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Research advances in pulses
and benefit to stakeholders
CL Laxmipathi Gowda
Deputy Director General,
ICRISAT
Vision
A prosperous, food-secure and resilient
dryland tropics
Mission
To reduce poverty, hunger, malnutrition and environ...
ICRISAT Locations
in the Semi-arid Tropics

WCA
Regional
Hub- Bamako, Mali

55 countries
6.5 million sq km
2.5 billion peo...
Production of major pulse crops in India
Crop
Pigeonpea
Chickpea
Mungbean
Urdbean
Lentil
Other
Pulses
Total Pulses
Foodgra...
Top chickpea producers, import and export
Rank Production
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

India
(69%)
Pakistan
(5%)
Turkey
(5%)
Australia...
Options for increasing production
Enhancing yield by reducing yield gap
Yield gaps in chickpea

Improved
cultivars +
Impro...
A large shift (about 4 million ha) in chickpea area from cooler,
long-season environments to warmer, short-season environm...
Options for increasing chickpea production
1. Bringing additional area under production
- Huge opportunities exist in rice...
Enhancing adoption of improved cultivars
1. Knowledge empowerment
of farmers
•Electronic and print media
•Field days/farme...
Enhancing adoption of improved cultivars -2
2. Ensuring seed supply of
improved cultivars
•Strengthening formal seed syste...
JAKI 9218
JG 11
JG 130
JG 14
• 40 chickpea varieties developed in India through ICRISAT- JG 16
ICAR partnerships and accou...
Promoting agribusiness ventures through
Seed Business Ventures
A unique initiative of Agri-Business Incubation (ABI) Progr...
Adoption and impacts of
improved chickpea cultivars
- A success story from Andhra Pradesh State of India
Chickpea success story from Andhra Pradesh,
India
During the past 12 years
(2000 – 2011)
• 3.6-fold increase in area
(163,...
til:

Short Duration
IPL 316, Pusa Vaibhav, JL 3, IPL 81, DPL 62

pea: IPFD 10-12 (green seeds), Adarsh, Indra,
Jaya, Ambi...
High yielding varieties
Mungbean : Samrat, SML 668, IPM 2-3, HUM 16, IPM 2-14, Pant
M
5, Pusa Vishal, Gujarat Mung 1, Guja...
Extra-large/Large seeded Varieties
Mungbean for spring/Summer season
Samrat, SML 668, IPM 02-3, IPM 2-14, HUM 16
At 60 days

Hybrids in Pigeonpea
• More vigor and yield

Hybrid

Variety

• 44% greater shoot mass
so needs low seeding
ra...
ICPH 2671 ON- FARM TRIALS (2007-10)
State

Dist

Farmers

Mean yield (kg/ ha)
Hybrid
Check

%Gain

Maha

7

782

969

717
...
Developing early and extra-early chickpea cultivars

Early and extra-early cultivars have been developed which are
better ...
Reproductive stage heat tolerance

Effects of reproductive stage heat stress on chickpea
Chickpea cultivars suitable for mechanical harvesting
Herbicide tolerance
Market preference for grain quality
Transgenic Chickpea Resistance to Helicoverpa

Transgenic

Non-transgenic
The chickpea genome
 Illumina sequencing used to
generate 153.01 Gb
 73.8% of the genome is
captured in scaffolds
 Geno...
The pigeonpea genome
 Illumina sequencing tech
used to generate 237.2 Gb
 72.7% (605.78 Mb) of the
total pigeonpea genom...
MABC for root and other drought
tolerance related traits in
chickpea

5000

Irrigated

Rainfed

4500
4000
3500
3000

)
a
h...
Future Scenario in Pulses
• Demand will continue to grow (62 m tons by
2050)
• Supply gap will exist in South Asia
• Techn...
Thank you!
ICRISAT is a member of the CGIAR Consortium
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Research advances in pulses and benefit to stakeholders dr. c. l. gowda

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Research advances in pulses & benefits to stakeholders by Dr. C.I. Gowsa at The Pulses Conclave 2014 by India Pulse & Grains Association, IPGA

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Research advances in pulses and benefit to stakeholders dr. c. l. gowda

  1. 1. Research advances in pulses and benefit to stakeholders CL Laxmipathi Gowda Deputy Director General, ICRISAT
  2. 2. Vision A prosperous, food-secure and resilient dryland tropics Mission To reduce poverty, hunger, malnutrition and environmental degradation in the dryland tropics
  3. 3. ICRISAT Locations in the Semi-arid Tropics WCA Regional Hub- Bamako, Mali 55 countries 6.5 million sq km 2.5 billion people HeadquartersESA Regional Hub-Nairobi, Kenya Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India
  4. 4. Production of major pulse crops in India Crop Pigeonpea Chickpea Mungbean Urdbean Lentil Other Pulses Total Pulses Foodgrains Area (mha) 4.01 8.30 3.39 3.22 1.56 2011-12 2012-13 Production Yield Producti Yield Area (mha) (mt) (kg/ha) on (mt) (kg/ha) 2.65 662 3.81 3.07 806 7.70 928 8.70 8.88 1020 1.63 483 2.75 1.20 436 1.77 549 3.19 1.90 595 1.06 678 1.41 1.08 765 3.99 2.27 570 3.61 2.32 643 24.46 124.75 17.09 259.29 699 2078 23.47 120.16 18.45 255.36 786 2125
  5. 5. Top chickpea producers, import and export Rank Production 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 India (69%) Pakistan (5%) Turkey (5%) Australia (5%) Myanmar (4%) Ethiopia (3%) Iran (2%) Mexico (1%) Import Export India (19%) Pakistan (14%) Bangladesh (13%) UAE (7%) Algeria (5%) Spain (5%) UK (3%) Jordon (3%) Australia (37%) India (13%) Mexico (11%) Turkey (7%) Canada (6%) Myanmar (4%) Ethiopia (4%) USA (3%)
  6. 6. Options for increasing production Enhancing yield by reducing yield gap Yield gaps in chickpea Improved cultivars + Improved ICM
  7. 7. A large shift (about 4 million ha) in chickpea area from cooler, long-season environments to warmer, short-season environments 6.1 4.7 Central and southern states 2.1 Northern and eastern states 0.7
  8. 8. Options for increasing chickpea production 1. Bringing additional area under production - Huge opportunities exist in rice-fallow areas in South Asia (e.g. India, Bangladesh and Nepal)
  9. 9. Enhancing adoption of improved cultivars 1. Knowledge empowerment of farmers •Electronic and print media •Field days/farmers’ fairs •Training programs •Demonstrations •Farmer-participatory varietal selection trials (FPVS)
  10. 10. Enhancing adoption of improved cultivars -2 2. Ensuring seed supply of improved cultivars •Strengthening formal seed system (both public and private seed sectors) •Strengthening informal seed system (seed production by individual farmers and farmers’ groups). •Establishing linkages between formal and informal seed systems •Making available seed samples (1-2 kg) to large number of farmers
  11. 11. JAKI 9218 JG 11 JG 130 JG 14 • 40 chickpea varieties developed in India through ICRISAT- JG 16 ICAR partnerships and account for 49% of the total indent JGK 2 JAKI 9218 of chickpea breeder seed in the country for 2014-15 KAK 2 Virat JG 6 JGK 1 ICRISAT-ICAR Vishal JGK 3 partnership Vaibhav varieties JG 218 Ujjawal (IPCK 2004-29) Pratap Chana 1 Raj Vijay Gram 203 Kranti (ICCC 37) GG 2 • ICRISAT-ICAR partnership varieties are grown in >90% ICCV-2 Himachal Chana 2 of the chickpea area in AP and were instrumental in Vihar bringing a chickpea revolution in the state. KRIPA GG 4 Chickpea varieties developed through ICRISAT-ICAR partnerships 49%
  12. 12. Promoting agribusiness ventures through Seed Business Ventures A unique initiative of Agri-Business Incubation (ABI) Program of ICRISAT •to develop and promote rural seed business ventures at village level, and thereby •address demand-supply gap for open pollinated, quality seeds through public, private and people partnership (PPPP). SBV MODEL
  13. 13. Adoption and impacts of improved chickpea cultivars - A success story from Andhra Pradesh State of India
  14. 14. Chickpea success story from Andhra Pradesh, India During the past 12 years (2000 – 2011) • 3.6-fold increase in area (163,000 to 580,000 ha) • 2.1-fold increase in yield (583 to 1241 kg/ha) • 7.6-fold increase in production (95,000 to 720,000 t) • >90% area under improved short-duration cultivars developed through ICARICRISAT partnership (JG 11, JAKI 9218, KAK 2, Vihar)
  15. 15. til: Short Duration IPL 316, Pusa Vaibhav, JL 3, IPL 81, DPL 62 pea: IPFD 10-12 (green seeds), Adarsh, Indra, Jaya, Ambika, Vikas, Prakash
  16. 16. High yielding varieties Mungbean : Samrat, SML 668, IPM 2-3, HUM 16, IPM 2-14, Pant M 5, Pusa Vishal, Gujarat Mung 1, Gujarat Mung 4, AKM 9911 Urdbean : Jawahar Urid 2, 3, IPU 2-43, RBU 38 (Barkha), TPU 4, Pant U 30, TAU 1, TAU 2, AKU 4 (Melghat)
  17. 17. Extra-large/Large seeded Varieties
  18. 18. Mungbean for spring/Summer season Samrat, SML 668, IPM 02-3, IPM 2-14, HUM 16
  19. 19. At 60 days Hybrids in Pigeonpea • More vigor and yield Hybrid Variety • 44% greater shoot mass so needs low seeding rates • 40-50% greater root mass with greater drought tolerance • Ideal for inter-cropping
  20. 20. ICPH 2671 ON- FARM TRIALS (2007-10) State Dist Farmers Mean yield (kg/ ha) Hybrid Check %Gain Maha 7 782 969 717 35.1 A. P. 8 399 1411 907 55.6 Karnataka 4 184 1201 951 26.3 Jharkhand 9 288 1460 864 68.9 M. P. 10 360 1940 1326 46.3 Total 38 2013 1396 953 46.5
  21. 21. Developing early and extra-early chickpea cultivars Early and extra-early cultivars have been developed which are better adapted to short-season environments (e.g. southern India) and escape end of season stresses
  22. 22. Reproductive stage heat tolerance Effects of reproductive stage heat stress on chickpea
  23. 23. Chickpea cultivars suitable for mechanical harvesting
  24. 24. Herbicide tolerance
  25. 25. Market preference for grain quality
  26. 26. Transgenic Chickpea Resistance to Helicoverpa Transgenic Non-transgenic
  27. 27. The chickpea genome  Illumina sequencing used to generate 153.01 Gb  73.8% of the genome is captured in scaffolds  Genome analysis predicted 28,269 genes  High levels of synteny observed between chickpea and Medicago  > 81,845 SSRs and 4.4 million variants (SNPs and INDELs)
  28. 28. The pigeonpea genome  Illumina sequencing tech used to generate 237.2 Gb  72.7% (605.78 Mb) of the total pigeonpea genome assembled into scaffolds  Genome analysis predicted 48,680 genes  High levels of synteny observed between the pigeonpea and soybean  >50,000 SSR and SNP markers identified  Higher abundance of drought tolerance genes
  29. 29. MABC for root and other drought tolerance related traits in chickpea 5000 Irrigated Rainfed 4500 4000 3500 3000 ) a h / g k ( d l e i Y 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 The Plant Genome, 2013
  30. 30. Future Scenario in Pulses • Demand will continue to grow (62 m tons by 2050) • Supply gap will exist in South Asia • Technologies available to bridge yield gap • New initiatives and cutting-edge technologies will need to be deployed • Good news: Fast progress in technologies will help increasing supplies
  31. 31. Thank you! ICRISAT is a member of the CGIAR Consortium

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