV system
  11. 11. BOS – The unglamorous cousins of PV modules – Power Electronics • Inverters – Mounting Structures • Racking - Fixed tilt • Tracking systems – Single axis – Dual axis – Cables and connectors – Performance monitoring systems • Weather stations • Local monitoring(SCADA – PC based) • Remote monitoring(Web based)
  12. 12. PV System PV modules Inverter Mounting Structure
  13. 13. InvertersDC to AC Converter
  14. 14. What Inverters are good for..• Converting DC to AC Fancy Fourier Transformation
  15. 15. Inverter features• High Efficiency• Low standby loss• Frequency regulation(50 Hz in India)• Harmonic distortion control• Ease of servicing• Reliability• Power correction factor
  16. 16. Type of Inverters• Central Inverters(Dominant in emerging markets)• String Inverters(Preferred in European markets)• Micro- Inverters(Still in development)
  17. 17. Central-Inverters vs.String-Inverters
  18. 18. Central Inverter PVModul Still on DC e Level! Field Termin al Central Inverter Field Termin al
  19. 19. String Inverter PVModule Already on AC level! Inverter Grid Inverter
  20. 20. Typical String-InvertersSource: SMA, Power One, Kaco
  21. 21. Typical Technical Data Source: SMA
  22. 22. Typical Central InvertersSource: SMA, Power One
  23. 23. Typical Technical Data Source: SMA
  24. 24. Topology• Two options: –Design for „Central Inverters“ –Design for „String Inverters“
  25. 25. Central Inverters
  26. 26. Central Inverters
  27. 27. String Inverters
  28. 28. String Inverters
  29. 29. Comparison Central StringCosts + +Maintenance + ++Size of plant Large scale only Small to very largeEfficiency + ++ (individual MPP tracking)MPP Tracking O ++Cables O ++
  30. 30. Mounting StructuresModules’ long lasting companion
  31. 31. The support..
  32. 32. Mounting structures• The structuring that supports the modules• Typically aluminum, galvanised iron• Should be corrosion resistant• Choose depending on soil, wind and weather conditions!• Overwhelming majority : Fixed tilt• Rare: Single or double-axis trackers
  33. 33. Mounting Structures• Fixed Tilt• Single Axis• Double Axis
  34. 34. Fixed tilt in Open AreasSource: Schletter
  35. 35. Fixed tilt in Open AreasSource: Schletter
  36. 36. Fixed tilt in Open Areas(Adjustable)Source: Schletter
  37. 37. Tracking systemsType of Tracking systems – Manually operated – Motor operated • Single Axis • Dual axis
  38. 38. Manually operatedAvailable in both single axis and dual axis modes
  39. 39. Motor OperatedSource: Linak AS
  40. 40. Motor OperatedSingle axis Dual axis Source: Linak AS
  41. 41. Cable and ConnectorsThe electricity carriers
  42. 42. CablesSource: LAPP
  43. 43. ConnectorsSource: Amphenol Source: MC Source: MC
  44. 44. Performance monitoring systemsOperation and Maintenance
  45. 45. Remote Monitoring• Remote Monitoring – Gain insights into string current – String voltage – Inverter performance – Error-messages – Weather conditions
  46. 46. Weather measurement• Energy output directly related to ambient conditions like – Amount of sunlight(Irradiation) – PV Module temperature – Ambient temperature
  47. 47. Irradiation sensors
  48. 48. Module and ambient temperature meaurement
  49. 49. Data logging and energy metering
  50. 50. iPLON Systems
  51. 51. Performance Monitoring Systems– Weather stations– Local monitoring(SCADA – PC based)– Remote monitoring(Web based)
  52. 52. PERFORMANCE RATIO
  53. 53. Performance Ratio• Performance Ratio = Most important factor of a Solar PV System! – Performance independent from weather condition – True efficiency of the plant
  54. 54. InstallationConcept – to - reality
  55. 55. Installation – Also part of BOS– Engineering and Design– Project Management– Civil work – Laying foundation for mounting structures and installation of modules on mounting structures – DC/AC cabling – Transformer and switch yard construction
  56. 56. Conclusion
  57. 57. Appendix• Resources – SMA.com? – Sunchaser.com? – Others?
  58. 58. Typical Technical Data(String Inverter)Source: Power One
  59. 59. Typical Technical Data(StringInverter) Source: Kaco
  60. 60. Typical Technical Data(CentralInverter) Source: Power One

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