Delhi, 28/04/2014
The relative position of
Brazil in regards to a
possible SDG on Social
Protection
By Pedro Lara de
Arrud...
BRAZIL’S RELATIVE SITUATION
REGARDING ILO’S CONVENTION N.102
• 9 GUARANTEES RELATED TO SOCIAL SECURITY AND
HEALTHCARE
1. M...
SOCIAL SECURITY IN BRAZIL: nearly 90% coverage between
contributive (50% of the retired elderly) and non-contributive
(36....
HEALTHCARE IN BRAZIL: Virtually provided by the Unified
Health System (SUS) and complemented by special policies +
private...
BRAZIL’S RELATIVE SITUATION REGARDING
THE SPF-I
Health Services Water and
Sanitation
Housing
Education Food Other Social S...
The Bolsa Família Programme (PBF)
• Description: CCT Programme
• Stakeholders: MDS; Municipalities;
Caixa Econômica Federa...
The Single Registry (“CadÚnico”)
• A database with socio-economic
information of individuals and families
living in povert...
Health-related Social Programmes:
mostly the PBF through its conditionalites
• Frequency of medical visits for
kids, pregn...
Water, Sanitation and Housing-related Social
Programmes
• Minha Casa Minha Vida (MCMV):
part of the PAC-2
• Description: D...
Education-related Social Programmes
• Programme for Eradication of the
Infant Labour (PETI): creates
awareness about exist...
Food Security related Social Programmes:
the Food Acquisition Programme (PAA);
and the National School Feeding
Programme (...
Other Social Services. Mostly programmes of
guaranteed minimum income; either through cash
transfers or through the promot...
• Programme for Productive Inclusion, Citizen Empowerment and
Training for Income Generation for Rural Youth (PPI): Set to...
Concluding remarks
Overall observations
• Programmes are overall very progressive, relatively cheap and sustainable
• Braz...
Recommendations
• Research must be more disaggregated to include some not yet contemplated
vulnerable groups identified by...
THANK YOU!
Please forward any emails and coments to
pedro.arruda@ipc-undp.org
www.ipc-undp.org
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The relative position of brazil in regards to a possible sdg on social protection

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The relative position of Brazil in regards to a possible SDG on Social Protection

By Pedro Lara de Arruda

www.ipc-undp.org
pedro.arruda@ipc-undp.org

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The relative position of brazil in regards to a possible sdg on social protection

  1. 1. Delhi, 28/04/2014 The relative position of Brazil in regards to a possible SDG on Social Protection By Pedro Lara de Arruda  www.ipc-undp.org  pedro.arruda@ipc- undp.org
  2. 2. BRAZIL’S RELATIVE SITUATION REGARDING ILO’S CONVENTION N.102 • 9 GUARANTEES RELATED TO SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTHCARE 1. Medical care; 2. Sickness benefit; 3. Unemployment benefit; 4. Old age benefit; 5. Employment injury benefit; 6. Family benefit; 7. Maternity benefit; 8. Invalidity benefit; 9. Survivor’s benefit.
  3. 3. SOCIAL SECURITY IN BRAZIL: nearly 90% coverage between contributive (50% of the retired elderly) and non-contributive (36.3% of the retired elderly) systems. • Contributive and semi-contributive (INSS – MPAS; RMV) • IINSS: 55 million taxpayers and has over 30 million benefits currently being paid 1. Insured Employee with working-contract (urban or rural) ; 2. Insured Worker without working-contract (urban or rural affiliation through means of unions and/or government institutions); 3. Domestic Worker; 4. Individual Contributor (since 1999 this category started including entrepreneurs, self-employed and / or persons who eventually engage in any gainful activity); 5. Insured Optional 6. Special Insured (smallholding farmers, traditional communities, indigenous peoples and Maroons), as well as their dependents. • Special insured persons account for 1/3 of • RMV: Being substituted by BPC since 1996 • Non-contributive (BPC) • 3.6 million insured persons, being 1.9 million people with disabilities and 1.7 million elderly; • Private Funds: Regulated by PREVIC (firms and syndicates) and SUSEP (open market insurances)
  4. 4. HEALTHCARE IN BRAZIL: Virtually provided by the Unified Health System (SUS) and complemented by special policies + private market (25% of the population) • Policies of the 1990’s: • Regulation and quality control of private health insurance; • Legalization and promotion of generic drugs; • Creation of family medicine programs like the PSF (Programme for Family Health). • Policies of the 2000’s: • Implementation and expansion of coverage of popular pharmacies (people’s pharmacies) • Programme for the Enhancement of the Primary Care Professional (PROVAB) – In 2013 it sought to attract 13,000 professionals for more deprived areas. Only 45% of the 2,868 municipalities came to get at least one physician • Programa Mais Médicos (More Physicians Programme) – Until April 2014 the initial target of 13,200 new doctors had already been met, benefiting of over 4000 municipalities, 32 indigenous districts and a total of 45.6 million persons
  5. 5. BRAZIL’S RELATIVE SITUATION REGARDING THE SPF-I Health Services Water and Sanitation Housing Education Food Other Social Services as defined by national priorities (including life and asset saving) Children SUS PBF MM PROVAB PSF FARMÁCIA POPULAR MCMV CISTERNAS Social Tariff for Electricity Light to All Popular Telephone PBF – Brasil Carinhoso PNAE PETI PBF PAA PNAE PBF – Brasil Carinhoso Active- age group PBF – Variável Jovem PBF PAA Bolsa Verde PRONATEC PROJOVEM PPI Pronaf Jovem ProUni PSC Prog. Integração Vocacional Ens. Médio PBF – Variável Jovem + BSM Older Persons + Carteira do Idoso PBF PAA Bolsa Verde BPC INSS – Special Insured RMV PBF
  6. 6. The Bolsa Família Programme (PBF) • Description: CCT Programme • Stakeholders: MDS; Municipalities; Caixa Econômica Federal. • Budget: R$23.5billion at the end of 2013 (0,46% of Brazil’s GDP). • Coverage: 13,8 million families (around 55 million persons / 27,5% of the total population) • Adm. Costs: 12,6% of its budget (2006) • Most Recent Modifications: – Brasil Sem Miséria (BSM): basis benefit (R$70.00) for persons with income of up to R$70.00 p/m. – Brasil Carinhoso (BC): variable benefit (R$32.00) for up to 5 children – Youth Variable (BVJ): variable benefit (R$38.00) for up to 2 teenagers • Periodical Monitoring through the Matrix of Social Indicators (MIS) • Last Impact Evaluation Study from 2009 • 10 year anniversary collection of articles (2013) – Effects on income security, poverty and inequality reduction: • 12% to 21% of the recent reduction of Brazil’s Gini is due to the PBF; • 22 million lifted up from extreme poverty • 72,4% of the beneficiaries of PBF were living in extreme poverty prior to their enrollment, while other 20,5% were living in poverty and 7,1% were living with low-income – Most progressive Brazilian social programme – R$1.00 invested on PBF generates R$1,73 for the GDP
  7. 7. The Single Registry (“CadÚnico”) • A database with socio-economic information of individuals and families living in poverty and vulnerability, which is the main tool for the design and implementation of public policies for that population at all levels • The PBF was fundamental for its consolidation, but its role goes beyond: – Bolsa Verde; – Minha Casa Minha Vida; – Social Tariff for Electricity; – Popular telephone; – Programme for the Eradication of Child Labor (PETI); – Senior Citizen Card; – Water for All Programme; – PROJOVEM; – Special pension benefit for "housewives"; – Emergency Assistance for drought. – Certain Municipal Programmes • Institutional history: • “Cleansing” of the database to expand in 2005 • Specific identification tool for indigenous communities, maroons and homeless (2008) • Launching of version 7.0: real-time online updating of info + connectivity among municipalities (2009)
  8. 8. Health-related Social Programmes: mostly the PBF through its conditionalites • Frequency of medical visits for kids, pregnant and lactating women (pre and post natal follow ups); • Follow up of the nutritional status of children and the compliance with the vaccination schedule for children. • 99.2% of children met the vaccination schedule, and 80% of them had their nutritional status assessed (2009) • 8.6 million beneficiary families receive monitoring in health (3.2 million still uncovered through) • 5.1 million kids, 13.8 million women and nearly 165,000 pregnant women • Pregnant women covered by the PBF receive in average 1,6 extra days of pre-natal care • Wenting up from 81% in 2005 to 95% in 2009. • Weight at birth is higher for beneficiaries of the PBF (3.26 kb > 2.22kg) • Less underweight rates among beneficiaries of the PBF (5.5% < 6.3%) • More newborns of beneficiaries receive exclusively milk for the first 6 months (61% > 51%) • From 17% to 12% reduction on U5MR
  9. 9. Water, Sanitation and Housing-related Social Programmes • Minha Casa Minha Vida (MCMV): part of the PAC-2 • Description: Distribution of 2 million housing units between 2010 and 2014: • 60% to families with a monthly income of no more than R$1,395.00 • 40% to families with monthly income of up to R$5,000.00. • Stakeholders: Ministry of Cities + municipalities + private sector • Budget: For the period 2010-2014 the programme have a budget of R$ 71.7 billion • Promotes the improvement of the instruments of control of both rural and urban properties • Social Tariff of Electricity: Fee Waiver for BPC beneficiaries and persons with income smaller than 50% the Minimum Wage • Light to All Program (Programa Luz Para Todos – LPT): expansion and universalization of the electric grid • Carteira do Idoso Programme (Elderly Ticket): Allows for total (100%) or parcial (50%) public transportation fee waiver on behalf of elderly. • Cisterns: – P1MC – P1+2 – Agua Doce Programme
  10. 10. Education-related Social Programmes • Programme for Eradication of the Infant Labour (PETI): creates awareness about existing programmes and social benefits (like the PBF) that poor families can receive if their kids go to school instead of working • National School Feeding Programme (PNAE): provides hot meal to all students of public schools (except for university students) – At least 30% of the food purchased from smalholding farms – Budget of R$3.5 billion, to benefit 43 million basic education students and young adults (2014). • PBF Conditionalities on education: – Minimum 85% / 75% attendance to classes (adolescents aged 6 to 15 years old / youth aged 16 to 17 years old) – Parents participation in school meetings – Good performance of the pupils. Propensity Score Matching analysis findings • School progression: 6 p.p. of advantage • Conclusion and approval rates: catches up on gap at the early levels and inverts it by time of secondary education – The catch up is faster in the Northeastern Region (poorest of Brazil). • Dropout rates: always smaller for beneficiaries of the PBF (1,5%-4,4% < 1,8%-4,8%)
  11. 11. Food Security related Social Programmes: the Food Acquisition Programme (PAA); and the National School Feeding Programme (PNAE) • The National School Feeding Programme (PNAE) • The Food Acquisition Programme (PAA) provides farmers with the appropriate channels to sell their agricultural yields to public institutions at the local level for minimum guaranteed prices – 3 million tons of food have been purchased from more than 200,000 different family farmers – The total budget of the programme has increased from R$143 million in 2003 to over R$ 1.4 billion in 2013
  12. 12. Other Social Services. Mostly programmes of guaranteed minimum income; either through cash transfers or through the promotion of jobs • BPC • INSS Special Insured • PBF • Bolsa Verde: Grants R$300.00 for poor rural families living sustainably in areas of environmental preservation. • PRONATEC: Training Grants; Superior Education Loans; Subsidy of Private Vocational Courses; Fee Waiver of the S System; etc. – Goal: To promote investment of at least R$24 billion before the end of 2014, to create 5.6 million vacancies for short training courses aimed at professionals and 2.4 million vacancies for technical training courses for high school students • Projovem (urban, rural, worker, adolescent): set to promote reintegration into school and the provision of vocational training – More than 1 million beneficiaries from 2008 to 2009.
  13. 13. • Programme for Productive Inclusion, Citizen Empowerment and Training for Income Generation for Rural Youth (PPI): Set to promote access to assets for agrarian and non-agrarian activities • Young Pronaf (Pronaf Jovem): it enables credit with a three-year grace period, repayment periods of up to ten years, and interest rates of 1% per year for farmers aged 16 to 29 years with the conditionality that they enroll in certain training courses offered by the government – 24,717 participants in 2010. • ProUni Programme: it provides full and partial scholarships to sponsor private higher education (university level) for low-income students and teachers of public schools who do not have college degrees. – 704,600 scholarships from 2005 to 2010 • Citizen Soldier Project (Projeto Soldado Cidadão - PSC): Provides vocational trained for conscripted youth • Programme for Integration of Vocational Training with High School Education: promotes vocational education in regular schools • Youth Variable of the PBF Other Social Services. Mostly programmes of guaranteed minimum income; either through cash transfers or through the promotion of jobs
  14. 14. Concluding remarks Overall observations • Programmes are overall very progressive, relatively cheap and sustainable • Brazil has interesting initiatives to profit from what is left of its demographic bonus -which is single in history and is being underutilized due to the 2008 crisis • Brazilian model of central-municipality relationship is very functional for both: incentives paid to the municipality; and political gains of municipal authorities • The Single Registry as a model to be scaled up? – The Central-Municipality relationship + the Single Registry allow for very disaggregated studies, ex: Municipal Atlas; Municipal HDI; Municipal follow up of the MDGs • There is a lack of micro-credit and workforce initiatives
  15. 15. Recommendations • Research must be more disaggregated to include some not yet contemplated vulnerable groups identified by the SPF (persons with HIV and Immigrants) and others identified by the Brazilian government itself (land reform settled persons; tribes; maroons, traditional communities) – The Brazilian specific vulnerable groups should be made global vulnerable groups since they exist throughout the Global South • Government must run nationwide Impact Evaluation Studies at least on: PBF (again); MCMV; PRONATEC – Importance of monitoring the Mais Médicos Programme • Necessity to include a bigger supply-side approach on social-infrastructure progress – Risk of endorsing vicious cycle (speculation, etc) while intending to promote mitigation of the habitational deficit – By other side, however, this programme alone can be a one off measure to break intergenerational poverty transmission (houses worth in average U$ 30,000.00) Concluding remarks
  16. 16. THANK YOU! Please forward any emails and coments to pedro.arruda@ipc-undp.org www.ipc-undp.org

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