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Food Security Policy Context and Hunger in Brazil


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A presentation by the UNDP International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) on the food security policy context in Brazil and its effects on poverty reduction and hunger alleviation.

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Food Security Policy Context and Hunger in Brazil

  1. 1. <ul><li>The Food Security Policy Context in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth IPC-IG </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation by Darana Souza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October, 2011 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. History : some highlights <ul><li>Early1940’s (Ministry of Labour): diverse actions (provision of meals, subsidized sales of food items etc.) of food support to workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1940’s to 1990’s (Ministry of Health): Food and Nutrition Programmes (nutritional education, fortified food, subsidized sales, food distribution etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>1955 (Ministry of Education): school feeding programme. </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s (Ministry of Agriculture): introduction of debate about food security / programme of subsidized sales. </li></ul><ul><li>1990’s: Hunger Map (IPEA) / National Plan to Combat Hunger / social mobilization through CONSEA, National Conference, Citizenship Action against Hunger and Poverty and for Life. </li></ul>
  3. 3. State Recognition of Food Security - Ratification of the ICESCR (1992); - LOSAN (Organic Law of Food and Nutritional Security, 2006); - Constitutional Amendment: food as a social right, (EC 64, 2010); - National Policy of Food and Nutritional Security (PNSAN, 2010).
  4. 4. Food Security Concept and Measurement <ul><li>“ Food and nutritional security is the realization of everyone’s right to regular and permanent access to quality food in sufficient quantity, without compromising access to other essential needs, based on health-promoting food practices that respect cultural diversity and that are environmentally, culturally, economically and socially sustainable” (LOSAN, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>No unique measurement model for policy design. Diverse indicators from various surveys: PNAD and EBIA, SISVAN, PNDS, CONSEA and partners´ System of Indicators, POF, National Census, National agricultural Census. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Institutional Arrangement and Participation <ul><li>SISAN </li></ul><ul><li>National System for Food and Nutritional Security, a multi-sector, multi-tier and multi-stakeholder structure: </li></ul><ul><li>CAISAN (Chamber): </li></ul><ul><li>Promote interaction and integration of different sectors and consider the proposals made by CONSEA; </li></ul><ul><li>National level: 19 ministries of state. </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEA (Council): </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed body: government and civil society; </li></ul><ul><li>Follow and propose programmes according to CNSAN; </li></ul><ul><li>National level: Advisory body to the presidency (57 members, 2/3 and presidency from civil society) </li></ul><ul><li>CNSAN (Conference): </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the guidelines and priorities for food and nutritional security policies; </li></ul><ul><li>National level: every 4 years. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Zero Hunger Strategy Source: Zero Hunger The Brazilian Development Strategy: Economic Growth with Social Inclusion , Adriana Aranha, MDS
  7. 7. National Policy and Plan for Food and Nutrition Security <ul><li>National Policy (PNSAN) </li></ul><ul><li>2010 decree establishes PNSAN, gives guidelines for the preparation of the Plan, and provides further regulations on LOSAN. </li></ul><ul><li>Key concepts: right to food, food sovereignty, agroecology; </li></ul><ul><li>8 guidelines (multi-sectoral): universal access to food; food production and supply; research and education; traditional populations and land reform settlers; health and nutrition; access to water; international affairs; monitoring of the right to food. </li></ul><ul><li>National Plan (PLANSAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in August 2011 for 2012-15; </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and priorities; </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of (decentralized) institutional arrangements; </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of objectives, targets and actions for each guideline of PNSAN; </li></ul><ul><li>Funding: coherence with 4-year national budget plan (PPA); </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Bolsa Familia : </li></ul><ul><li>MDS: CCT targeted with free use of cash; </li></ul><ul><li>2011 budget: R$ 15.5 billion; </li></ul><ul><li>13 million families. </li></ul><ul><li>PRONAF (National Programme for Strengthening Family Farming): </li></ul><ul><li>MDA: Credit and insurance for ´family farmers´; </li></ul><ul><li>2011-2012 year budget: R$ 16 billion; </li></ul><ul><li>2 million contracts/year. </li></ul><ul><li>PNAE (National School Feeding Programme): </li></ul><ul><li>ME: 1 meal a day for public basic education; </li></ul><ul><li>- Nutrition, education and local market opportunities; </li></ul><ul><li>2011 budget: R$ 3.1 billion </li></ul><ul><li>45.6 million students; </li></ul><ul><li>30% of funds for purchase from family farmers. </li></ul>Major Programmes
  9. 9. Current social strategy (Brasil sem Miséria) and food security <ul><li>Social platform aimed at eradicating extreme poverty (16 million people) by 2014. </li></ul><ul><li>Axes: Income guarantee, access to basic services, productive inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>From a food security perspective, it is an opportunity to enhance access to food, boost food production of poor farmers and expand complementary public goods: </li></ul><ul><li>- Inclusion of 800 thousand people in Bolsa Familia ; </li></ul><ul><li>Support to extreme poor farmers (grants, technical assistance, water, electricity, market access); </li></ul><ul><li>Support to income generation in urban areas (entrepreneurship and access to jobs); </li></ul><ul><li>Access to relevant services such as health and sanitation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Achievements <ul><li>Brazil has attained MDG 1 at national level </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in food security and nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>- Proportion of children under 5 with low weight/age fell from 4.2 % in 1996 to 1.8 % in 2006 (PNDS/ MS, 2009); </li></ul><ul><li>Number of households facing some degree of food insecurity declined (but still significant) from 34.9% to 30.2% between 2004 and 2009 (PNAD/ IBGE, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>- The percentage of the population living on less than US$1.25 a day fell from 25.6 in 1990 to 4.7 in 2009 (PNAD/IBGE, 2010) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Challenges <ul><li>Internal disparities (race, region, urban/rural): </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of population living on less than US$1.25 a day: white 2.8%, non-white 6.6 % (PNAD/ IBGE, 2010); </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 60% of extreme poor live in the northeast (Census/ IBGE, 2010); </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of population with continuous lack of access to sufficient quantity of food: rural areas 12.3%, urban areas 8.6% (PNAD / IBGE, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Land concentration (Agricultural Census / IBGE, 2009): </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Gini coefficient : 0,856 in 1995 and 0,872 in 2006; </li></ul><ul><li>Less than10 ha – less than 2.7% of total land – more than 47% of properties; </li></ul><ul><li>More than 1000 ha – more than 43% of total land – less than 1.03% of properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Rising overweight and obesity (POF / IBGE, 2010): </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight prevalence of 9.7% in children under 5; </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of overweight in adults over 18x higher than underweight: 49 %. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darana Souza: [email_address] </li></ul></ul>