Going Green:Why Asia is moving toward a green model of growth

1,981 views

Published on

The latest issue of Development Asia, ADB's quarterly magazine, explores the concept of green growth: the embracing of environmentally sound and sustainable policies with the need to maintain high economic growth. It features an exclusive interview with leading expert Ashok Khosla, who takes a hard look at the promises and failings of green growth. In other stories, we look at pioneering efforts to deliver medicine through a soda company's distribution network.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,981
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
47
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Going Green:Why Asia is moving toward a green model of growth

  1. 1. 1HUHY`¶4HYJO Also in this edition... $VKRN .KRVOD RQ WKH OLPLWV WR LQÀQLWH JURZWK :K JUHHG LV JRRG IRU GHYHORSPHQW +RZ VRGD FDQ VDYH OLYHVA publication of the Asian Development BankGoingGreenWhy Asia is moving towarda green model of economic growth
  2. 2. Some solutions for climate changeare blowing in the windOLPDWH FKDQJH PDNHV XV DOO YXOQHUDEOH %XW RQH VXUH ZD WR ILJKW LW LV WR KDUQHVVUHQHZDEOH HQHUJ $% SURYLGHV IXQGLQJ DQG DVVLVWDQFH IRU ZLQG HQHUJ IDFLOLWLHVDFURVV $VLD 7KHVH IDFLOLWLHV WXUQ ZLQG LQWR HOHFWULFLW 3URYLGH SRZHU IRU WHQV RIWKRXVDQGV RI SRRU KRXVHKROGV $QG VZLWFK $VLD RQ WR D ORZ FDUERQ JURZWK SDWK$% ,QYHVWLQJ LQ FOLPDWH FKDQJH VROXWLRQV IRU $VLD ZZZDGERUJ‡ %LRPDVV XWLOL]DWLRQ ‡ *HRWKHUPDO SRZHU ‡ +GURSRZHU ‡ 6RODU SRZHU ‡ :LQG SRZHU ‡
  3. 3. PUBLISHER’S NOTE:::(9(/230(17$6,$ĝ $VLDQ HYHORSPHQW %DQN,661 $6,$1 (9(/230(17 %$1. 7KH *UHHQ ,PSHUDWLYHPUBLISHER$QQ 4XRQMANAGING EDITOR$QGUHZ 3HUULQSENIOR EDITOR)ORG :KDOHEDITORIAL ADVISOR 1HVVLP $KPDGASSOCIATE EDITOR HYHORSHG FRXQWULHV DQG GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV KDYH DOZDV0DULD /L]D 6RODQRCOPY EDITOR KDG GLIIHULQJ YLHZV RQ WKH HQYLURQPHQW 0DQ RI WKH ZRUOG·VDUROLQH $KPDGART DIRECTOR ZHDOWKLHVW FRXQWULHV KDYH PDGH WKHLU HFRQRPLHV PXFK PRUH7RQ 9LFWRULD HQYLURQPHQWDOO IULHQGO $QG WKH ZDQW GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHVDevelopment Asia IHDWXUHV GHYHORSPHQW LVVXHVLPSRUWDQW WR $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLðF ,W LV SXEOLVKHG WR GR WKH VDPH 7KH GHYHORSLQJ ZRUOG KDV UHVSRQGHG WKDW ZHDOWK FRXQWULHVIRXU WLPHV D HDU E WKH $VLDQ HYHORSPHQW %DQN7KH YLHZV H[SUHVVHG LQ WKLV PDJD]LQH DUH WKRVH RI EHFDPH ULFK E H[SORLWLQJ QDWXUDO UHVRXUFHV ZLWK OLWWOH UHJDUG IRU WKHWKH DXWKRUV DQG GR QRW UHñHFW WKH YLHZV DQG SROLFLHVRI WKH $VLDQ HYHORSPHQW %DQN DQG +DPDUNHW HQYLURQPHQW $V WKH VWUXJJOH WR H[SDQG WKHLU HFRQRPLHV DQG OLIW WKHLU SHRSOH0HGLD /WG 8VH RI WKH WHUP ìFRXQWUú GRHV QRWLPSO DQ MXGJPHQW E WKH DXWKRUV RU WKH $VLDQ RXW RI SRYHUW GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DUH EHLQJ KHOG WR DQ HQYLURQPHQWDOHYHORSPHQW %DQN DQG +DPDUNHW 0HGLD /WG DV WRWKH OHJDO RU RWKHU VWDWXV RI DQ WHUULWRULDO HQWLW VWDQGDUG WKDW ULFK FRXQWULHV QHYHU KDG WR IROORZ$GYHUWLVLQJ RI DQ VSHFLðF FRPPHUFLDO SURGXFW 7KLV HGLWLRQ RI HYHORSPHQW $VLD H[SORUHV ZKDW PDQ IHHO LV WKH EHVWSURFHVV VHUYLFH E WUDGH QDPH WUDGHPDUNPDQXIDFWXUHU RU RWKHUZLVH LQ WKLV SXEOLFDWLRQ VROXWLRQ WR WKLV GLYLGH ,Q RXU FRYHU VWRU ORQJWLPH $VLDEDVHG MRXUQDOLVW DQGGRHV QRW FRQVWLWXWH RU LPSO $%âV HQGRUVHPHQWUHFRPPHQGDWLRQ RU IDYRULQJ RI DQ RI WKH DXWKRU *UHJJ -RQHV ORRNV DW WKH FRQFHSW RI JUHHQ JURZWK WKH HPEUDFLQJ RISURGXFW RU WKH HQWLW WKHUHRI HQYLURQPHQWDOO VRXQG DQG VXVWDLQDEOH SROLFLHV ZLWK WKH QHHG WR PDLQWDLQCOMMENTS6HQG RXU IHHGEDFN WR WKH HGLWRU DW KLJK HFRQRPLF JURZWKOHWWHUV#GHYHORSPHQWDVLD ,Q DQ H[FOXVLYH LQWHUYLHZ $VKRN .KRVOD RQH RI WKH ZRUOG·V OHDGLQJ H[SHUWVADVERTISING7R DGYHUWLVH LQ Development Asia FRQWDFW RQ WKH HQYLURQPHQW DQG VXVWDLQDEOH GHYHORSPHQW WDNHV D KDUG QRKROGVDGYHUWLVLQJ#GHYHORSPHQWDVLD EDUUHG ORRN DW WKH SURPLVHV DQG IDLOLQJV RI JUHHQ JURZWKSUBSCRIPTIONSRQWDFW VXEVFULSWLRQV#GHYHORSPHQWDVLD $V SDUW RI WKLV WKHPH WKH HFRQRPLFV RI ELRGLYHUVLW³WKH PRQHWDU YDOXH RI D FRXQWU·V QDWXUDO UHVRXUFHV³LV H[DPLQHG 2WKHU VWRULHV LQ WKH FRYHU SDFNDJH ORRN DW ZDWHU DQG DLU SROOXWLRQ DQG WKH JURZLQJ SUREOHP RI KD]DUGRXV ZDVWH LQ WKH UHJLRQ ,Q WKH $UWLFOHV VHFWLRQ DQ LQWULJXLQJ TXHVWLRQ LV DVNHG :K LQ VRPH RI WKH PRVW UHPRWH SODFHV LQ WKH ZRUOG ZKHUH SHRSOH FDQQRW ÀQG FOHDQ ZDWHU RU VLPSOH PHGLFLQH FDQ RX VWLOO EX D FROG RFDROD 7KH DQVZHU LV WKDW WKH PXOWLQDWLRQDO VRIW GULQN FRPSDQ KDV RQH RI WKH ZRUOG·V EHVW GLVWULEXWLRQREPRINTS0DWHULDO SXEOLVKHG LQ Development Asia VVWHPV 2QH RUJDQL]DWLRQ ZDQWV WR XVH WKDW VVWHP WR JHW PHGLFLQH DQG RWKHUDQG RQ ZZZGHYHORSPHQWDVLD LQFOXGLQJDUWLFOHV SKRWRV JUDSKLFV DQG RWKHU FRQWHQW LV HVVHQWLDO VXSSOLHV WR VRPH RI WKH ZRUOG·V QHHGLHVW SHRSOHFRSULJKWHG 0DWHULDO PD QRW EH UHSURGXFHGUHSXEOLVKHG RU UHGLVWULEXWHG ZLWKRXW ZULWWHQ 2WKHU VWRULHV LQFOXGH DQ LQWHUYLHZ E UHJXODU FRQWULEXWRU -DGH /HHSHUPLVVLRQ RI Development Asia )RU UHSULQWSHUPLVVLRQ SOHDVH FRQWDFW HGLWRU#GHYHORSPHQW XII ZLWK $QQLH XÁ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ì ú UHIHUV WR 86 GROODUV $QQ 4XRQ 3XEOLVKHU$ SXEOLFDWLRQ RI WKH $VLDQ HYHORSPHQW %DQNGHVLJQHG DQG GLVWULEXWHG E +DPDUNHW 0HGLD /LPLWHGZZZGHYHORSPHQWDVLD -DQXDU²0DUFK HYHORSPHQW $VLD
  4. 4. CONTENTS YEAR V, NUMBER XII, JANUARY—MARCH 2012 4(205. ;/, *(:, -69 7(;0,5; *(70;(3! 05=,:;05. *63(30-,! 3,=,9(.05. ( :6+( ( ::;(05()3, -;9, -69 7)30* .66+ *647(5@»: 5,;692FOCUS 24 DIRTY BUSINESS 46 PROFILES IN DEVELOPMENTENVIRONMENT Asia is on the receiving end of some of A LIFE EXAMINING the world’s most toxic waste. $QQLH XÁR LV SDUW RI D JURZLQJ6 THE BIG READ By William Branigin breed of young developmentGROWING GREEN _______________________________ professionals who are working to0XVW GHYHORSLQJ $VLD VDFULÀFH LWV 28 DRY COUGH test the effectiveness of developmentenvironment for economic prosperity? Booming economies and an expanding programs.A growing number of political leaders FDUORYLQJ PLGGOH FODVV DUH IRXOLQJ By Jade Lee-Duffythink not. Asia’s skies… and they might be the _______________________________By Gregg Jones best way to clear them. 48 RECONNAISSANCE___________________________________ By Floyd Whaley A REFRESHING DEVELOPMENT14 THE BIG PICTURE In remote, impoverished places whereATMOSPHERIC EFFORTS Also, sidebar: FOUR-STROKE clean water and medicine are hard toAlready among the top threats to SAVINGS ÀQG SHRSOH FDQ VWLOO EX DQ LFHFROGhealth, outdoor air pollution is a _______________________________ Coke.concern in cities across developing 32 MURKY WATER By Andrew MarshallAsia. Though the situation is Water pollution threatens millions inimproving in many areas, challenges Asia but innovative solutions are being _______________________________remain as populations shift to urban found.centers and growing economies By Jade Lee-Duffy and Karen Emmons DEPARTMENTSproduce more vehicles and industry. _______________________________By Mark Blackwell 36 CAMBODIA GOES GREEN 4 OFF THE PRESS___________________________________ Cambodia has aggressively embraced Noteworthy excerpts on global issues16 THE BIG VOICE the concept of green growth but serious from the international pressASHOK KHOSLA challenges lie ahead. _______________________________$Q LQÁXHQWLDO WKLQNHU RQ WKH By Karen Emmons 5 ON THE WEBenvironment explains why the planet _______________________________ Development hot spots on theFDQQRW FRSH ZLWK LQÀQLWH HFRQRPLF worldwide webgrowth, and why Bhutan’s gross ARTICLES _______________________________national happiness index is no joke. 40 OFF THE SHELFBy John Otis 42 GOOD INVESTMENT Recommended reading on economic_______________________________ ,QYHVWRUV ZLOOLQJ WR DFFHSW EHORZ and development topics20 GREENBACK GROWTH market returns to achieve positive _______________________________The divide between environmentalists social change are a rising force in global 52 ON THE RECORDand policy makers often remains wide, development. Notable quotes on key issuesbut bridges are being built. By Gregg JonesBy Gregg Jones2 Development Asia January–March 2012 www.development.asia
  5. 5. ContributorsMark Blackwell has more than 20 years of Jade Lee-Duffy has worked subjects. He is the author of the upcomingexperience covering issues ranging from as a journalist in Hong Kong book Honor in the Dust: Theodorescience and economics to politics and for more than 10 years, Roosevelt, War in the Philippines, and theinternational affairs for news organizations, covering education, property, Rise and Fall of America’s Imperial Dream.including the Hearst Corporation and the arts, food, and healthCapital Cities/ABC. He specializes in issues. She is a regular contributor to the Andrew Marshall is a Bangkok-basedinformation graphics. South China Morning Post. journalist and the author of The Trouser People, a political travelogue about William Branigin served as Karen Emmons is a Bangkok-based Myanmar. Southeast Asia bureau chief journalist who writes on public health and of The Washington Post social issues. Floyd Whaley covers the Philippines for for 10 years, reporting from the International Herald Tribune and The more than a dozen countries Gregg Jones was a New York Times. He is the senior editorin the region. He was based in Bangkok correspondent in Asia for 10 of Development Asia and operates Asiafrom 1981 to 1986 and in Manila from 1990 years, covering development Editorial Services.to 1995. issues, civil wars and other Development Asia House ADwww.development.asia
  6. 6. 6-- ;/, 79,::Blame Game Private Money for the Public Good“Human activity has caused profound ´3ULYDWH IRXQGDWLRQV KDYH HPHUJHG DV LQFUHDVLQJO SRWHQW SODHUV LQ WKH ÀJKWchanges to the climate, biodiversity, DJDLQVW SRYHUW DORQJVLGH RIÀFLDO GHYHORSPHQW DLG $FFRUGLQJ WR D +XGVRQ ,QVWLWXWHoceanic acidity and greenhouse-gas UHSRUW WRWDO RIÀFLDO GHYHORSPHQW DVVLVWDQFH ZDV ELOOLRQ LQ ZKLOH JOREDOlevels in the atmosphere. But it does SKLODQWKURS DPRXQWHG WR ELOOLRQ 3ULYDWH FDSLWDO LQYHVWPHQW ELOOLRQ
  7. 7. not automatically follow that the more IRUPV WKH ODUJHVW ÀQDQFLDO ÁRZ IURP ULFKHU WR SRRUHU FRXQWULHV ZKLOH UHPLWWDQFHVpeople there are, the worse the damage. ELOOLRQ
  8. 8. ZHUH WKH VHFRQGODUJHVW ÁRZµ—The Guardian, 9 November 2011,Q $PHULFDQV DQG $XVWUDOLDQVemitted almost 20 tonnes of carbondioxide each. In contrast, more than 60FRXQWULHV³LQFOXGLQJ WKH YDVW PDMRULW Dirty RecoveryRI $IULFDQ RQHV³HPLWWHG OHVV WKDQ “Analysis by the PricewaterhouseCoopers Low Carbon Economy Index showstonne per person…. Global pollution that during the recession, many countries including Britain saw emissions fallwill be more affected by the pattern faster than gross domestic product, a measure of the total economy, because theirRI HFRQRPLF JURZWK³DQG HVSHFLDOO manufacturing output fell. But in 2010, global GDP growth was just above 5%,whether emerging nations become as while emissions rose by nearly 6%.”—Daily Telegraph, 7 November 2011energy-intensive as America, Australiaand [the People’s Republic of]China.”—The Economist, 22 October 2011 Consumption Trumps Growth “As the UN report points out: ‘Considerable population growth continues today because of the high numbers of births in the 1950s and 1960s, which haveA Bright Idea resulted in larger base populations with millions of young people reaching their reproductive years over succeeding generations…’ Yes, population growth“While switching to compact contributes to environmental problems. No, it is not the decisive factor. Even theÁXRUHVFHQW EXOEV³ PRUH HIÀFLHQW availability of grain is affected more by rising livestock numbers and the use ofWKDQ LQFDQGHVFHQWV³KDV EHFRPH ELRIXHOV³GULYHQ DJDLQ E FRQVXPSWLRQ³WKDQ E KXPDQ SRSXODWLRQ JURZWKµ—unremarkable in some developed George Monbiot’s Blog, The Guardian, 27 October 2011QDWLRQV WKH VLJQLÀFDQFH RI WKHPeople’s Republic of] China’s moveshould not be underestimated….With [the PRC] churning out billions Get Used to High PricesRI HIÀFLHQW EXOEV FRVWV ZLOO IDOO 7KDW ´DWDVWURSKLF ÁRRGLQJ DQG FURS ORVVHV LQ 7KDLODQG WKH ZRUOG·V OHDGLQJ ULFHmeans it will be possible to cut carbon H[SRUWHU DUH UDLVLQJ FRQFHUQV WKDW DQRWKHU IRRG FULVLV PD EH LQ WKH RIÀQJ $OVRemissions from lighting around the disquieting is the possibility that the world may have already entered a newworld without denying the most basic era where persistently high food prices are the ‘New Normal.’ At a time whenof amenities to the world’s poor.”— policymakers are grappling with a host of thorny economic issues, the possibilityDamian Carrington’s Environment Blog, may be unwelcome, but must not be ignored.”—Asian Development Bank’s Iwan J.The Guardian, 5 November 2011 Azis in an opinion piece for The Japan Times, 7 November 2011Signs of the Times Good as Cash “Vouchers solve many of the serious“Any economic model that does not properly address inequality will eventually problems that have always plaguedface a crisis of legitimacy. Unless the relative economic roles of the market and in-kind food aid…. [And] Aid isthe state are rebalanced, the protests of 2011 will become more severe, with social multiplied as it helps not onlyand political instability eventually harming long-term economic growth and recipients, but merchants.”welfare.”—Economist Nouriel Roubini, writing for Project Syndicate in October 2011 —The New York Times, 3 November 20114 Development Asia January–March 2012 www.development.asia
  9. 9. 65 ;/, ,)What’s Your Footprint?Global Footprint NetworkO[[W!^^^MVV[WYPU[UL[^VYRVYNH ow much of an impact does your lifestyle make on Earth? How much land area does it take to support your consumption? Global Footprint Network hasmade this a personal question with a quiz on their websitethat gives users an estimate of their ecological footprint. The website walks users through a variety of questions,such as how often they eat meat, how they heat their home,and how often they take the train. After answering thequestions, a report card on the user’s impact on the earth isprovided. It includes such admonitions as: “If everyone livedthe same lifestyle as you, we would require the regenerativecapacity of 1.6 planets each year” and “to support yourlifestyle, it takes 2.8 hectares of the earth’s productive area.” Although the science behind such a quiz might be Realityquestionable (the website provides a link that outlines itsVFLHQWLÀF EDVLV
  10. 10. WKH LPSDFW RQ WKH XVHU LV VLJQLÀFDQW 7KH Hedley Environmental Indexmere answering of the questions forces users to contemplate O[[W!OLKSL`PUKL_ZWOOROROVTLWOWhow much they are consuming and the impact it is having. G At the end of the quiz, a link is provided to assess how overnments around Asia are grappling with howusers can lessen their ecological footprint, which after all to monitor and respond to air pollution. Few haveis the whole point of the exercise. For now, the quiz is only come up with estimates on how much poor airoffered in Asia for residents of the People’s Republic of quality costs society.China, India, and Japan; but work is underway to add more The public policy think tank Civic Exchange, based incountries. Hong Kong, China, has taken the initiative and hosts a 7KH TXL] LV D FOHYHU DVSHFW RI DWWHPSWV E WKH QRQSURÀW website that has become an example of how to measure andorganization, Global Footprint Network, to develop a illustrate the impact of air pollution.standardized method of measuring human impact on the The site publishes in real time the economic costs of Hongearth. The group seeks to develop ecological footprint report Kong, China’s air pollution in terms of public health impactscards for cities, companies, and individuals to be used as a and their monetary value. This includes premature deaths,tool to lessen the impact on the environment. hospital bed days, and doctor visits. Their plan is ambitious, but it all starts by taking a quiz. Ŷ :KHQ XVHUV ÀUVW ODQG RQ WKH SDJH D VSLQQLQJ WLFNHU WHOOV them how many dollars have been lost due to air pollution in Hong Kong, China, since midnight. Click another button and it tells how many lives have been lost since January 1 DV RI HFHPEHU
  11. 11. $ GDLO FKHFN RI WKH VLWH LV D VREHULQJ reminder of the impact of air pollution on society. The site also includes an air quality tracking tool that allows users to compare current air quality to World Health Organization air quality guidelines in real time, or to compare historical records of good and bad air days. It includes a photo of the Hong Kong, China skyline that is updated every 15 minutes by the Hong Kong Observatory. The index is the brainchild of Anthony Hedley, the chair of Community Medicine at the School of Public Health at Hong Kong University, and a team of researchers who have for decades worked on air-related health issues in Hong Kong, China; and southern People’s Republic of China. Q Researched and written by Floyd Whaleywww.development.asia January–March 2012 Development Asia 5
  12. 12. ,5=09654,5;! ;/, )0. 9,(+ Growing Green Must developing Asia sacrifice its environment for economic prosperity? A growing number of political leaders think not BY Gregg JonesA t the Boao Forum for Asia in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 2010, some 2,000 political and businessleaders from around the regionapplauded when PRC Vice-PresidentXi Jinping in his keynote addresscalled for “green and sustainabledevelopment.” His forward-thinkingblueprint for future Asian developmentincluded the promotion of renewableenergy and low-carbon technology, andefforts aimed at steeping Asians in theculture of conservation—ideals thatwere hardly priorities for most leadersin the region just a few years ago. 7KH QDWLRQV RI $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀFhave dazzled the world with theirrobust economic growth over the past2 decades, reducing poverty ratesand delivering middle-class comfortsto millions. But the region has alsobecome a leader in the unwelcomebyproducts of traditional development:reduced water and air quality, depletednatural resources, and imperiledbiodiversity. That is beginning to change. “Green growth” projects aresprouting around the region. The PRC,for years best known for its spectaculareconomic growth and spiralingenvironmental problems, has alsobecome a leader in the development ofgreen technologies. In 2009, the PRCovertook Denmark, Germany, Spainand the United States to become theGREEN PATH Soft light illuminates aforest path in Bosung, Republic of Korea.The country has committed to investing2% of its gross domestic product (GDP)in green growth.6 Development Asia January–March 2012 www.development.asia
  13. 13. world’s top manufacturer of wind DQG WKH 3DFLÀF, laid out the harmful turbines, and its domestic market results of the region’s rush to deliver for turbines has already become the economic growth. Developing world’s largest. The PRC also boasts FRXQWULHV LQ $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF IRXQG the world’s longest high-speed rail themselves “challenged by associated network, and holds close to 1,000 local air and water pollution, degraded and international patents for high- natural resources and threatened speed rail technologies. ecosystems, worsening water stress, Support for environmentally natural disasters, and increased friendly growth isn’t limited to Asia’s generation of wastes including economically powerful. At the Boao hazardous waste.” And the problems Forum in the PRC, former Philippine are being exacerbated by climate President Fidel Ramos urged Asian change. leaders to pursue a green recovery, “Anthropogenic climate change is even if it meant a painful transition ONE WORLD Leaders from around the a serious challenge to sustainability,” for countries in the region. Mongolian world will convene in June for the Earth notes the report. “It threatens not Prime Minister Sukhbaataryn Batbold Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. only the integrity of natural systems, conceded that it would take decades to but also the very fabric of economic wean his country from its dependence and social systems, especially in the on fossil fuels, but pledged to promote developing world. Among all the green strategies in mining, railways, “The concepts of a UHJLRQV $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF KDV WKH and construction. green economy and greatest number of people at risk from The talk was similarly bold in Seoul, climate change impacts.” Republic of Korea, in June last year green growth are With populations throughout much at the Global Green Growth Summit now moving into of the region continuing to rise, the hosted by the Government of the the mainstream of pressure to deliver economic progress Republic of Korea and the Organisation isn’t going to ease in the foreseeable for Economic Co-operation and global and regional future. Indeed, the political imperative Development. The theme of the policy discourse, not to create more jobs, modernize gathering was “Building Planet- to mention national infrastructure, and build new cities Responsible Civilization.” High-level only promises to increase. JRYHUQPHQW RIÀFLDOV GHYHORSPHQW strategies. ” “The industrial transformation in experts, and other participants shared Asia’s developing economies, the risePICTURE CREDIT: UN PHOTO/KIBAE PARK (REPUBLIC OF KOREA), NASA’S EARTH OBSERVATORY strategies for green growth and cross- ·(ZPHU +L]LSVWTLU[ )HUR in the material standard of living, 7YLZPKLU[ /HYOPRV 2YVKH border cooperation in the pursuit of and the reduction of poverty in many sustainable economies. In his opening of these countries will require great remarks, Lee Myung-bak, President to produce rising prosperity left those amounts of natural resources and of the Republic of Korea, set the tone warnings largely unheeded. In 2005, generate large quantities of emissions,” by calling for technological advances Asia’s voracious appetite for raw says Achim Steiner, an under-secretary- essential to building green economies materials hit a world-leading 35 billion general at the United Nations and that won’t threaten the prosperity of WRQV 7KDW ÀJXUH LV RQ WDUJHW WR UHDFK D executive director of UNEP. “Because future generations. staggering 80 billion tons by 2050. The UHVRXUFHV DUH ÀQLWH DQG WKH DEVRUSWLYH “We can make changes,” he said, region’s soaring demand for energy capacity of the Earth’s ecosystems is “if we concentrate all our efforts on is similarly insatiable: Asia and the limited, the aspirations of these nations harmony between man and the Earth.” 3DFLÀF·V VKDUH RI JOREDO HQHUJ GHPDQG will most likely be constrained by spiked from about 20.5% in 1975 to environmental factors.” ‘VORACIOUS APPETITE’ about 35.6% in 2005, and it is projected Although rapidly growing countries Forward-thinkers in Asia have to reach 50% by 2028, according to in Asia are becoming more resource- warned for years that the days of the United Nations Environment HIÀFLHQW RYHU WLPH WKH DUH VWLOO growth without regard for resource Programme (UNEP). UHODWLYHO OHVV HIÀFLHQW WKDQ GHYHORSHG consumption or environmental costs A recent Asian Development Bank countries, says Nessim Ahmad, could not continue. But the pressure (ADB) report, Greening Growth in Asia director of ADB’s Environment and www.development.asia January–March 2012 Development Asia 7
  14. 14. ,5=09654,5;! ;/, )0. 9,(+ UHVRXUFH HIÀFLHQF DQG SUHYHQWV WKH loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The concept is a derivative of “sustainable development,” an idea that arose in the 1980s with the belief that economic advancement around the world had to proceed in greater harmony with the natural environment. A 1987 report by the UN-backed World Commission on Environment and Development made the case for the interdependence of economic development and the environment. “The environment does not exist as a sphere separate from human actions, ambitions, and needs, and therefore it should not be considered in isolationWALL OF PROMISES United States region dearly, experts warn. from human concerns,” a summary ofPresident George H. W. Bush signs the “Asia cannot continue its current the report states. “The environment isEarth pledge with his wife Barbara during path of development, which is where we all live; and developmentWKH ÀUVW 8QLWHG 1DWLRQVVSRQVRUHG (DUWK not sustainable,” says Nay Htun, is what we all do in attempting toSummit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992, a former UN assistant secretary- improve our lot within that abode. Thewhich set in motion the global drive for general with considerable experience two are inseparable.”sustainable development. in development, environment, and The idea gained critical mass in June energy issues. “The consequences 1992 when delegates from around theSafeguards Division. He notes that include increasing inequities, poverty, world convened in Rio de Janeiro,$VLD·V UHVRXUFH HIÀFLHQF³XVLQJ IHZHU social strife, retarding economic %UD]LO IRU WKH ÀUVW 81 RQIHUHQFHresources per unit of gross domestic development and growth and on Environment and Development.product—is a key factor in the region’s worsening environmental quality, with The Agenda 21 action plan adoptedsustainable development. serious effects on human health and by the conference called on nations “In 2005, for instance, the PRC and well-being.” to adopt a model of sustainableIndia had material intensities of 9.2 The UN’s Steiner echoes that development in their pursuit ofand 6.84 kilograms per dollar of GDP, dire note. “Ultimately, the region’s social and economic advancementrespectively, while Japan had a material competitive viability will be governed in the 21st century. A year later, theintensity of under 0.30 kg per dollar by the speed and scale at which it UN established the Commission onRI *3 7KHVH H[LVWLQJ HIÀFLHQF JDSV adopts new industrial systems that use Sustainable Development to overseesignal a tremendous opportunity for a far less energy, materials, and water implementation of the agenda adoptedUHJLRQ WR DGRSW PRUH UHVRXUFHHIÀFLHQW as well as its continued progress on at Rio.production processes while pursuing achieving prosperity for the people,” Ten years after the Rio gathering,growth,” he says. he says. the World Summit on Sustainable The challenge for Asia is to deliver Those stark realities have attracted Development convened ineconomic gains while setting aside Asian policy makers to the idea of Johannesburg, South Africa, tothe growth-at-any-price development green development. reinvigorate the efforts set in motion inmodel. “Climate change and Brazil.environmental sustainability are INTERDEPENDENT AND Over the past decade, the conceptamong the key challenges,” Ahmad INSEPARABLE KDV XQGHUJRQH VXEWOH UHÀQHPHQWVsays. “The grow-now-clean-up-later It’s hard to argue with the philosophy giving rise to a philosophy that places PICTURE CREDIT: AFPapproach will undermine the future RI JUHHQ JURZWK $V GHÀQHG E 81(3 greater emphasis on growth rathergrowth and poverty reduction potential it increases income and employment, WKDQ VDFULÀFLQJ GHYHORSPHQW DPELWLRQVof the region.” reduces carbon emissions and to save the environment. It’s a critical The failure to change will cost the pollution, enhances energy and distinction for policy makers in Asia8 Development Asia January–March 2012 www.development.asia
  15. 15. and other developing regions of the He cites three countries in Asia that PRC also recently adopted a greenworld. are making progress on this front. development plan as part of its 12th “The concepts of a green economy ‡ 7KH 5HSXEOLF RI .RUHD KDV Five-Year Plan.and green growth are now moving SURPRWHG WKH HIÀFLHQW XVH RI UHVRXUFHV Steiner notes other importantinto the mainstream of global and waste prevention and resource initiatives underway around theregional policy discourse, not to reutilization, extended producer region: Indonesia’s efforts to phase outmention national strategies,” said ADB responsibility, and recycling since fossil fuels and reduce deforestation,President Haruhiko Kuroda in a recent the early 1990s. In 2008, it developed Thailand’s initiative on cleanspeech. a national strategy and action plan technology, Viet Nam’s policies on ´,W LV DERXW ÀQGLQJ ZDV IRU for low carbon green growth. More energy tariffs and subsidy reforms,countries to grow more sustainably. It recently, it has launched the Green India’s Rural Employment Guaranteeseeks to create jobs and new sources New Deal Policy to invest 2% of its Act and Clean Energy Fund, andof economic advancement based on GDP in green growth and created the Bhutan’s Gross National Happinessthe development and deployment of Global Green Growth Institute in Seoul. LQGLFHV DV SDUW RI D UHGHÀQLWLRQ RIclean technologies that curb pollution, ‡ -DSDQ KDV SLRQHHUHG UHVRXUFH wealth and economic progress.conserve our ecosystems, and prevent HIÀFLHQF DQG UHFFOLQJ ZLWK LWV “In my opinion, leadership andresource depletion.” Fundamental Law and Plan for vision have been fundamental to the The campaign for green growth will Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle development of such green initiativesmark another milestone at a propitious Society, which was adopted in 2000, and the political leaders of Asia–moment in 2012, when delegates from and its Law on Promoting Green 3DFLÀF VKRXOG EH FRQJUDWXODWHG IRUaround the world return to Rio for Purchasing, enacted in the same year. recognizing the need to change andthe UN Conference on Sustainable Numerous initiatives have followed. taking steps toward greener and moreDevelopment. ‡ 7KH 35 KDV ODXQFKHG D VHULHV RI sustainable development,” says Steiner. green growth initiatives, beginning “At the same time, the industrialLEADING THE WAY with a 2002 law promoting cleaner and business sectors, civil societyAt Rio, representatives of Asia and production, its Solid Waste Act organizations, and ordinary people areWKH 3DFLÀF ZLOO EH DEOH WR SRLQW WR (amended in 2004), and its Circular all making an important contribution.”substantial progress in several areas Economy Law in 2008, which promotes While working to achieve bettercritical to green growth: energy improved resource utilization and environmental balance in itsconservation and renewable energy reduction, reuse, and recycling of development efforts, the PRC has alsodevelopment, pollution mitigation, resources during production. The EHHQ D OHDGHU LQ WDSSLQJ WKH SURÀWexpansion of clean mass transitsystems, improved urban planning,and preservation of natural resources. “Reshaping and refocusingpolicies and investments can leadto better returns on natural, human,and economic capital,” says Steiner.“UNEP is already working with manycountries in the region to make thetransition to a sustainable developmentmodel, which is still the overarchinggoal.”RECYCLING PIONEER A TV set is placedon a disassembly line in Japan whereworkers dismantle the appliance andremove parts that may be recycled.-DSDQ KDV SLRQHHUHG UHVRXUFH HIÀFLHQFand recycling with its FundamentalLaw and Plan for Establishing a Sound0DWHULDOFOH 6RFLHW LQ www.development.asia January–March 2012 Development Asia 9
  16. 16. ,5=09654,5;! ;/, )0. 9,(+potential of the shift to low-carbon, wildly oscillating commodity prices major industrial and residential estategreen technologies—a fact underscored that we have recently witnessed, one developer in Indonesia, PT Jababekaby the PRC’s rapid emergence lesson learned from the crisis was that Terbuka, now advertises environmentalas the leading world supplier of countries should not rely solely on responsibility as a selling point towind turbines and high-speed rail exports for growth,” says Steiner. “As foreign corporations looking to relocatetechnology. In 2008, the PRC earned a result, there has been a shift in the to the Southeast Asian country. It toutsmore than $60 billion—1.4% of its region toward domestic consumption a pollution prevention program, theGDP—from green technology business as a driver of growth. Opportunities, “3R concept (reduce, recycle, reuse)activities. therefore, lie in the deployment of to lessen the negative impacts on the 7KH UHFHQW ÀQDQFLDO FULVLV KDV QRW green technologies more widely HQYLURQPHQWµ DQG DQ HQHUJHIÀFLHQFslowed the gathering momentum for within Asia, rather than emphasizing program “to reduce greenhouse gasgreen growth in Asia. In fact, the 2008– exclusively external markets for these emissions.” Working with Indonesia’s2009 crisis was an impetus for clean products.” eminent environmentalist andgrowth. Australia, the PRC, Japan, Nay Htun notes that green sustainable development advocate,and the Republic of Korea have been initiatives have been launched not Emil Salim, the company has promotedsingled out for praise by green growth just by governments, but also by tree planting and other green activities.DGYRFDWHV IRU GHYRWLQJ VLJQLÀFDQW nongovernment organizations and the ADB, the UN, the World Bank, andportions of economic stimulus funds SULYDWH VHFWRU LQ $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF other institutions have provided vitalduring the crisis to green growth and “Universities, too, are greening their support to the green developmentclean technology investments. campuses and curricula,” says the efforts underway in the region. And “While countries across the globe IRUPHU 81 RIÀFLDO ZKR LV FXUUHQWO this broad coalition of partners is whatare now rethinking their economies research professor at Stony Brook is needed in the future as well.and patterns of development in order University in New York. “Japan, [the “A lot of progress has beento minimize the kinds of shocks and People’s Republic of] China, and made since the 1992 Conference on [Republic of] Korea have major green Environment and Development in Rio,CLEAN CATCH $ PDQ WKURZV D ÀVKLQJ programs.” In Japan, the Fukushima and there is reason to be cautiouslynet over the Mekong River in Phnom earthquake and nuclear disaster “has optimistic about what comes in thePenh, Cambodia. Keeping water sources energized the government, business, future,” says Bindu Lohani, ADB vice-clean is one of the major issues facing and industry, and, importantly, the president for Knowledge ManagementAsia, which is under pressure to general public to go ‘green’ very and Sustainable Development.conserve this essential resource in the proactively and extensively.” “However, the challenges inIDFH RI JURZLQJ GHPDQG E IDVWJURZLQJ In another sign of the changing achieving green growth remaincities and industries. attitudes within the private sector, a numerous and varied,” he says. “This highlights the need for coordinated action and knowledge sharing to promote environmentally sustainable JURZWK LQ $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀFµ CARROT AND STICK APPROACH Among those challenges are thorny governance and regulatory issues. Carbon-polluting fossil fuels remain heavily subsidized in many countries. In many cases, entrenched business and political interests and corruption obstruct green policy changes. Proponents of green growth argue that ecological tax reform needs to PICTURE CREDIT: AFP take place to ensure equal treatment of traditional fuels and practices and clean technologies. They advocate the imposition of carbon taxes,10 Development Asia January–March 2012 www.development.asia
  17. 17. improve environmental compliance. an economist and an environmentalist. Another change that would facilitate He acknowledges that Indonesia greater acceptance of the green growth can’t sustain the depletion of natural philosophy is a new approach to resources caused by its mining and measuring economic performance, plantation-based economy. For some experts say. The contention is that Indonesia, the path to a greener GDP needs to be adjusted to account economy would mean adding value to for such factors as resource depletion its exports, transforming copper, palm and pollution. oil, and other raw products into more UNEP’s recent Green Economy YDOXDEOH ÀQLVKHG JRRGV %XW KH VDV Report notes that “a major challenge is Indonesia’s efforts in this regard are reconciling the competing economic being thwarted by the cost of foreignSHIFTING GEARS A commuter rides past development aspirations of rich and technology, and the higher tariffs thattransmission towers in Beijing. Asia has poor countries in a world economy that Indonesia’s value-added productsmade solid progress in reducing poverty. is facing increasing climate change, confront when exported to the US andYet, experts say the only way to achieve energy insecurity, and ecological other developed countries.ORQJWHUP SURVSHULW LV WR PLQLPL]H WKH scarcity.” It contends that this is “That is an inequity in the way theimpact on the environment by using less possible through a green economy global market works,” he says, anenergy and resources. that offers “a development path that inequity that is blocking Indonesia reduces carbon dependency, promotes from moving faster toward a greenlevies on the use of nonrenewable UHVRXUFH DQG HQHUJ HIÀFLHQF DQG economy and preserving its naturalenergy and virgin materials, and lessens environmental degradation. resources. “We can’t solve this problemfees and charges on practices that As economic growth and investments on our own.”pollute the environment or waste become less dependent on liquidating Indonesia and other developingnatural resources, and they call for HQYLURQPHQWDO DVVHWV DQG VDFULÀFLQJ countries face a similar dilemma whentax breaks on production methods or environmental quality, both rich confronted with outside pressure toconsumption patterns that produce and poor countries can attain more shift from polluting fossil fuels togreen outcomes. One example cited by sustainable economic development.” renewable energy sources, he says.green growth advocates is the PRC’s But forging a consensus between “The technology for renewablesubstitution of a standard road tax developing and developed countries energy is expensive,” he says. “Whenwith a fuel tax that encourages energy on these issues may be the greatest the government is confronted withHIÀFLHQF challenge of all, says Indonesia’s Salim, the choice—food for the poor or The key is a mix of market incentives technology for renewable energy—itand government regulation, experts will opt for food for the poor.”say. Indeed, throughout the region policy “Without a strong and credible “The technology for makers face the daunting challenge ofcompliance enforcement system, no delivering environmentally sustainable renewable energyincentives framework will deliver development while satisfying thebehavioral changes necessary to is expensive. When economic demands of rapidlyachieve green growth,” says ADB’s the government is growing populations. The acceleratingAhmad. “For example, experiences migration of rural dwellers to cities confronted with thein forest management show that a across Asia presents the region withmoratorium on logging backed up by choice—food for the unprecedented infrastructure demands.incentives for sustainable management poor or technology for As Asia’s cities swell by 44 millionand protection can work better than people each year, policy makers are renewable energy—iteither approach on its own.” faced with the staggering prospect of The Asian Environmental will opt for food for the adding 20,000 urban dwellings, 250Compliance and Enforcement poor” kilometers of roads, and 6 million litersNetwork, formed in 2005, has allowed of potable water each day to meet theHQYLURQPHQWDO DJHQF RIÀFLDOV IURP ·,TPS :HSPT 0UKVULZPH»Z LTPULU[ soaring demands.around the region to compare notes as LU]PYVUTLU[HSPZ[ HUK ZZ[HPUHISL While acknowledging thethey attempt to enforce regulations and KL]LSVWTLU[ HK]VJH[L daunting challenge this presents,www.development.asia January–March 2012 Development Asia 11
  18. 18. ,5=09654,5;! ;/, )0. 9,(+ADB’s Ahmad contends it is also far beyond the means of government policies, economic incentives,a “great opportunity to design, budgets. ÀQDQFLDO PHFKDQLVPV QRUPDWLYHbuild, and operate infrastructure on The key is using limited public sector measures, technology? Asia’sprinciples of sustainability, including IXQGV WR OHYHUDJH IDU PRUH VLJQLÀFDQW challenge, as in other countries, willDFFHVVLELOLW HFRHIÀFLHQF DQG VRFLDO amounts of private capital for green be the imperative behavioral changeinclusiveness.” investments. toward a developmental paradigm of Complicating the enormous social Global venture capital investments sustainability, resilience, inclusiveness,and economic demands that the in clean technology soared from $2.0 DQG HTXLWDEOH EHQHÀWV IRU DOOµJRYHUQPHQWV RI $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF billion in 2005 to $7.8 billion in 2010,will confront in the coming decades but only about 10% of that amount has GREENING THE GLOBAL ECONOMYare the mounting challenges posed found its way to the region. On 20–22 June 2012, world leaders,by climate change. ADB is among ADB has launched the Asia Climate development experts, environmentalthose advocating “ecosystem-based Change and Clean Energy Venture advocates, and other stakeholdersapproaches” to cope with the extreme Capital Initiative to increase that will gather in Rio de Janeiro for theeffects of climate change. One such ratio. ADB aims to nurture the rise pivotal United Nations Conferenceexample is making additional efforts of clean technology companies in on Sustainable Development. Rio+20,to protect mangroves rather than the region’s developing countries as the conference has been dubbed,building sea walls as a buffer against by supplementing the investments will mark the 20th anniversary of theincreasingly violent storms—efforts of venture capital funds with historic United Nations Conference onthat are not only cost-effective, but also equity infusions. The long-term Environment and Development in Rio,preserve vital ecosystems and generate goal is to stimulate the movement which set in motion the global driveRWKHU HFRQRPLF DQG VRFLDO EHQHÀWV of venture capital toward climate for sustainable development. It will The political will of governments change mitigation and clean energy also coincide with the 10th anniversarywill be further tested as the investments in the region. of the World Summit on Sustainabletransformation to a greener economy “Energy, urban development, Development, which reinvigorated theunfolds. As many as 50 million green transport, infrastructure, water, movement.jobs could be in Asia by 2025, the wastes, [and] biodiversity are all The conference has three statedInternational Labour Organization interconnected,” says Nay Htun, the objectives: to secure renewedestimates, but millions of others will be IRUPHU 81 RIÀFLDO ´7KH SDWKZD political commitment to sustainablelost as the fossil fuel industry and other toward greening is an integrated development, assess the progressLQHIÀFLHQW RU ORZWHFKQRORJ VHFWRUV and multisector, multidisciplinary and implementation gaps in previousdecline. This will require interim efforts approach. The major challenge agreements, and address new andto cushion the impact. is how to integrate. What are the emerging challenges. But the theme The transition to a sustainable PICTURE CREDIT: AFP (BANGKOK FLOOD), ADB PHOTO/GERHARD JOREN (SOLAR POWER)economy in the region promises to becostly, but green growth advocatescontend that delay or inaction iseven more expensive. Environmentalmitigation costs in developingcountries will top $100 billion by 2030.$VLD DQG 3DFLÀF DORQH IDFHV DQQXDOcosts estimated at $40 billion to adaptits economies to the demands ofenvironmental sustainability—amountsBRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATERBuddhist monks build a bridge aboveÁRRGZDWHUV LQ %DQJNRN LQ 1RYHPEHU $ UHFHQW UHSRUW E WKH $VLDQDevelopment Bank calls climatechange “the most dramatic symptom ofunsustainable development.”12 Development Asia January–March 2012 www.development.asia
  19. 19. that will dominate the Rio sessions is on sustainable development. I amthe urgent drive to rebalance poverty hopeful that building upon thiseradication and economic development consensus, Rio+20 will take sustainableefforts in an increasingly fragile global development to the comprehensiveenvironment, experts and advocates paradigm of greening and the linkagesay. with poverty eradication.” $FURVV $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF JUHHQ But Indonesia’s Salim is skepticalgrowth and the Rio conference are that the conference will produce atopics of intense discussions these dramatic step forward in the struggledays. In early October, about 100 to achieve global green growth. HeKLJKOHYHO JRYHUQPHQW RIÀFLDOV notes that the US will be facing aand experts from around the world presidential election in November 2012,convened in New Delhi, India, for and sees little prospect that the countrya dialogue on “Green Economy and will risk a bold initiative that mightInclusive Growth.” The meeting, alienate voters. Without US leadership,organized by the Government of India Europe is unlikely to support boldand the Rio+20 Secretariat, fostered steps, he says.a discussion on how green economy “Expect beautiful speeches,” heinitiatives can advance poverty says, “but I don’t think there will beeradication and social development HARNESSING SOLAR POWER The meaningful progress.”efforts by enhancing food and energy largest solar photovoltaic power plant Steiner is more hopeful.security for the poor. Later that month, in Asia lies on the plains of Lopburi, “By all accounts, we are alreadythe Republic of Korea hosted the Asia– Thailand. moving toward a green economy,”3DFLÀF 5HJLRQDO 3UHSDUDWRU 0HHWLQJ he says. “The economic imperativefor Rio+20, co-organized by the UN example of the PRC, Japan, and the WR DFKLHYH JUHDWHU UHVRXUFH HIÀFLHQFEconomic and Social Commission for Republic of Korea coming together and develop new technologies$VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF 81(3 DQG $% to create a trilateral partnership to demands that we must also considerThe meetings were something of a achieve low-carbon growth across the environmental and social aspectsdress rehearsal for the Rio conference, the region will set the tone. “These of this development. The Rio+20as participants attempted to reach a initiatives are setting the stage for the summit will be an opportunity to guideconsensus on critical components of type of cooperation we expect to see on this development and to accelerategreen development. a global scale at the Rio+20 Summit,” and scale-up its implementation. If While the nations of Asia and the he says. “In addition, we expect the governments fail to create the enabling3DFLÀF DUH PDNLQJ JUHDW HIIRUWV WR private sector and nongovernment frameworks needed for a globalcome together and speak as one voice organizations in the region to be transition to a green economy, they riskat Rio, a global consensus promises to increasingly vocal participants in the ORVLQJ RXW RQ WKH PDQ EHQHÀWV WKDWEH PXFK PRUH GLIÀFXOW 7KH DJHQGD process.” could result from mutual collaboration.for sustainable development and But opinions are divided as to Also, in the long term, countries thatgreen growth has been fragmented whether the differences between are already setting the pace in this areaby a proliferation of environmental developing and developed nations and will have an advantage—from creatingtreaties over the past 2 decades. The RWKHU JDSV FDQ EH VXIÀFLHQWO EULGJHG JUHDWHU HIÀFLHQFLHV E XSJUDGLQJ WKHLURio conference offers an opportunity to produce a meaningful political buildings and industries to generatingto bring about a more cohesive effort statement on how the global drive for huge cost savings by leapfroggingto help green development come to green development will proceed. developed countries.”fruition. “Major conferences like Rio+20 “Rio+20 can be just another date in “All of the governments raise considerable awareness among the calendar,” Steiner concludes, “orparticipating in the Rio+20 conference political leaders on the issues being an opportunity to evolve sustainablewill have a historic opportunity to addressed,” says Nay Htun. “This development to meet the persistent andpromote a green economy as a vehicle is always an important step leading emerging challenges of the 21st centuryfor achieving sustainable development WR DFWLRQV LQFOXGLQJ LQ $VLD²3DFLÀF while harvesting the opportunities for aand poverty eradication,” says the The Earth Summit at Rio 20 years fundamentally fresh, focused, and fairUN’s Steiner. He is hopeful that the ago raised awareness and consensus future for close to 7 billion people.” Qwww.development.asia January–March 2012 Development Asia 13
  20. 20. ;/, )0. 70*;9, Atmospheric Efforts Already among the top threats to health, outdoor air pollution is a concern in cities across developing Asia. Though the situation is improving in many areas, challenges remain as populations shift to urban centers and growing economies produce more vehicles and industry.Air quality indicatorsSelected indicators; annual ambient levels in selected Asian cities, averaged, in micrograms per cubic meter. Particulate matter (PM10a) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Associated with lung cancer, cardiopulmo- Long-term exposure may impair lung Can affect lungs and eyes. Evidence of nary disease; “Estimated to cause about 9% function and increase the risk of respiratory links to child respiratory disease and of lung cancer deaths, 5% of cardiopulmo- symptoms, including persistent cough in cardiac diseases, and increased mortality nary deaths and 1% of respiratory infection children, and exacerbate asthma. rate. Primary cause of acid rain. deaths,” according to the World Health Organization. 100micrograms per cubic meter 80 Concentration in 60 40 20 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008Deaths Due to Outdoor Air PollutionPer 100,000 population; 2008 data. 70 67 60 Listed as having a rate of less 49 50 than 1 per 100,000: Bhutan, Cook Islands, Kiribati, Mauritius, 40 40 FSM, Nauru, Niue, Palau, 35 Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and Tuvalu 28 30 25 21 20 14 14 16 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 6 6 7 7 8 10 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 0 Lao PDR Nepal Papua New Guinea Cambodia Sri Lanka Tajikistan Vanuatu Bangladesh Thailand Malaysia Togo Maldives Fiji Indonesia Myanmar Afghanistan Kyrgyzstan Philippines Uzbekistan Viet Nam Turkmenistan India Mauritania Azerbaijan Mongolia Pakistan Singapore PRC Kazakhstan Georgia Ukrainea PM10 = particulate matter of less than 10 microns in diameterNote: FSM = Federated States of Micronesia, GDP = gross domestic product, Lao PDR = Lao People’s Democratic Republic, PRC = People’s Republic of China. RESEARCH AND DESIGN: MARK BLACKWELL14 Development Asia January–March 2012 www.development.asia

×