Mega sports events in brazil; social and economic legacies

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This presentation,made by IPC-IG's contributor Sofia Sunden, is based on a series of articles published in Revista News Brazil and Yeah! Brazil,
May – August 2013

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  • - Brazil is currently in a unique situation by preparing for two mega sport events; the Summer Olympic Games 2016 and FIFA World Cup in 2014. Organizing two mega sports events back to back is something which only has occurred one time before when the USA organized the FIFA World Cup 1994 and Summer Olympic Games 1996Hosting mega sport events is believed to bring a number of (positive) social and economic legacies, such as increased economic activity (increased economic activity such as massive public investments in new infrastructure and spill over to private sectors, increased foreign investors, job creation within the construction- and tourist section) Although legacy is a contested concept The underlying idea of a legacy creation is that it enhance the long-term well-being or lifestyle of residents in a very substantial manner” (Ritchie 2000) / “The underlying idea of a legacy creation is that it represents something of substance that will enhance the long-term well-being or lifestyle of residents in a substantial manner—preferably in a way that reflects the values of the local population” – in the case of brazil, the world cup is/was promoted as a great opportunity for a soccer loving nation, the Olympics is emphasizing ‘cariocas’ love for sports and parties and thereby to be excellent hosts. Hosting mega sport events is believed to bring a number of (positive) social and economic legacies, such as increased economic activity and “enhance the long-term well-being or lifestyle of residents in a very substantial manner” (Ritchie 2000) .Hosting mega sports events require huge public investments in improved infrastructure, urban development and providing for an increased number of visitors. Hosting mega sports events is such a huge organization and with so many stake holders involved that it is seen as a global affair..
  • In the spirit of positivs which was sourrending the potential legacies of these two mega sport events I was interested in researching whether the economic activity whihc these event would bring, could bring even more people in Brazil out of poverty and reduce inequlity in Brazil. In the spirit of positivism and excitement which at that point in 2012 was still surrounding the mega sports, and the relative success of Brazil through out the economic crisis , I was curious to find out if the increased economic activity generated by these mega sports events could further bolster poverty reduction and reduced ineqaulity in Brazil? Cause that would to be provide a both tangible and positiv long term legacy.
  • For the host country preparing for a mega sport-event it is necessary of huge public investments in infrastructure, improved transport system, construction of arenas and housing complex. The cost of the necessary infrastructure improvements is usually over-shadowed by the prospects of economic gains and the aim of improved- For BRICS and developing countries political world-renowned reputation is even more important since there is more at stake and even more it potentially could win and gain from it in terms of increased reputation). hosting mega sport events are regarded as global affairs which go well beyond construction of arenas and attraction of additional tourism. For host countries it seem to generally be regarded as a mean by states to profile themselves for foreign investors and potential tourists; a potential to enhance the market profile of the country. In this regard mega sport event has gained a political importance for the host countries. - Clovis Zapata (2011) groups the main motivations for hosting mega sports events into economic, political, emotional and social aspirations.
  • The Brazilian authorities, the Brazilian Olympic committee and the World Cup organizers are all promoting these games domestically as a great opportunity to create a lasting positive legacy from these events even after the games have finish. The emblem from the Olympic Games is Passion and Transformation – passion through sport and transformation - a symbol which demonstrating the organizers believe these events will transform Brazil and make a long term legacy in the society.-Governments often emphasize potential positive outcomes so as to usher public approval and justify the spending of large amounts of public money.
  • Governments, media and lobby groups often refer to a positive legacy to usher public approval and a justification for redistributing funds.In an ideal scenario economic legacies include increased economic activity such as huge public investments in new infrastructure; an increased interest from foreign investors; spill overs to the private sector and create new job opportunities within the construction- and tourist section hope for spill overs into the private sector as well and enhance political reputation The aim of positive legacies and use to usher public support - Raquel Rolnik Brazilian is an architect and an urban planner, UN Special Rapporteur on adequate housing
  • . On the other hand you have alsoForce evictions -Economic losses negative legacies, such as massive economic losses and breaches of international law by force evictions of people from their homes. These kinds of negative legacies have occurred in many other countries which organised mega sports events and neither economic losses nor eviction of people are uncommonCuriously, rather than a number of successful outcomes of countries hosting mega sport events, what we actually have witnessed is a row of miss-predictions in terms of job creations, economic growth and attracting tourismDifficult to measure; effect on local public as well as visitors.Curiously, rather than a number of successful outcomes of countries hosting mega sport events, what we actually have witnessed is a row of miss-predictions in terms of job creations, economic growth and attracting tourism.Force evictions (breaches of international law) (Beijing, South Africa)Economic losses (Greece, Canada)Curiously, rather than a number of successful outcomes of countries hosting mega sport events, what we actually have witnessed is a row of miss-predictions in terms of job creations, economic growth and attracting tourism
  • It is common that economic analyses of mega sport events focus on the positive effects and legacies of the events, while ignoring opportunity costs and the efficiency of using scarce resources (Preuss 2009). Event opponents commonly argue that decisions to invest public resources on constructing stadium and “luxury” housing should perhaps also consider alternative uses of the money (Preuss 2009). Some critics question whether developing countries with great social problems can justify the spending of this scale on a one-off sports event? Rolnik (2011) suggests that policy makers find justifications and support for the spending since sports it is an issue which is believed to unite nations and is something which the public generally like and agree with. “The underlying idea of a legacy creation is that it represents something of substance that will enhance the long-term well-being or lifestyle of destination residents in a very substantial manner—preferably in a way that reflects the values of the local population” (Ritchie 2000). Legacy is a concept which is often mentioned in relation to mega sports event and is typically linked to improvements in long-term wellbeing; it involves lasting improvements in the livelihoods of local residents such as national pride, enhances international reputation and improved infrastructure. Governments often emphasize potential positive outcomes so as to usher public approval and justify the spending of large amounts of public money
  • increased economic growth is not sufficient to reduce poverty on its own right, since it has been demonstrated that growth do not trickle down to the poorest, it will have to be actively fought by measures of targeting poverty and reducing inequality to be effective. Taking this into considering, hosting two mega sport events in Brazil will not necessary have any impacts on poverty reduction in Brazil. Firstly, there are uncertainties whether hosting mega sport events will lead to increased economic growth and even if that is the case it is unlikely to improve the poverty reduction in Brazil, unless inequality is tackled in parallel such as has been the case so far. The fear is that the opposite scenario may occur with greater inequality, public debts and force evictions as the outcome.
  • In the spirit of positivism which still then were sourrending the mega sport events I was researching whether it could be believed that the increased economic activity generated by the two mega sport events could be believed to further decrease inequality and reduce poverty- Despite the global economic crisis, Brazil’s economy has performed relatively well; - Annual GDP growth rate of 7.5 % percent in 2010… while reducing poverty and inequality: 12 million lifted out of absolute poverty – from 11% to 3.8% (2001-2007) Income inequality (Gini) fell 8%, to 0.47 (2001-2009) – still high, thoughImportant contributors to poverty and inequality reduction: BolsaFamília (conditional cash transfer programme)New national minimum pay policyBrazil provided the poorest segments of society with high quality opportunities (exit doors) and increased the work-related income of the poorest 20% of the population by 40% between 2003 and 2009.However, uncertain if the mega sports events will bring economic gains, and if it does it will have to particularly target poverty reduction and inequality to be effective. Since wealth do not trickle down to the poor, poverty and ineqaulity must be directly targeted in order to have any affect. In a complex equation between economic wealth, inequality and general wellbeing it has been demonstrated that in a society with low inequality all citizens in the society is better off. Not only are there fewer poor people and the poor people are less poor, also the wealthiest people and the middle class is better off in a less unequal society. The wealthiest find themselves living in a safer environment with less crime and social unrest, and it has even demonstrated to have an effect on the general health which tend to be better in a more equal society. It therefore would benefit everyone in Brazil if the increased economic activity generated by these mega sports events was used to direct some means towards lower inequality and help take more people out of poverty. Not only to help those people who suffer from poverty, but also to increase the wellbeing for the wealthiest and the middle class to allow them to live in a safer environment. However, increased economic activity on its own right will not have an impact on poverty unless it is directly targeted, the old paradigm of “wealth trickling down” eventually to everyone in the society has been demonstrated to not be true. It is rather the opposite that wealth generate wealth and if a country wish to target poverty they need to actively take measures to do so, which Brazil has successfully done by implementing the cash transfer programmeBolsaFamilia and implementation of minimum wage. These measures, have helped 12 million Brazilians out of extreme poverty and it has also reduced the inequality rate (measured by the Gini coefficient, inequality in Brazil fell from 0.59 in 2001 to 0.53 in 2007). If Brazil continue to make this sort of targeted efforts to reduce poverty and inequality the legacies from these mega sports events could make a real positive impact in the society. The fear is that the mega sports events will have a rather opposing impact whereby it may cause economic burden on the taxpayers and if economic growth is generated, that it remains among the wealthiest and increase the inequality, which would have a negative impact on the society as a whole.
  • In the scenario that the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro 2016 results in losses, the burden will be bared by the tax-payers in Brazil, since the three levels of government – federal, state and municipal have guaranteed that the costs will be taken by the government (http://rio2016.com/)Many of the infrastructure projects, which could bring a tangible impact to the citizens, have been withdrawn. A budget of $13.3 billion was set for the tournament, with the majority of money to be spent on projects around the host cities.Instead, as Vickery notes below, a huge amount of the budget for the tournament has been used on building the stadiums—at the cost of improved highways, subway systems, airports and ports. At the start of the process Brazil's population was explicitly told that all of the money to be spent on stadiums would be private, leaving public funds for much needed infrastructure projects.In case that the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro 2016 results in losses, the burden will be bared by the tax-payers in Brazil, since the three levels of government – federal, state and municipal have guaranteed the IOC to cover the losses.Brazil’s projected budget for hosting the World Cup is $13.3 billion and $18 billion for the Olympics (not counting the projected amount of public and private investment that will be needed before). The problem is that based on recent games, the World Cup generates approximately $3.5 billion in revenue (with most going to FIFA) and the Summer Olympics generate around $5 billion
  • The World Cup is costing Brazil 28.1 billion reais, according to the government. The bill for stadiums alone, originally estimated at $1.1 billion, has already reached more than $3 billion. MsRousseff claimed the government loans for stadiums will be paid back in full and do not come from the ordinary budget. Rather, they are subsidised credits from the National Development Bank to construction companies—big funders of political parties.Brazil’s projected budget for hosting the World Cup is $13.3 billion and $18 billion for the Olympics (not counting the projected amount of public and private investment that will be needed before). The problem is that based on recent games, the World Cup generates approximately $3.5 billion in revenue (with most going to FIFA) and the Summer Olympics generate around $5 billion (with most going to the IOC).1 Simple arithmetic says that the games will be net losers for the host country unless the host makes up the difference with increased income from tourism and investment during the games or—as a result of the games—in the future. The other way to make up for the cost is if the physical legacy from the games (sports venues and infrastructure) can be turned around to produce a future stream of benefits. Alternatively, the cost is if the physical legacy from the games (sports venues and infrastructure) can be turned around to produce a future stream of benefits (which has rarely happened).
  • Examples from previous Olympic Games show that the budgets are often overspent; Beijing 2008, the total budget exceeded $40 billion. London 2012, the cost of hosting was projected to be $4 billionbut was more than $20 billion. However, there are a number of reasons for why the economic impacts in Brazil can be less favourable than first might be expected. Firstly, Brazil is planning for huge investment in infrastructure such as new airport terminal, roads and Bus Rapid Transit line. However, a tax break is granted by the federal government for any construction or infrastructure related to the events so all the business activity generated by the construction for these events will not generate any revenue to the federal government. Secondly, if the games do not make a profit but generate losses the economic deficit will be paid by the Brazilian tax payers since the three levels of government have guarantee the International Olympic Committee to cover any potential losses. Finally, mega sport events are often associated with huge economic losses and the outcomes are rarely as favourable as predicted beforehand in economic forecasts. For the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the total budget exceeded $40 billion. In London (2012), the cost of hosting was initially projected to be $4 billion; it is now over $20 billion and counting. South Africa spent almost $12 billion to host the 2010 World Cup, while Merrill Lynch estimates that Qatar will spend over $65 billion to prepare for the 2022 world soccer competition.
  • Social legacies - Urban development, force evictions and breach of international lawAccording to research by Comitê Popular da Copa e das Olimpíadas (ANCOP), they estimate that 7185 families are threatened with removal, in 24 communities. Considering that families have about 4.5 members each, that equals 32 300 inhabitants or 0.5% of the total population of Rio de Janeiro -As many as at least 170 thousand people across Brazil is estimated to be facing evictions related to the events, equivalent to almost one in every thousand Brazilians. (National Coordination of the Popular Committees of the Brazil 2014 World Cup (ANCOP) What is happening in Rio de Janeiro seem to resemble similar scenarios seen in China and South Africa where, as part of the preparation of the Olympics in Beijing and World Cup in South Africa, it became known that slum areas were demolished and thousands of people forced to leave their houses as part of the urban planning of beautification. It is worrying that these illegal and unlawful behaviour is happening in Brazil, and further concerning that the Brazilian authorities are ignoring federal law which states the rights for citizens to their dwelling and the responsibility for the authorities to protect these rights for the citizens. The current breaches to these laws has been recognised internationally and so severe that the UN have made a number of resolutions about the issue. (National Coalition of Local Committees for a people’s World Cup and Olympics National Coalition of Local Committees for a people’s World Cup and Olympics (ANCOP)
  • 2010 the UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution on sports mega-events and housing rights, in which it urged states to promote the right to adequate housing and to create a legacy housing sustainable in the context of mega-events. In May 2012 members of the State Council of the UN Human Rights recommended Brazil that the works to Brazil the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games not generate forced evictions of residents and bring benefits "durable" for the urban marginalized. In March 2013 the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Adequate Housing, the Brazilian Raquel Rolnik, presented to the UN Human Rights Council her new report. Rolnik study confirms a global crisis of insecurity of tenure, which manifests itself in various ways: forced evictions and displacement caused by a number of reasons, including natural disasters and - preparations for mega events sports.
  • The UPP program has sometimes been described in international media as “ending the drug trafficking in Rio’s favelas”. However, that is not quite accurate since primary pacification aims not to end trafficking, but to retake territories and reduce violence. Pacification has lead to an increased interest from foreign investors and an increase in property prices, which has lead to in some instances that the residence can no longer afford to stay in their community. - Beginning with the first UPP that was implemented in Dona Marta in 2008
  • The impacts of UPP have demonstrated that where the UPP has been implemented, violent crime has fallen dramatically. Pacification has also lead to an increased interest from foreign investors and an increase in property prices, which has lead to in some instances that the residence can no longer afford to stay in their community. A survey conducted among Rio's residents in pacified favela showed that there has been a reduction in the number of violent crimes and deaths and also that people felt freer to discuss previously taboo topics such as street violence and illegal drug activity, but many fear that the UPP presence is only temporary. It is uncertain how long UPP will remain in place, since there are so far no concrete plans beyond 2016. The fear among many residences is that the business will return to previous state of affairs as soon as UPP in withdrawn. The positive part is that previously when police have attempted to encircle a favela by surprise in order to arrest and kill traffickers, large-scale shootouts would ensue, and innocent favela residents were often caught in the crossfire. However the lack of criminals captured raises the question whether there has been any great impacts of the pacification or whether the violence of drug dealing have simply been moved to new areas? It is recognised that drug trafficking has by no means halted but continues all over the city. It is further recognised that criminals have migrated from parts of Rio that have a large police presence due to pacification, to areas with less police and no UPPs, such as Niteroi. While the favelas under pacification have seen improvements, there has been an increase in the concentration of criminals in other parts of Rio de Janeiro that don't have the presence of UPP. The long term plan for the UPP is unclear. Many favela residence have felt left out from the plans of the project and for some residence they believe that little has changed – from drug dealers in charge to temporary police force in place patrolling the streets.
  • What we witnessed was an unexpected public uprising, not only against the planned mega sports events, but a great part of the anger was directed towards the spend of public money in that area
  • However… An early respond from the public which resulted in massive public demonstrations. The demonstrations were not sparked by the anger over the mega sport events, rather what sparked the demonstrations was the increase in public transport fares. However, even though the authorities quickly withdraw the suggestion and lowered the price again, the protests continued and even escalating due to the brutally handled responds from the police. The escalated protests spread and now to include a long list of grievances ‘grievances, including corruption, poor public services, and the high cost of stadiums being built for the Confederations Cup and next year's World Cup.’ high cost of pope visit
  • The demonstrations were not sparked by the anger over the mega sport events, rather what sparked the demonstrations was the increase in public transport fares. However, even though the authorities quickly withdraw the suggestion and lowered the price again, the protests continued and even escalating due to the brutally handled responds from the police. The escalated protests spread and now to include a long list of grievances ‘grievances, including corruption, poor public services, and the high cost of stadiums being built for the Confederations Cup and next year's World Cup.’
  • On June 24, President DilmaRousseff gave a speech launching five policy plans in response to protests. One of them aimed at building a political reform to "broaden popular participation and the horizons of citizenship". She proposed a debate over a popular referendum to authorise establishing a specific constituent process that would implement the reform - an idea that was quickly rejected.She proposed a debate over a popular referendum to authorise establishing a specific constituent process that would implement the reform - an idea that was quickly rejected. One of the five policy aimed at building a political reform to "broaden popular participation and the horizons of citizenship".
  • The governor's most recent response to protests was signing a decree creating a Special Commission to Investigate Acts of Vandalism in Public Demonstrations. The text was published on July 25 after alterations to a version released days earlier, because of criticism by experts. Many social media commentators compared the proposed legislation to decrees signed during Braziil's military dictatorship. The commission is entitled to take all necessary measures to investigate acts of vandalism during protests, including breaking individual's privacy in cases permitted by the law. According to the decree, these cases will have "absolute priority" over other crimes.
  • who is able to influence policies in Brazil (such as allowing to sell beer inside of the stadium and preventing local food to be sold close to the stadium
  • Even though the events have not yet taken place, we have already seen a number of social and economic impacts
  • While politicians and organizers uses the notion of legacy as a positive notion to usher public support, the legacy may also provide a negative outcome. Economically, if the Olympic Games generate a loss the cost will be paid by the Brazil taxpayers; socially, force evictions have already started and closing of and removal of residences to make space around the Maracana stadium, all in line with the idea of improved infrastructure. The social unrest and uprising as has been witnessed in over 100 cities in Brazil is a sign for the reaction from the public of their discontent with the cuttrent situation Without doubt, Brazil in general and Rio de Janeiro in particular will be a transformed by these mega sports events and there will be long lasting legacies. My hope is that the legacies will be positive and that they will include all citizens. My fear is that the legacies will only be of benefit to a few.
  • Mega sports events in brazil; social and economic legacies

    1. 1. Mega Sports Events in Brazil; Social and Economic Legacies This presentation is based on a series of articles published in Revista News Brazil and Yeah! Brazil, May – August 2013 Sofia Sunden Independent Researcher Brasília, 7th August 2013
    2. 2. Background - Brazil is currently in a unique situation by preparing for two mega sport events; the Summer Olympic Games 2016 and FIFA World Cup in 2014. - Hosting mega sport events is believed to bring a number of (positive) social and economic legacies, such as boost economic activity, provide a long term spirit of wellbeing among the citizens and enhance political reputation. - By evaluate the legacies of previous mega sport events it is noticeable that legacies can be both positive and negative. Legacies from previous mega sport events include force evictions as well as improved political reputation.
    3. 3. Research questions – What are the potential social and economic legacies in Brazil hosting two mega sport events? – Initial research question in 2012 - can the economic legacies from these mega sport events be used to create a positive social legacy, such as further poverty reduction and reduced inequality in Brazil?
    4. 4. Legacy and Motivation Motivations for countries whishing to host mega sport events: – create investment in infrastructure -> boosting economic activity. – marketing tool for the country; – attract foreign investors; – increase tourism; – enhance the international profile; – urban transformation; – lasting positive legacy among the public such as national pride. The cost of the necessary infrastructure improvements is usually over shadowed by the prospects of economic gains and the aim of improved political world-renowned reputation. 4
    5. 5. Official Logo for Rio Summer Olympic Games The emblem symbolize Passion and Transformation 5
    6. 6. Positive examples of legacies from mega sport events - The summer Olympic Games in Barcelona 1992; Urban development, innovative design and increased reputation. - The summer Olympic Games in London 2012 – increased economic activity and tourism in the whole of UK, and increased sport participation among citizens in the UK (marginal). - Is the Olympic Games in Barcelona an appropriate example to use as a blue-print for mega-spots event? - Urban developments were already in place in Barcelona for a decade prior to the events (Rolnik,2011)
    7. 7. Mega Sport Events have also generated Negative Legacies: – Greece, Athens Olympic Games, 2000; economic losses and massive debts. – China, Beijing Olympic Games, 2008; relocation and forced evicted people. – South Africa, World Cup, 2010; force evictions of people through removal of slum areas; did not generate the forecasted surplus. – Canada, Montreal 1976; economic losses which was paid by the government until 2006. (Reference: Rolnik, 2011) A number of Negative Legacies
    8. 8. Legacies – positive and negative impacts – Economic analyses of mega sport events commonly focus on the positive effects and legacies of the events, while ignoring opportunity costs and the efficiency of using scarce resources (Preuss 2009). – Questioned whether developing countries with social problems can justify the public spending of this scale on a one-off sports event? – Rolnik (2011) suggests that policy makers find justifications and support for the spending since sports it is an issue which is believed to unite nations and is something which the public generally like and agree with.
    9. 9. Research Question 2012 – Research question 2012; can the economic legacies from the upcoming mega sport events in Brazil be used to create a positive social legacy, such as further poverty reduction and reduced inequality in Brazil? Background; – Brazil has performed relatively well through out the global economic crisis including maintaining economic growth. – Brazil is one of the few countries managing to combine economic growth with the reduction of absolute poverty and inequality. – Legacy of mega sport events is commonly believed to boost economic activity and enhance political reputation. – Therefore, could hosting these mega sports events further improve Brazil’s performance economically and decrease poverty and inequality?
    10. 10. The Case of Brazil – 2012 Despite the global economic crisis, Brazil’s economy performed relatively well; - Annual GDP growth rate of 7.5 % percent in 2010 - 12 million lifted out of absolute poverty – from 11% to 3.8% (2001-2007) - Income inequality (Gini) fell 8%, to 0.47 (2001-2009) (still high) Important contributors to poverty and inequality reduction: – Bolsa Família (conditional cash transfer programme) – New national minimum pay policy – Brazil provided the poorest segments of society with high quality opportunities (exit doors) Conclusion; firstly uncertain if the mega sports events will bring economic gains. If it does it will have to particularly target poverty reduction and inequality to be effective. Since wealth do not trickle down to the poor, poverty and inequality must be directly targeted in order to have any affect on poverty- and inequality reduction.
    11. 11. The case of Brazil - 2013 – Massive over spend in the budget for the arenas for the World Cup. The cost for stadiums alone, originally estimated at $1.1 billion, has already reached more than $3 billion. – The World Cup is costing Brazil 28.1 billion reals, according to the government. It was explicitly told that all of the money to be spent on stadiums would be private, leaving public funds for much needed infrastructure projects. This is no longer the case. – Many of the infrastructure projects, which could bring a tangible impact to the citizens, have been withdrawn. – Force evictions of citizens in various of cities have commenced to make space for urban development projects.
    12. 12. Economic forecasting 2013 – Brazil’s projected budget for hosting the World Cup is $13.3 billion and $18 billion for the Olympics (not counting the projected amount of public and private investment that will be needed before). – Based on recent games, the World Cup generates approximately $3.5 billion in revenue (with most going to FIFA) and the Summer Olympics generate around $5 billion (with most going to the IOC). – Due to increased costs and delays, and at least five of the 12 host cities have admitted they will not build the promised bus lanes, metros or monorails before the events. – There is a high risk that the host country will be net losers unless the host makes up the difference with increased income from tourism, physical legacy from the games (sports venues and infrastructure) and investment during the games or in the future.
    13. 13. Legacies in Brazil post 2016? Three reasons for why the economic impacts in Brazil may be less favorable than first expected; 1) A tax break is granted for construction or infrastructure related to the mega sport events, so the business activity generated by the construction for these events will not generate revenue to the federal government. 2) If the Olympic games generate losses the economic deficit will be paid by the Brazilian government, since the three levels of government have guarantee the International Olympic Committee to cover any potential losses. 3) Mega sport events are often associated with huge economic losses and the job-creations, increase of tourism and economic activity forecasted are rarely as favorable as predicted beforehand in economic forecasts.
    14. 14. Social legacies - Force evictions
    15. 15. Force evictions – a social legacy – 7185 families in Rio de Janeiro alone are threatened with removal, in 24 communities. That equals around 32 300 inhabitants or 0.5% of the total population of Rio de Janeiro (Articulação Nacional dos Comitê Popular da Copa e das Olimpíadas (ANCOP)) – As many as 170 000 people in Brazil are threaten with force evictions (ANCOP). – Force evictions also took place in China and South Africa as part of the preparations for the mega events.
    16. 16. UN resolutions – 2010 the UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution on sports mega-events and housing rights, in which it urged states to promote the right to adequate housing and to create a legacy housing sustainable in the context of mega-events. – In May 2012 the UN Human Rights Council recommended Brazil that the works to Brazil the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games not generate forced evictions of residents and bring durable benefits for the urban marginalized.
    17. 17. Social Legacy in Brazil Unidade de Policia Pacificadora (UPP) 17
    18. 18. Social Legacy – Unidade de Policia Pacificadora (UPP) – Unidade de Polícia Pacificadora (UPP) was created and implemented in Rio de Janeiro by State Public Security Secretary José Mariano Beltrame. – The first UPP program was implemented in Dona Marta in 2008. – The stated goal of Rio's government is to install 40 UPPs out of Rio’s 1045 favelas, by 2014. – Primary pacification aims not to end trafficking, but to retake territories and reduce violence. – The majority of the favelas are allocated in the South and West Zone of Rio de Janeiro where the Olympics will take place and is frequent by tourism. – Violence is reported to have decreased in the pacified favelas.
    19. 19. Legacies due to the UPP – Pacification has lead to an increased interest from foreign investors and an increase in property prices. Some community residence can no longer afford stay living in their community, others have managed to establish new business catering for a greater interest from tourists etc. – Few drug lords has been captured and the majority of criminals were fleeing the favelas before the police entered to establish a permanent UPP presence. – It is recognized that drug trafficking has not halted but continues in other parts of the city and that criminals have migrated from parts of Rio with UPP, to areas with less police and no UPP. – The few drug lords captured and non confirmed founding post 2016 begs the question if the pacification is permanent or temporary?
    20. 20. Shift in research question – There seemed to be shift among the general population about the view of these mega sports events..
    21. 21. Rio de Janeiro June 2013 Estimated that 1 million people took to the street across Brazil on 20th of June. 21
    22. 22. Demonstrations and occupations of governmental buildings have taken place since June 2013 in various cities in Brazil. 22
    23. 23. Reaction from the public - Demonstrations sparked by an increase in the bus fares in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, lead by the Movimento Passe Livre (MPL). - Even though the authorities quickly withdraw the suggestion and lowered the price again, the protests continued and even escalating due to the brutally handled responds from the police. - The protests escalated and spread to a large number of cities. The demonstrations protested against a number of issues including corruption, poor public services, and the huge public spending on stadiums being built for the upcoming mega events. - Demonstrations and anti-Olympic movements have been taken place also in various cities such as London and Barcelona, however not at the same scale as in Brazil.
    24. 24. Responds from the President Dilma – On June 24, President Dilma Rousseff gave a speech in which she gave her support for the democratic right to protests while at the same time condemning the violent which took place during a number of protests. – In responds to the protests she launched a policy plan consisting of five points including consider political reform, making corruption a felony, invest 50 billion reais ($23 billion) in city transport, increase spending on health and education and a reiteration of the importance of fiscal responsibility.
    25. 25. Responds from the Governor in Rio de Janeiro – Governor of Rio de Janeiro, Sergio Cabral responded to protests by signing a decree creating a Special Commission to Investigate Acts of Vandalism in Public Demonstrations. – The commission is entitled to take all necessary measures to investigate acts of vandalism during protests, including breaking individual's privacy in cases permitted by the law. According to the decree, these cases will have “absolute priority" over other crimes. – Many social media commentators compared the proposed legislation to decrees signed during Brazil's military dictatorship.
    26. 26. Protests and manifestations – Other host cities of Olympic Games such as London and Barcelona also had a popular movement against the Olympic Games and the urban development which included transformation of communities. The scale of these protests were a lot smaller than Brazil. – The protests in Brazil was not initiated as a protest against the mega sports event. The protests, sparked by the increase bus fare price quickly developed into broader issues such as anti-corruption, the huge investments in the infrastructures for the mega-sport events and anger against FIFA and its ability to influence Brazilian policies.
    27. 27. Concluding remarks Social impacts prior to the events; – Force evictions of residents in favelas; as many as 170.000 people in Brazil are threatened to be removed. – The UPP program has pacified 40 of Rio de Janeiro’s favelas and could provide a long–term social impact (though funding is not confirmed post-2016). – Social unrest with on-going demonstrations in various cities in Brazil with up to a million people participating. Grievance over public money spent on new stadiums, corruption and lack of investment in health care and education.
    28. 28. Concluding remarks Economic impacts prior to the events; - The budget for the World Cup in Brazil is $13.3. The price for stadiums alone, originally estimated at $1.1 billion, has already reached more than $3 billion. - The cost of hosting the Olympic Games is estimated to and $18 billion. If the Games do not generate a surplus the Brazilian government have guaranteed to cover the losses. - Increased property prices in Brazil and noticeably in the pacified favelas. - The risk of overspending the budget is plausible.
    29. 29. Concluding remarks – While politicians and organizers uses the notion of legacy as a positive notion to usher public support, the legacy may also provide a negative outcome. – In the preparation for these mega sports events we have already seen social and economic impacts in Brazil. Public spending has been directed to building stadiums as suppose to invest in infrastructure, education and health. Communities has been transformed, either by pacifications or by removal. These social and economic impacts have resulted in social unrest and huge protests across the Brazil. – It is evident that organizing these mega sports events will have a long term legacy in Brazil. However what they finally may be is too early to tell. – The research will continue…
    30. 30. REFERENCE LIST Ernst and Young (2010) Sustainable Brazil Social and Economic Impacts of the 2014 World Cup © 2010 EYGM Limited. (The study made in association with the Fundação Getúlio Vargas.) Newton, Caroline (2009)The Reverse Side of the Medal: About the 2010 FIFA World Cup and the Beautification of the N2 in Cape Town, Urban Forum Ritchie, J (2000) Turning 16 days into 16 years through Olympic legacies. Event Management Rolnik, Raquel (2011) Interview: “World Cup and Olympics: The Show and the Myth” published by Rio on Watch at http://rioonwatch.org/?s=Raquel - originally published in Portuguese at http://pagina22.com.br/index.php/2011/08/o-espetaculo-do-mito/ “O espetáculo e o mito” - Revista Pagina 22 Oxfam (2012) Oxfam Briefing Paper Left behind by the G20? How inequality and environmental degradation threaten to exclude poor people from the benefits of economic growth. Oxfam GB Wade, R, H (2011) Income Inequality: Should We Worry About Global Trends? European Journal of Development Research. References
    31. 31. The end Thank you for listening! sundensofia@gmail.com

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