Growth, Gender, Poverty and Environment Issues in Asia-Pacific


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Presentation by IPC-IG's Leisa Perch at the Workshop for the Validation of Training Modules in Seoul on 8-10 May 2012. The presentation highlights the main issues related to social and environmental sustainability in Asia and the Pacific.

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  • Whaoooo so inspirational presentation.
    Thank you very much Leisa!!!
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  • Some other issues:SP not widely seen as part of Risk Reduction effortsSocial requirements for strengthening preparedness, mitigation and prevention are still weak;
  • Growth, Gender, Poverty and Environment Issues in Asia-Pacific

    1. 1. UNDP/KIGEPE Gender-Responsive Economic Policy Management Initiative Growth, Gender, Poverty and Environment Issues in Asia and Pacific Workshop for the Validation of Training Modules Seoul, 8-10 May 2012Presenter: Leisa Perch, Policy Specialist/Team Leader - Rural and Sustainable Development International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO IPC-IG IPC-IG is a partnership of the Government of Brazil and UNDP based in Brasilia, Brazil. Focus of our research is international; specifically focused on the South and on South-South Cooperation and Learning. Themes for IPC’s applied policy research: Macro-Economic Policy, Rural and Sustainable Development, Social Protection, Development Innovations. In Rural and Sustainable Development, the focus in on 3 key areas: • Inclusive Green Economy • Sustainable Rural Growth • Social and Political Innovations for Sustainable Development *See more on our webpage:
    3. 3. INCLUSION - BEYOND PARTICIPATION Quality of growth (i.e. higher proportion of Green GDP) Quality of development Quality of finance Quality of programming Inclusion as a Public good with multiple positive externalities such as security, sustainability, resilience-building
    5. 5. SPATIAL INEQUALITY OF GROWTH Urban risk has increased Sanitation, slums, housing, waste management amongst key issues In 2008, the urban share of GDP for Asia and the Pacific was 83% and 87% respectively (UNESCAP Slum Populations in Asia and Pacific, 2010 (projections. in UNHabitat, 2011). Sourced from UNHabitat, 2011
    6. 6. URBAN WATER AND SANITATION “The traditional sectors of water and sanitation remain the most promising areas for a twin-track approach” Gabriel Labbate, UN-REDD In the Dhaka suburb of Demra, a man stands in putrid water to collect recyclable plastic (gendered tasks in waste collection)  Improved water and sanitation: linked to these is the interface between health, exposure to toxins, the informal waste collection sector, and recycling.  The losses caused by poor sanitation exceed Bangladesh’s national development budget for 2007–2008 by 33 percent. “The total amount of these losses is five times higher than the national health budget, and three times higher than the national education budget in 2007 (new WSP report 2011 – World Bank and others)  “Bangladesh lost US$ 29.6 per capita, which demonstrates the urgency of improving sanitation in the country” (Ibid, 2011)
    7. 7. INSECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY: According to data from ‘Odhikar’, from 1 January 2001 to 29 February 2012, 2338 woman have already been killed, 1025 women physically abused and 172 women committed suicide because of dowry violence in Bangladesh. From 1 January 2001 to 29 February 2012, 8478 women have been raped, according to Odhikar.
    8. 8. GENDER, THE ECONOMY OF PICTS Gender-based violence, women’s limited decision- making and leadership opportunities (only 5-10% of high-ranking chiefly titles held by women) In a typical year, natural disasters affect more than 40% of the population in some PICTs, often reversing hard-won development gains especially for women
    10. 10. LONG TERM CLIMATE RISK – AND THEREGION Table 2 – 2010 Risk IndexHarmeling, 2012
    11. 11. SOCIAL/HUMAN POTENTIAL AS ADAPTIVE CAPACITY • Despite suffering from socio- economic disadvantages, women are already responding to climate change. • They are actively involved in agriculture, energy, and water supplies, forest use.  Women have expertise in adaptation – seed management, local knowledge.  Scale-up is needed in in order that greater economic benefits from their labor can be generated Mairi Beautyman
    12. 12. SOCIAL VULNERABILITY Exposure to natural disaster Social Susceptibility Social Resilience Fe m ale -he ad ati on ed duc ho lev el e us te e ho qua ld Ade Sub stan dard hous eing i ng Nation h well-b Healt (Individual, atus Low health st Strength of so Household or cial capital ea s Community) e ar Econ ron omic er p well- disast in g bein g g in l l-be Adeq L ivin c we uate o mi level con s of ho el of e us ing lev Low Measure of social vulnerabilityConstruct of Social Vulnerability developed by Asha Kambon, 2005
    13. 13. MAJOR THREATS TO SUSTAINED GROWTH Asia-Pacific – Pollution, Resource Inequality and Climate Change Pacific SIDS – Climate Change, Food Security Caribbean SIDS – Likely to spend 20% of GDP coping with climate change Latin America – Inequality (UNECLAC, 2010) Africa – health and environmental related inequalities Europe and the CIS – Poor Infrastructure and Dire Environmental Situation Arab States – Legacies of Dutch Disease, Declining energy reserves and food insecurity
    15. 15. NEW SUSTAINABILITY NARRATIVE -WHERE AND HOW COULD THE PIECES FIT Development Drivers: Resource Wealth, Resource Quality, Open Economies (PICTS), Climate Vulnerability and Change, Social Inequity Inputs: Ecological Diversity, Strategic Public Policy, Partnerships, Finance and Investment Enablers: Adaptive Policymaking, Anticipatory Governance, Co-benefits Strategies, Innovation, Technology Conditions for Sustainability: Decent Work, Systems Resilience, Adaptive Capacity, Economic & Environmental Governance
    16. 16. GENDER AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY “The prevailing lack of equal rights of women to land, irrigation water, and access to education renders them especially vulnerable in a future with anticipated increases in pressure on these resources. Women, therefore, may often have a lower adaptive capacity arising from prevailing social inequalities and are ascribed social and economic roles that lead to increased hardship (e.g., through reduced food security or shortage of water resources).” Development and Climate Change: A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group 2009 from Mariama Williams, 2011
    17. 17. WOMEN’S CRITICAL ROLE NOT MAXIMIZEDCountry Primary writer(s) MG PG MP PP DVG MEG PEG DPpAfghanistan Afghan government, UN, NGOs Y N Y Y Y Y N YBangladesh Ministry of the Environment and Forest Y Y Y Y Y Y N YBhutan National Environment Commission Y N Y Y Y N N YBurundi Ministry for Land Management, Tourism and the Environment Y Y Y Y N N N YCambodia Ministry of the Environment N N Y Y Y N N NCKiribati Ministry of the Environment, Land and Agricultural N N Y N Y N N N DevelopmentLaos National Environment Committee N N Y N Y Y N NCMaldives Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Water Y N Y N Y N N YSamoa Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Meteorology Y Y N N N N N YSolomon Islands Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Meteorology with Y Y Y N N N N Y contributions from othersTuvalu Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment, Agriculture and Y N Y Y N N N Y LandsVanuatu National Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Ministry Y N Y N N Y Y NC of Infrastructure and Public Utilities Notes: MG (mentions gender); PG (prioritises gender); MP (mentions poverty); PP (prioritises poverty); DVG (defines vulnerable groups); MEG (mentions ethnic groups); PEG (prioritises ethnic groups); DPp (defines participation). Y (Yes); N (No); NC (Not clear); Yns (Yes not specified).
    18. 18. MODELS IN THE REGION  South Korea - 2010 Framework Act for Low Carbon Green Growth  Thailand’s Sufficiency Economy (happiness, self- sufficiency, social security  Bhutan’s Gross Domestic Happiness  Cambodia’s National Sustainable Development Strategy - policy coherence (socio-development strategy, poverty reduction and MDGs)  Maldives – Carbon Neutral Growth Strategy  India - Low Carbon and Inclusive Growth Strategy
    19. 19. RURAL RISK: CLIMATE CHANGE ANDAGRICULTURE Availability – drought or flood – on production Quality of the land Deforestation and Desertification Use of pesticides and fertilizers to increase production Quality and Quantity of crops – nutrition and income Timing of planting and reaping Source: Oxfam, 2011 (based on experience in Tajikistan)
    20. 20. GENDER, EMPLOYMENT AND ACCESS TO FOOD Sourced from FAO, 2011: Presentation to Expert Group Meeting on The Challenges of Building Employment for Sustainable Recovery
    21. 21. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH IN A RESOURCE-DEPENDENT GREEN ECONOMY –  Social inequity is a source of pressure for and on resource intensive growth. Muting the effects requires: - Changing the cycle - environmental quality has a direct impact on the employment generation capacity of resource-dependent sectors - Enhancing pro-poor productivity - poverty has implications for the environment (coping mechanisms rely on free/accessible public goods) - Accelerating productive inclusion – Prioritizing youth employment, access to finance and innovation; reduce underemployment and enhance women’s access to decent work
    22. 22. MODULE 13: AN OUTLINE
    23. 23. PROPOSED OUTLINE OF MODULE Theoretical framework – Gender, Environment, Macroeconomics Existing Reality  Resource Inequality  Income Inequality  Environmental Inequality Conceptual Framework for Change Existing Policies Case Studies of The Change Desired
    24. 24. OBJECTIVES OF THE MODULE Strengthen understanding of the intersections between growth, gender, poverty and environment Enable participants to understand the impact of environmental risk on gender equality actions and policies – direct and indirect consequences Enable participants to evaluate programmes and policies and their potential positives and negative for gender equality in Asia and Pacific Facilitate a greater understanding of the opportunities presented by an increasing focus on socio-environmental policy and inclusive green growth Enable an understanding of the potential co-benefits from more inclusive social and environmental policy
    25. 25. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR CO-BENEFITS Figure 3: Adjusted Co-Benefits Framework Based on GGPE Considerations Source: (Perch, 2010).
    26. 26. POSSIBLE CASE STUDIES NREGA – India – Gender, Environment and Income – Social Protection Samoa NAPA – Making the Link between Gender and Climate Change Gender and Energy Advances in Nepal – Enhancing Gender Benefits from Mitigation DRR in Bangladesh – Increasing Social Resilience at the Community Level Green Growth in Korea – Resource Efficiency at the Macro Level Philippines – Decentralization Working for All
    27. 27. POLICY ADAPTATION OPTIONS  Inclusive and green finance: - Targeting decent green pro-poor employment - Incentivizing private sector investment in sustainability (e.g. Reserve Bank of Fiji’s Agriculture and Renewable Energy Loans Ratio for commercial bank operations – 2% of deposits and liabilities must go to loans to renewable sector) - Anticipating Sustainability Opportunities: bolster innovation and reduce the inconsistency of innovation ……Fiji and Samoa started in the 70s and 80s and now have a share of renewables at 54 and 43% respectively
    28. 28. POSSIBLE EXERCISES Making a NAPA more inclusive How to make a green growth policy a driver for greater equity Making social protection more adaptive to climate change and disaster risk
    29. 29. KEY QUESTIONS FOR PARTICIPANTS How could this module most helpful? What general policy reforms should I consider? What are the key issues which are not clear when gender, climate change and environment are discussed? What kind of policy approaches would be most helpful? How to reflect specific issues for post-conflict contexts How useful would decentralized approaches be to your policy process?