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Alaska Feb 2010 Invasive Species Issues


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Alaska Feb 2010 Invasive Species Issues

  1. 1. Invasive species and the Nursery Industry in Alaska<br />John Peter Thompson<br />February 2010<br />
  2. 2. Invasive species are not a new issue<br />local laws against growing barberry in the Americas were passed in Connecticut in 1726, Massachusetts in 1754, and Rhode Island in 1766, but enforcement of these laws lapsed as wheat declined in importance in New England<br />Berberisthunbergii DC. – Infestation Citation: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut,<br />
  3. 3. Invasive species & the founding of the United States<br />The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), is one of the most destructive pest species of wheat. This insect probably originated in the southern Caucasus region of Russia and was accidently introduced into North America during the American Revolutionary War.<br />University of Missouri Extension<br />Citation:<br />
  4. 4. Invasive species create interagency challenges and diplomatic rifts<br />Conflicting interest between new plant introductions and protection of existing ecosystems the beginnings of APHIS<br /> /<br />Courtesy of the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden<br />
  5. 5. Executive Order 13112 <br />– defines an invasive species as “an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.” <br />
  6. 6. St. Louis Declaration<br />Issued December 2001<br />American Nursery and Landscape Association adopted - 2002<br />Delaware Nursery and Landscape Association adopted - 2003<br />
  7. 7. St. Louis Declaration<br />Ensure that invasive potential is assessed prior to introducing and marketing plant species new to North America. Invasive potential should be assessed by the introducer or qualified experts using emerging risk assessment methods that consider plant characteristics and prior observations or experience with the plant elsewhere in the world. Additional insights may be gained through extensive monitoring on the nursery site prior to further distribution. <br />Work with regional experts and stakeholders to determine which species in your region are either currently invasive or will become invasive. Identify plants that could be suitable alternatives in your region. <br />Develop and promote alternative plant material through plant selection and breeding. <br />
  8. 8. St. Louis Declaration<br />Where agreement has been reached among nursery associations, government, academia and ecology and conservation organizations, phase-out existing stocks of those specific invasive species in regions where they are considered to be a threat. <br />Follow all laws on importation and quarantine of plant materials across political boundaries. <br />Encourage customers to use, and garden writers to promote, non-invasive plants.<br />
  9. 9. Plants for a Livable Delaware<br />Faith B. Kuehn<br />Plant Industries Administrator<br />Delaware Department of Agriculture<br />October 15, 2008 - Natural Areas Conference, Nashville, TN<br />
  10. 10. Getting Started<br /><ul><li>Review existing Noxious Weed and Plant Pest laws
  11. 11. Be precise about definitions
  12. 12. Using an assessment tool, develop an “official” plant list for the State
  13. 13. Try education before legislation</li></li></ul><li>Definitions:<br />Noxious Weed (Title 3, Chapter 24 Delaware Code) “having adverse effects or threaten agricultural production”<br />Unlawful to import or transport in state<br />Unlawful to contaminate land or roadways<br />Unlawful to allow plants to set seed or reach height or length of 24 inches<br />
  14. 14. Definitions:<br />Nuisance Plant (Title 3, Chapter 27 Delaware Code)“designated by Secretary of Agriculture with advice of the Nuisance Plant Committee”<br />No person shall sell or distribute without a warning label<br />No person who cultivates shall allow to spread onto neighboring properties<br />
  15. 15. Invasive Plants<br />Currently non regulatory list (9/03)<br />Determined by:<br />Impact on Delaware’s native species, habitats and ecosystems<br />Current distribution and abundance<br />Potential to spread<br />Difficulty of management<br />
  16. 16. DE Assessment<br />5 sections:<br /><ul><li>Impact on native species, habitats, and ecosystems
  17. 17. effects on natural community structure and composition
  18. 18. effects on agriculture
  19. 19. conservation significance in natural areas
  20. 20. Current distribution and abundance</li></li></ul><li>DE Assessment (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Potential to increase and spread beyond current</li></ul>tolerance of wide range of conditions<br />ability to hybridize with native species<br />reproductive and dispersal characteristics<br /><ul><li>Difficulty of management
  21. 21. Other considerations
  22. 22. Overall invasiveness rank = 0-12
  23. 23. Supported with bibliography from scientific literature</li></li></ul><li>Group Members<br />Olin Allen, DE Natural Heritage<br />Steve Castorani, DE Nursery & Landscape Assoc.<br />Faith Kuehn, DDA and DISC<br />Rob Line, DE Parks & Recreation<br />Bill McAvoy, DE State Botanist<br />Rob Naczi, Phillips Herbarium, Delaware State<br />Chip Rosan, DE Dept. Transportation<br />Gary Schwetz, DE Center for Horticulture<br />Mark VanGessel, DE Cooperative Extension<br />Terry van Horn, DDA Noxious Weeds<br />
  24. 24. Incentives to Participating in Voluntary Programs*<br />*Biological Invasions, 2007<br />
  25. 25. Obstacles to Participating in Voluntary Programs*<br />*Biological Invasions, 2007<br />
  26. 26. Voluntary Approach Because…<br /><ul><li>Issue is complex
  27. 27. Ecologically
  28. 28. Many industries involved
  29. 29. Need to consider aesthetic
  30. 30. Nursery industry needs to embrace sustainable view
  31. 31. Need to address supply and demand
  32. 32. Positive vs. negative approach to behavior modification</li></li></ul><li>Legislation Reservations<br /><ul><li>Public unaware of invasive plant issues
  33. 33. Noxious weed vs. invasive vs. nuisance
  34. 34. What is invasive locally and boundaries
  35. 35. Must affect plant supply & demand
  36. 36. Resources required to enforce
  37. 37. Limited set of control options
  38. 38. What about cultivars?</li></li></ul><li>Reservations, cont’d<br /><ul><li>Pathways of distribution
  39. 39. Legislation is reactive, no pro-active
  40. 40. Impact on green industry
  41. 41. Screening mechanism for new plants
  42. 42. Grandfathered plants?
  43. 43. Legislation not always positive message
  44. 44. Remove invasive & replace with what??
  45. 45. Property rights</li></li></ul><li>Ready to Start<br /><ul><li>Review existing Noxious Weed and Plant Pest laws
  46. 46. Be precise about definitions
  47. 47. Using an assessment tool, develop an “official” plant list for the State
  48. 48. Education before legislation</li></li></ul><li>INSPIRATION<br />
  49. 49. <ul><li>Possess adaptable characteristics to landscape situations
  50. 50. Pose no potential threat as an invasive plant
  51. 51. Have no serious disease or insect problems
  52. 52. Be hardy to Delaware</li></li></ul><li>
  53. 53. Printed 2004<br />3 printings <br />40,000 copies<br />FUNDING:<br />National Fish & Wildlife Foundation Delaware Estuary Program<br />
  54. 54. Issued 2005<br />1 Printing <br />15,000 copies<br />FUNDING: National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council<br />
  55. 55. Issued 2006<br />1 printing<br />15,000 copies<br />FUNDING: Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, U.S. Forest Services<br />
  56. 56. Issued: 2006<br />2 printing <br />3,000 copies<br />FUNDING: Delaware Department of Agriculture<br />
  57. 57. January 2009<br />5,000 copies, originally reprinted by NRCS<br />Funding: Delaware Natural Resources Conservation Service<br />
  58. 58. Survey results<br />Brochure was very easy (55%) or easy (21%) to understand – 76% of respondents<br />90% had never seen brochure, but 62% knew about invasive plants<br />71% have one or more of the invasive plants described in brochure on their property<br />
  59. 59. Survey results<br />29% were planning to purchase an invasive plant<br />82% would now consider purchasing a “Livable Delaware Plant” as an alternative<br />
  60. 60. Photo: Gary Schwetz<br />