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Addressing Academic
 Avoidance at Tier II


         Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD, BCBA-D

               University of Oregon
• Point card interventions—rationale and background
• Point cards within a multi-tiered system
• Tier II interventions—enhancing systems for positive and
  durable outcomes
• CICO—a foundation for Tier II interventions
• Breaks are Better
• Academic Behavior CICO


    Agenda
• Target behaviors operationally defined
• Assessment of student behavior
  • Pre-determined times
  • Numerical scale with defined values
• Contingencies for target behavior
• Home component
• Robust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002, 2005;
  Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010;
  Schumaker et al., 1977)


Point Card Interventions
in Schools
• Reliance on home contingencies
• Selection process inconsistent
• Individualized
  • Target responses
  • Evaluation metric and schedule
  • contingencies

Traditional “home-school
notes” may be difficult to
scale up
• Intervention for ALL students
• Effective: 80% or more meeting benchmarks




Tier I                                        5

                                                  5
• Intervention
  • Explicit instruction
  • Opportunities to practice in target settings
  • Feedback
• Systems
  • Defined and measurable outcomes
  • Student progress monitored
  • Team-based problem solving, coaching




Tier I
• Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee
  • Teachers are implementing
  • All students have access
• “At risk” students need proactive behavior
  management
• Before implementing more intensive support, ask
  yourself…




Considerations
At least 80% of
  students are
successful…what
 about the rest?




               8

                   8
Tier III   9

               9
Core
                +
          Supplemental




Tier II                  10

                              10
• Match needs of school
• Are implemented rapidly
  • Similar across students
  • Staff trained in intervention
  • Materials on hand                     Enhance fidelity
• Match problem
  • Intensity
  • Mechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficit
• Use data-based decision-making
  • Who will likely benefit?
  • Is the intervention working?
  • Next steps


   Tier II Interventions
                                                              Tier II
                                                             Assessm
                                                             ent Tool
CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT:
  TIER II BEHAVIOR REPORT
  CARDS



• Manualized intervention (Crone et al., 2010)
Student Recommended for CICO




           CICO is Implemented




                                                    CICO Coordinator
                  Morning                           summarizes data
                  check-in                         for decision making



 Parent                       Regular teacher    Bi-weekly coordination
feedback                         feedback       Meeting to assess student
                                                        progress


                  Afternoon
                  check-out
• 10 studies to date
 • Elementary school (7) & middle school (3)
 • Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic
   engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al.,
   2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et
   al.,2008)
 • CICO most effective for students emitting attention-
   maintained problem behavior (Campbell & Anderson, 2008;
   March & Horner, 2007; McIntosh et al., 2009)




Empirical Support
ACADEMIC BEHAVIOR CICO
J. Turtura
• Shares several features with CICO
  • Morning and afternoon checks in and out
  • Daily point card is foundation
  • Similar across students receiving intervention
  • Data guide decision-making
• Modifications designed to
  • Increase structure and feedback around recording
    assignments
  • Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations
  • Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day
  • Provide incentives for positive academic behavior


   Academic Behavior CICO
•   Morning check-in
•   Daily feedback sessions
•   Afternoon check-out
•   Home session




Components of ABC
Student meets with coordinator/mentor
• Is student prepared?
• Are assignments complete?
• Review home note
• Provide point card & tracker



                                        2 points
                                        possible


Morning Check-in
3 points per
                                                    expectation &
•   Student keeps point card (or separate tracker and have for
                                                      1 point
    student turn in to teacher)                       tracker use
•   Student meets academic expectations
•   Student completes assignment tracker
•   Feedback at end of class period
    • Academic expectations
    • Homework recorded accurately




Daily Feedback Sessions
Student meets with coordinator/mentor
• Review point card--% points earned
  • Provide incentives if using
  • Positive verbal feedback
• Review homework tracker—plan for work completion
• Complete home note
• End with encouragement
                                              2 points
                                              possible


Afternoon Check-out
Points          How Points
 Activity
                      Possible         are Earned
                                       Student has materials
 Morning Check-in           2             (1) and work is
                                           complete (1)

                                        Meet behavioral and
                       Up to 3 per
     Feedback                                academic
                       expectation
                                           expectations

                      1 per feedback   Assignments recorded
Homework Tracker
                          session            correctly

                                        Attend checkout (1)
Afternoon Check-out         2           and have teacher(s)
                                           signature (1)
• Location
• Materials available
  • Minimum: pencils, paper, erasers, etc.
  • Consider individual items such as textbooks
• Homework completion
  • Complete now—get pass to be late to class
  • Complete later—receive homework pass
  • 3 or more incompletes in 2-week period: consider new
    intervention




Morning Check-in Logistics
• Parent workshop first!




Home Component
•   Approximately 20 min
•   Overview of ABC
•   Establishing a homework routine
•   Planning for long-term projects
•   Organizing for success




Parent Workshop
• Parents do:
  • Review Assignments
  • Problem-solve homework completion/study plan
  • Complete home note
• Parents do not:
  • Complete work for child
  • Argue, use continued reminders
  • Offer additional incentives or negative consequences




Home Component
Similarities                        Differences
                                      • Morning check-in
•   Morning/afternoon check-in &
                                        • Bonus points
    out                                 • Opportunity to get ready for
•   Frequent feedback on behavior         day (avoid EOs)
•   Point card to monitor progress    • Feedback on academic and
                                        social behavior
•   Incentives for desired behavior   • Assignment tracker provided
                                        w/feedback
                                      • Home component
                                        • Parent training

                                        • Homework structure


    ABC and CICO
BREAKS ARE BETTER
Justin Boyd
• Shares several features with CICO
  • Morning and afternoon checks in and out
  • Daily point card is foundation
  • Similar across students receiving intervention
  • Data guide decision-making
• Modifications designed to
  • Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations
  • Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day
  • Provide incentives for positive academic behavior
  • Provide “replacement skill” to obtain brief break

   Breaks are Better (BrB)
•   Student meets with coordinator/mentor
•   Is student prepared?
•   Review home note
•   Provide point card, timer, & tracker




                                            2 points
                                            possible


Morning Check-in
•   Student keeps point card
•   Student meets academic & social behavior expectations
•   Student takes breaks when needed
•   Feedback at end of class period
         • Meeting expectations                 3 points per
         • Taking breaks if needed             expectation &
                                                 1 point for
                                                tracker use



Daily Feedback Sessions
Student meets with coordinator/mentor
• Review point card--% points earned
  • Provide incentives if using
  • Positive verbal feedback
• Complete home note
• Student turns in timer                2 points
• End with encouragement                possible




Afternoon Check-out
• Student engages in academic routines
 • Student can request a break
      • 2 min break
      • Specific activities during break
      • Student returns to work after break

                                              Breaks are
                                              Bettter



BrB During Academic
Routines
• Why should we allow breaks?
• Three breaks is too many!




Common
Questions/Concerns
Points          How Points
 Activity
                      Possible         are Earned
                                          Student attends
 Morning Check-in           2           check-in (1) and has
                                           materials (1)

                                        Meet behavioral and
                       Up to 3 per
     Feedback                                academic
                       expectation
                                           expectations

                                           Taking breaks
                      1 per feedback
   Break Tracker                          appropriately if
                          session
                                              needed

                                        Attend checkout (1)
Afternoon Check-out         2           and have teacher(s)
                                            ratings (1)
WORK TIME: PLANNING FOR
IMPLEMENTATION
•   Planning for ABC and BrB
•   Developing daily progress report
•   Progress monitoring
•   Implementing ABC and BrB




Implementation Planning
• Selecting coordinator(s)
• Modifying school-wide expectations




Planning for Implementation
• Roles and responsibilities
  • Ensure materials are available
  • Maintain staff buy-in
  • Train teachers, students
  • Inform parents
  • Monitor outcomes
  • Problem-solve
• Key characteristics
  • Fluent with ABC or BrB
  • Respected by adults and students
  • Time and skills to “make things happen”

    Intervention Coordinator
• One coordinator for whole school (CICO, BrB, ABC)
• One coordinator for each intervention
• Multiple roles per or across interventions
  • One person monitors data and trains across intervention(s)
  • One or more individuals perform check in and out
  • One or more individuals enter data*




     Coordinator options
•   Organize Materials               •   Counselor
•   Train staff, student, families   •   Counselor ddddddddd
•   Graph data                       •   Counselor
•   Oversee progress monitoring      •   Counselor ddddddddd
•   Check students in and out        •   Counselor


Liberty Elementary
School—300 students, 18
on CICO, 14 on BrB
• Program graduate/parent
• Organize Materials
                                         volunteer
  ccccddddd
                                   •   Counselor dddddbbbbbddd
• Train staff, student, families
                                   •   IA
• Graph data
                                   •   Counselor/IPBS team
• Oversee progress monitoring
                                   •   Counselor (12 ABC, 5 “advanced”
• Check students in and out
                                       CICO) Librarian (12 ABC), CICO:
                                       head receptionist, vice
                                       principal, grandparent volunteer




      Oceanside Middle—520 students 28 on
      CICO, 24 on ABC
Action Plan (ABC p 4, BRB p 5)
• Selecting coordinator
• Modifying school-wide expectations
• Linked to school-wide expectations
• All students have same academic expectations
  • Easy to implement
  • May not always match each student’s needs
• Students have individualized expectations
  • Easier to match student needs
  • May reduce fidelity




Expectations are…
                                                p. 5 ABC; p 6, BrB
•   Planning for ABC
•   Developing daily progress report
•   Progress monitoring
•   Implementing




Implementation Planning
•   School-wide expectations AND academic expectations
•   Age appropriate rating scale
•   Teacher friendly
•   Data easy to summarize and determine if goal is met




     Designing Daily Progress Reports
• Morning check in
  • Points tied to specific behaviors?
  • Plan if homework isn’t completed
• Daily feedback
  • BrB: how many breaks to be allotted?
  • ABC: points for assignments after each class (1,0 or 2,1,0)
• Afternoon check out
  • Points tied to specific behaviors
  • Home component


   DPR Variations to Consider
Workbook (ABC, p 5; BrB,
p 6)
• Modify point card to fit your school
• Homework tracker?




Develop Progress Report
(Appendix A)
• Rationale: Enhance strength of intervention
• Ideal: Positive adult interaction functions as reinforcer
• Options
  • No incentives, just adult contact/relationship
  • Add incentive system for all
  • Incentives are for participation only
  • Students earn incentive for meeting point goal on 4/5
    days
  • Incentives purchased for varying points

    Using Incentives in ABC and
    BrB
•   Small tangible items (e.g., stickers, snack, art supplies)
•   “Secret teacher” note
•   Extra time in preferred activity (e.g., library, computer)
•   Seat choice at lunch
•   SWPBS points, trip to treasure chest
•   Free ticket to school event (e.g., sports game)
•   Parking pass for a day
•   Lunch with principal or favorite teacher/staff




Acknowledgement Ideas
ABC P 6; BrB P 8
•   Planning for ABC
•   Developing ABC daily progress report
•   Progress monitoring ABC
•   Implementing ABC




Implementation Planning
• Standardized assessment/SpEd eligibility
• Group conversations
• Best guess




Data-Based Decision-
Making at Tier II
• Determine progress goals
• Identify measurement system
• Set timeline for achieving goals



    80% of points for 4 out
   Monitoring Student
     of 5 days within two
   Progress weeks
                                     Work book p 8
• CICO/SWIS
• IPBS spreadsheet (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)
• Make your own spreadsheet




Options for Progress
                                                     BrB
                                               ABC



Monitoring
• Standard selection criteria
• Consider
  •   Students not succeeding on CICO
  •   Students recommended by others
  •   Teacher referral indicates work avoidance
  •   Off-task behavior is key problem




Selecting Students for
Intervention
•   Planning for ABC
•   Developing ABC daily progress report
•   Progress monitoring ABC
•   Implementing ABC




Implementation Planning
• ABC Parents Guide (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)
• Hold parent meeting
  • Purpose of ABC and why child was selected
  • Develop homework routine with parents
  • Review positive ways to respond to child when
     • Daily goals are or are not met
     • Homework is or is not completed




Introduce ABC to Parents
• Provide rationale
• Obtain student buy-in
  • Student is eager
  • Student uncertain
  • Student unwilling
• Student contract (Appendix C, p. 15)




   Introduce ABC to Students
GETTING STARTED: A FEW TIPS
• Start with ALL possible candidates
• Begin with the most difficult students
• Begin with students of most challenging teachers




 Begin with 3-5 students
 Students and teachers most likely to succeed



    What Not to Do
Questions
http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/

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Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop

  • 1. Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD, BCBA-D University of Oregon
  • 2. • Point card interventions—rationale and background • Point cards within a multi-tiered system • Tier II interventions—enhancing systems for positive and durable outcomes • CICO—a foundation for Tier II interventions • Breaks are Better • Academic Behavior CICO Agenda
  • 3. • Target behaviors operationally defined • Assessment of student behavior • Pre-determined times • Numerical scale with defined values • Contingencies for target behavior • Home component • Robust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002, 2005; Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010; Schumaker et al., 1977) Point Card Interventions in Schools
  • 4. • Reliance on home contingencies • Selection process inconsistent • Individualized • Target responses • Evaluation metric and schedule • contingencies Traditional “home-school notes” may be difficult to scale up
  • 5. • Intervention for ALL students • Effective: 80% or more meeting benchmarks Tier I 5 5
  • 6. • Intervention • Explicit instruction • Opportunities to practice in target settings • Feedback • Systems • Defined and measurable outcomes • Student progress monitored • Team-based problem solving, coaching Tier I
  • 7. • Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee • Teachers are implementing • All students have access • “At risk” students need proactive behavior management • Before implementing more intensive support, ask yourself… Considerations
  • 8. At least 80% of students are successful…what about the rest? 8 8
  • 9. Tier III 9 9
  • 10. Core + Supplemental Tier II 10 10
  • 11.
  • 12. • Match needs of school • Are implemented rapidly • Similar across students • Staff trained in intervention • Materials on hand Enhance fidelity • Match problem • Intensity • Mechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficit • Use data-based decision-making • Who will likely benefit? • Is the intervention working? • Next steps Tier II Interventions Tier II Assessm ent Tool
  • 13. CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT: TIER II BEHAVIOR REPORT CARDS • Manualized intervention (Crone et al., 2010)
  • 14. Student Recommended for CICO CICO is Implemented CICO Coordinator Morning summarizes data check-in for decision making Parent Regular teacher Bi-weekly coordination feedback feedback Meeting to assess student progress Afternoon check-out
  • 15. • 10 studies to date • Elementary school (7) & middle school (3) • Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008) • CICO most effective for students emitting attention- maintained problem behavior (Campbell & Anderson, 2008; March & Horner, 2007; McIntosh et al., 2009) Empirical Support
  • 17. • Shares several features with CICO • Morning and afternoon checks in and out • Daily point card is foundation • Similar across students receiving intervention • Data guide decision-making • Modifications designed to • Increase structure and feedback around recording assignments • Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations • Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day • Provide incentives for positive academic behavior Academic Behavior CICO
  • 18. Morning check-in • Daily feedback sessions • Afternoon check-out • Home session Components of ABC
  • 19. Student meets with coordinator/mentor • Is student prepared? • Are assignments complete? • Review home note • Provide point card & tracker 2 points possible Morning Check-in
  • 20. 3 points per expectation & • Student keeps point card (or separate tracker and have for 1 point student turn in to teacher) tracker use • Student meets academic expectations • Student completes assignment tracker • Feedback at end of class period • Academic expectations • Homework recorded accurately Daily Feedback Sessions
  • 21. Student meets with coordinator/mentor • Review point card--% points earned • Provide incentives if using • Positive verbal feedback • Review homework tracker—plan for work completion • Complete home note • End with encouragement 2 points possible Afternoon Check-out
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Points How Points Activity Possible are Earned Student has materials Morning Check-in 2 (1) and work is complete (1) Meet behavioral and Up to 3 per Feedback academic expectation expectations 1 per feedback Assignments recorded Homework Tracker session correctly Attend checkout (1) Afternoon Check-out 2 and have teacher(s) signature (1)
  • 25. • Location • Materials available • Minimum: pencils, paper, erasers, etc. • Consider individual items such as textbooks • Homework completion • Complete now—get pass to be late to class • Complete later—receive homework pass • 3 or more incompletes in 2-week period: consider new intervention Morning Check-in Logistics
  • 26. • Parent workshop first! Home Component
  • 27. Approximately 20 min • Overview of ABC • Establishing a homework routine • Planning for long-term projects • Organizing for success Parent Workshop
  • 28. • Parents do: • Review Assignments • Problem-solve homework completion/study plan • Complete home note • Parents do not: • Complete work for child • Argue, use continued reminders • Offer additional incentives or negative consequences Home Component
  • 29. Similarities Differences • Morning check-in • Morning/afternoon check-in & • Bonus points out • Opportunity to get ready for • Frequent feedback on behavior day (avoid EOs) • Point card to monitor progress • Feedback on academic and social behavior • Incentives for desired behavior • Assignment tracker provided w/feedback • Home component • Parent training • Homework structure ABC and CICO
  • 31. • Shares several features with CICO • Morning and afternoon checks in and out • Daily point card is foundation • Similar across students receiving intervention • Data guide decision-making • Modifications designed to • Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations • Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day • Provide incentives for positive academic behavior • Provide “replacement skill” to obtain brief break Breaks are Better (BrB)
  • 32. Student meets with coordinator/mentor • Is student prepared? • Review home note • Provide point card, timer, & tracker 2 points possible Morning Check-in
  • 33. Student keeps point card • Student meets academic & social behavior expectations • Student takes breaks when needed • Feedback at end of class period • Meeting expectations 3 points per • Taking breaks if needed expectation & 1 point for tracker use Daily Feedback Sessions
  • 34. Student meets with coordinator/mentor • Review point card--% points earned • Provide incentives if using • Positive verbal feedback • Complete home note • Student turns in timer 2 points • End with encouragement possible Afternoon Check-out
  • 35. • Student engages in academic routines • Student can request a break • 2 min break • Specific activities during break • Student returns to work after break Breaks are Bettter BrB During Academic Routines
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. • Why should we allow breaks? • Three breaks is too many! Common Questions/Concerns
  • 39. Points How Points Activity Possible are Earned Student attends Morning Check-in 2 check-in (1) and has materials (1) Meet behavioral and Up to 3 per Feedback academic expectation expectations Taking breaks 1 per feedback Break Tracker appropriately if session needed Attend checkout (1) Afternoon Check-out 2 and have teacher(s) ratings (1)
  • 40. WORK TIME: PLANNING FOR IMPLEMENTATION
  • 41. Planning for ABC and BrB • Developing daily progress report • Progress monitoring • Implementing ABC and BrB Implementation Planning
  • 42. • Selecting coordinator(s) • Modifying school-wide expectations Planning for Implementation
  • 43. • Roles and responsibilities • Ensure materials are available • Maintain staff buy-in • Train teachers, students • Inform parents • Monitor outcomes • Problem-solve • Key characteristics • Fluent with ABC or BrB • Respected by adults and students • Time and skills to “make things happen” Intervention Coordinator
  • 44. • One coordinator for whole school (CICO, BrB, ABC) • One coordinator for each intervention • Multiple roles per or across interventions • One person monitors data and trains across intervention(s) • One or more individuals perform check in and out • One or more individuals enter data* Coordinator options
  • 45. Organize Materials • Counselor • Train staff, student, families • Counselor ddddddddd • Graph data • Counselor • Oversee progress monitoring • Counselor ddddddddd • Check students in and out • Counselor Liberty Elementary School—300 students, 18 on CICO, 14 on BrB
  • 46. • Program graduate/parent • Organize Materials volunteer ccccddddd • Counselor dddddbbbbbddd • Train staff, student, families • IA • Graph data • Counselor/IPBS team • Oversee progress monitoring • Counselor (12 ABC, 5 “advanced” • Check students in and out CICO) Librarian (12 ABC), CICO: head receptionist, vice principal, grandparent volunteer Oceanside Middle—520 students 28 on CICO, 24 on ABC
  • 47. Action Plan (ABC p 4, BRB p 5)
  • 48. • Selecting coordinator • Modifying school-wide expectations
  • 49. • Linked to school-wide expectations • All students have same academic expectations • Easy to implement • May not always match each student’s needs • Students have individualized expectations • Easier to match student needs • May reduce fidelity Expectations are… p. 5 ABC; p 6, BrB
  • 50. Planning for ABC • Developing daily progress report • Progress monitoring • Implementing Implementation Planning
  • 51. School-wide expectations AND academic expectations • Age appropriate rating scale • Teacher friendly • Data easy to summarize and determine if goal is met Designing Daily Progress Reports
  • 52. • Morning check in • Points tied to specific behaviors? • Plan if homework isn’t completed • Daily feedback • BrB: how many breaks to be allotted? • ABC: points for assignments after each class (1,0 or 2,1,0) • Afternoon check out • Points tied to specific behaviors • Home component DPR Variations to Consider
  • 53. Workbook (ABC, p 5; BrB, p 6)
  • 54. • Modify point card to fit your school • Homework tracker? Develop Progress Report (Appendix A)
  • 55. • Rationale: Enhance strength of intervention • Ideal: Positive adult interaction functions as reinforcer • Options • No incentives, just adult contact/relationship • Add incentive system for all • Incentives are for participation only • Students earn incentive for meeting point goal on 4/5 days • Incentives purchased for varying points Using Incentives in ABC and BrB
  • 56. Small tangible items (e.g., stickers, snack, art supplies) • “Secret teacher” note • Extra time in preferred activity (e.g., library, computer) • Seat choice at lunch • SWPBS points, trip to treasure chest • Free ticket to school event (e.g., sports game) • Parking pass for a day • Lunch with principal or favorite teacher/staff Acknowledgement Ideas
  • 57. ABC P 6; BrB P 8
  • 58. Planning for ABC • Developing ABC daily progress report • Progress monitoring ABC • Implementing ABC Implementation Planning
  • 59. • Standardized assessment/SpEd eligibility • Group conversations • Best guess Data-Based Decision- Making at Tier II
  • 60. • Determine progress goals • Identify measurement system • Set timeline for achieving goals 80% of points for 4 out Monitoring Student of 5 days within two Progress weeks Work book p 8
  • 61.
  • 62. • CICO/SWIS • IPBS spreadsheet (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/) • Make your own spreadsheet Options for Progress BrB ABC Monitoring
  • 63. • Standard selection criteria • Consider • Students not succeeding on CICO • Students recommended by others • Teacher referral indicates work avoidance • Off-task behavior is key problem Selecting Students for Intervention
  • 64.
  • 65. Planning for ABC • Developing ABC daily progress report • Progress monitoring ABC • Implementing ABC Implementation Planning
  • 66. • ABC Parents Guide (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/) • Hold parent meeting • Purpose of ABC and why child was selected • Develop homework routine with parents • Review positive ways to respond to child when • Daily goals are or are not met • Homework is or is not completed Introduce ABC to Parents
  • 67. • Provide rationale • Obtain student buy-in • Student is eager • Student uncertain • Student unwilling • Student contract (Appendix C, p. 15) Introduce ABC to Students
  • 68. GETTING STARTED: A FEW TIPS
  • 69. • Start with ALL possible candidates • Begin with the most difficult students • Begin with students of most challenging teachers  Begin with 3-5 students  Students and teachers most likely to succeed What Not to Do

Editor's Notes

  1. Known as home-school notes, DPR, home/school notes,DBRS, BRC, etc.
  2. Robust research base BUT-studies focused on one or a few children-point cards now are used pretty widely in schools--fidelity is a big question as are outcomes
  3. Selection process—most schools don’t have system for identifying students in need of intervention or likely to benefit.Fidelity—remember how to implement with each studentResponse effort—new materials each time, etc
  4. Tier I begins w/clear goalsWhat do we expect students to learn?How will we know if it is learned?How do we respond when students have not learned?How do we respond when students learn early?
  5. Tier III guiding questionsWhat is the current level of performance?Where do we want to be & by when?How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there?What resources are needed to move at this rate?
  6. Tier II guiding questionsWhat is the current level of performance?Where do we want to be & by when?How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there?What resources are needed to move at this rate?
  7. Parent handbookStudent contract
  8. Use parent handbook
  9. Sit in the back of the roomLook at a book in my seatDoodlePut my head down on my deskLook out the windowGo to the back of the room and stretchGo sharpen my pencilSort papers for my teacher
  10. Who wants BrBWho wants ABCWho wants both?
  11. Coordinator often is more than one person
  12. Anyone can enter but SOMEONE needs to graph!
  13. Suggest: begin with same and modify as needed. NEVER take away and add new ones—the ones the student succeeded on likely will “come back.”
  14. Use this to develop your point card—see appendix A (you can get an e-copy on line)
  15. In increasing order of complexity
  16. P 6 ABCP 8 BrB
  17. Why don’t we use data for Tiers II and III like we do for Tier I?
  18. P 8 ABCP 10BrB
  19. Make less likely to “miss” kids
  20. 8 ABC, 10 BrB