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Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities

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Nathaniel Lee Bindoff, IPCC Author

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Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities

  1. 1. © Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities Nathan Bindoff 7 October 2017, Lautoka, Fiji
  2. 2. Multiple lines of robust evidence support the conclusion that many aspects of the climate system have changed. Warming in the climate system is unequivocal
  3. 3. The oceans have warmed. 0-700 m temperature trend, 1971-2010 Zonal average Human influence on the climate system is clear
  4. 4. Changes in key physical and biogeochemical properties and processes, including the deep ocean and relevant ocean regions, modes of variability, teleconnections and their feedbacks on the climate system A global view of oxygen loss over the past 50 years, largely fueled by warming, yields 2% loss, but much greater regional losses. Multiple mechanisms drive oxygen loss in the open ocean and generate climate feedbacks OCEAN DEOXYGENATION Schmidtko et al. 2017; Levin, 2018
  5. 5. Changes to resource ratios are usually ignored Changes to resource ratios shape ecosystems (long history in ecology) Key example: Fe/N ratio shaping success (or not) of nitrogen fixing algae Ward et al. (2013; Limnol. Oceanogr.) Resource ratios are changing in the north Pacific (and perhaps elsewhere …) Kim et al. (2014; Science) We need to think about relative changes and the impacts on the productivity and ecosystems 1 2
  6. 6. Catches and livelihood Loss of USD 10 billion in revenue per year, 35% more than loss of catches. Lam et al. (2016). Sci. Rep. Projected impacts on fish stocks and fisheries
  7. 7. Human communities (wellbeing) Nutrition Countries that are highly dependent on seafood-sourced micro-nutrient (e.g., omega-3- fatty acid, zinc) are projected to have largest decrease in catches under climate change. Golden et al. (2016) Nature.
  8. 8. Reefs at risk in the western pacific. Reefs at risk revisited. Burke et al 2011
  9. 9. Worst affected SIDS by the consequences of climate change by share GDP: Pacific Region. (UN-OHRLLS)
  10. 10. Chapter 5: Outline Executive Summary 1. Introduction 2. Changing Oceans and Biodiversity 3. Changing Marine Ecosystem Services and Human Wellbeing 4. Solutions and Governance 5. Synthesis
  11. 11. © Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude www.climatechange2013.org Further Information

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