The Global debate: South-South cooperation


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Fabio Veras presented on the global debate on South-South learning on Social Protection at the Scoping Conference “The Links between Social Inclusion and Sustainable Growth”, which happened in The Hague. The objective of the conference was to identify research gaps and needs regarding the linkages between social protection policies and growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The outcomes will be further elaborated by the Knowledge Platform Development Policies, a platform established by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

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The Global debate: South-South cooperation

  1. 1. The Global debate: South-South cooperation Fábio Veras Soares The Hague, 23/01/2013
  2. 2. Some milestones in the recent debate on the expansion of SP (ST programmes) Internationally: MDG’s Number 1 (poverty reduction) MDG’s Development assistance Social Protection Floors initiative Role of multilaterals and bilaterals Triple crises – social protection boost (G20) – social protection and resilience. Regional: Spread of CCTs in Latin America Employment Guarantee Schemes Nationally: Flagship programmes Social Protection Systems 2
  3. 3. CCTs in Latin America: an overview 3
  4. 4. CCTs in Latin America: an overview 4
  5. 5. Social Protection Programmes in Africa Southern Africa: SP programmes from colonial times, expanded, strong social assistance programmes – South Africa emerges with a strong model: OAG, CSG… 3.5% GDP … but also… EPWP… the challenge of unemployment. Scattered ST pilots…. 10% model…protecting those unable to work… CBT with targeting guidelines (Zambia) Non-contributory old age pension… (HAI) … OVC (Kenya – Colombia model – conditionalities) … child grants Ethiopian model: public works – employment guarantee schemes and direct assistance. 5
  6. 6. Social Protection Programmes in Africa    Livingstone I (2006) - Zambia Call for action (13 countries) – Dfid and international  NGO’s – Brazilian government invited. Livingstone II (2008) - Namibia Regional consultations (3 regional conferences) Continental ministerial meeting  African Union “leadership” – mismatch between  social development and social protection frameworks. Strong participation of Brazil’s delegation. 6
  7. 7. Background on IPC work    IPC started as the International Poverty Centre with a  strong focus on research about social protection policies.  IPC has facilitated south-south learning and supported  the Ministry of Social Development and the Brazilian  Government in its dialogue with partner countries. IPC has supported the debate and the dissemination of  knowledge among a variety of social protection  approaches. 7
  8. 8. Income Security System in Brazil – Social  Insurance and Social Assistance Contributory Social Insurance:    Retirement pensions, survivors pensions,  sickness, maternity leave/benefits, injury  compensation. Formal employees: private sector &  public sector; Contributory, Pay as you go system; Unemployment Insurance (private sector  employees – employer’s contribution) Semi-contributory pension system for rural  workers. Non-contributory Means-tested Social  Assistance: old age and disability benefits; Bolsa Familia benefits 8
  9. 9. Income Security System in Brazil – Social  Insurance and Social Assistance    Contributory Social Insurance and social assistance: The system evolved from previous pension system for specific categories of workers during the late 1920`s and 1930`s) – e.g. railway workers. Contribution to the system as guarantee of access to health services. Social Assistance: RMV and FUNRURAL/PRORURAL – disability and old age and rural old age in the 1970’s All this system was broadened after 1988 Democratic Constitution: Social Security was recognized as a right of citizens to be protected by the state Social insurance: two regimes – private sector (with a ceiling) and public sector (no ceiling) – recent reforms. Social Security Budget: Health (SUS); social insurance; and social assistance. Social Assistance: Mid 1990’s– Old Age And Disability Benefit Mid 1990’s – Experiences with CCTs 2003 – Bolsa Familia 9
  10. 10. Zero Hunger Strategy    The Fome Zero (Zero Hunger) Strategy was initiated in 2003 to integrate social programmes that aim to tackle food insecurity and extreme poverty. It was one of the key themes in the Lula’s presidential manifesto as summarised in his promise “that all Brazilians should have at least three meals per day”. For this reason much of the emphasis of the social protection policy during Lula’s term, at least at the discourse level, fell under the Fome Zero strategy. The strategy includes a set of programmes and activities that involves the three levels of governments (Federal, State and Municipal) and almost all ministries. 10
  11. 11. Bolsa Família main features Experience accumulated by sub-national governments (staring in 1995) National Programme (no piloting or rolling-out) Targeting based on self-reported income Role of the Single Registry and strong engagement with municipalities Role of co-responsibilities/conditionalities Mix of income guarantee (basic benefic) and child-focused transfer (variable benefit) Focus on children vis-à-vis Extreme Poverty Eradication (Brazil Carinhoso and Brasil without Extreme poverty) 11
  12. 12. Brasil sem Miseria Plan (Brazil without  Brasil sem Miseria has the objective of eradicating extreme Extreme Poverty Plan) poverty. It has three axis: I.Income guarantee: focus on fighting exclusion errors of Bolsa Familia. Active search (Busca ativa) strategy and now closing the extreme-povety gap for families living below R$ 70.00 per capita per month.    II.Access to Services: health, education, social assistance, civil registration (and other documents); electricity; food security; housing; homeless and child labour. III.Productive Inclusion: rural: extension services and follow-up; access to improved seeds; water and electricity, grants for investment; access to markets (PAA) Urban: training; job placement; solidarity economy, microcredit and subsidized social insurance for the selfemployed. 12
  13. 13. IPC experience in south-south learning Strong international presence of President Lula – Hunger Zero Strategy and Bolsa Família. Results of evaluations: persistent and consistent fall in inequality and poverty. Praise from Multilateral Organizations, IFIs, international cooperation agencies and NGO’s. Growing demand from countries to learn about Brazilian programmes: missions and technical support. Officially. MDS received 3 international missions in 2004 and 80 in 2011! 13
  14. 14. IPC experience in south-south learning The demand is concentrated on understanding Bolsa Família components and, more particularly, on the single registry. Sensitization of ministries of finance was also a key demand mostly from African countries. Need to link social protection with growth and evidence on negative impacts on labour market participation (dependency and hand-out arguments). IPC helped on the policy dialogue between Brazil (MDS) and Africa in partnership with Dfid: Ghana (pilot), Mozambique, Zambia, Namibia and Kenya. 14
  15. 15. IPC experience in south-south learning Some challenges in the learning/cooperation process: Demand and supply mismatch - usually countries want Brazilian officials to stay longer in their countries helping them in the design/implementation of the programmes; Lack of “Brazilian consultants” with experience with the programmes and language barrier; Too many requests for missions and limited capacity to receive them (international seminars and sub national governments); Lack of knowledge of the social protection/cash transfer ‘international market’ and how international and cooperation agencies, and international NGO’s fight over “models”, “resources” and “political visibility” worldwide. 15
  16. 16. IPC experience in south-south learning Other relevant countries: Mexico - Progresa/Oportunidades – showcased by IFIs, but limited role in international cooperation. Familias en Accion (Colombia) – outcome of international cooperation and actively cooperating with other countries (regional and internationally – Kenya, Indonesia and The Phillippines. Chile – Integrated programmes – regional role – Caribbean countries (social worker’s model) Multi-countries: community of practices: LAC and Africa 16
  17. 17. IPC experience in south-south learning Some recent developments in the area of Food Security: Creation of the WPF Centre of Excellence against Hunger in Brasilia. PAA Africa: a project which draws on the expertise accumulated by Brazil in its own food purchasing programme. Carried out by FAO and WFP, the project extends financing for food purchases to five African countries aiming to benefit small farmers and vulnerable populations. It brings together Brazil’s humanitarian and technical cooperation. Website: 17
  18. 18. Some IPC Publications for Reference: Thanks for your attention! 18