Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II         Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD, BCBA-D               University of Oregon
• Point card interventions—rationale and background• Point cards within a multi-tiered system• Tier II interventions—enhan...
• Target behaviors operationally defined• Assessment of student behavior  • Pre-determined times  • Numerical scale with d...
• Reliance on home contingencies• Selection process inconsistent• Individualized  • Target responses  • Evaluation metric ...
• Intervention for ALL students• Effective: 80% or more meeting benchmarksTier I                                        5 ...
• Intervention  • Explicit instruction  • Opportunities to practice in target settings  • Feedback• Systems  • Defined and...
• Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee  • Teachers are implementing  • All students have access• “At risk” students ne...
At least 80% of  students aresuccessful…what about the rest?               8                   8
Tier III   9               9
Core                +          SupplementalTier II                  10                              10
• Match needs of school• Are implemented rapidly  • Similar across students  • Staff trained in intervention  • Materials ...
CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT:  TIER II BEHAVIOR REPORT  CARDS• Manualized intervention (Crone et al., 2010)
Student Recommended for CICO           CICO is Implemented                                                    CICO Coordin...
• 10 studies to date • Elementary school (7) & middle school (3) • Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic   engag...
ACADEMIC BEHAVIOR CICOJ. Turtura
• Shares several features with CICO  • Morning and afternoon checks in and out  • Daily point card is foundation  • Simila...
•   Morning check-in•   Daily feedback sessions•   Afternoon check-out•   Home sessionComponents of ABC
Student meets with coordinator/mentor• Is student prepared?• Are assignments complete?• Review home note• Provide point ca...
3 points per                                                    expectation &•   Student keeps point card (or separate tra...
Student meets with coordinator/mentor• Review point card--% points earned  • Provide incentives if using  • Positive verba...
Points          How Points Activity                      Possible         are Earned                                      ...
• Location• Materials available  • Minimum: pencils, paper, erasers, etc.  • Consider individual items such as textbooks• ...
• Parent workshop first!Home Component
•   Approximately 20 min•   Overview of ABC•   Establishing a homework routine•   Planning for long-term projects•   Organ...
• Parents do:  • Review Assignments  • Problem-solve homework completion/study plan  • Complete home note• Parents do not:...
Similarities                        Differences                                      • Morning check-in•   Morning/afterno...
BREAKS ARE BETTERJustin Boyd
• Shares several features with CICO  • Morning and afternoon checks in and out  • Daily point card is foundation  • Simila...
•   Student meets with coordinator/mentor•   Is student prepared?•   Review home note•   Provide point card, timer, & trac...
•   Student keeps point card•   Student meets academic & social behavior expectations•   Student takes breaks when needed•...
Student meets with coordinator/mentor• Review point card--% points earned  • Provide incentives if using  • Positive verba...
• Student engages in academic routines • Student can request a break      • 2 min break      • Specific activities during ...
• Why should we allow breaks?• Three breaks is too many!CommonQuestions/Concerns
Points          How Points Activity                      Possible         are Earned                                      ...
WORK TIME: PLANNING FORIMPLEMENTATION
•   Planning for ABC and BrB•   Developing daily progress report•   Progress monitoring•   Implementing ABC and BrBImpleme...
• Selecting coordinator(s)• Modifying school-wide expectationsPlanning for Implementation
• Roles and responsibilities  • Ensure materials are available  • Maintain staff buy-in  • Train teachers, students  • Inf...
• One coordinator for whole school (CICO, BrB, ABC)• One coordinator for each intervention• Multiple roles per or across i...
•   Organize Materials               •   Counselor•   Train staff, student, families   •   Counselor ddddddddd•   Graph da...
• Program graduate/parent• Organize Materials                                         volunteer  ccccddddd                ...
Action Plan (ABC p 4, BRB p 5)
• Selecting coordinator• Modifying school-wide expectations
• Linked to school-wide expectations• All students have same academic expectations  • Easy to implement  • May not always ...
•   Planning for ABC•   Developing daily progress report•   Progress monitoring•   ImplementingImplementation Planning
•   School-wide expectations AND academic expectations•   Age appropriate rating scale•   Teacher friendly•   Data easy to...
• Morning check in  • Points tied to specific behaviors?  • Plan if homework isn’t completed• Daily feedback  • BrB: how m...
Workbook (ABC, p 5; BrB,p 6)
• Modify point card to fit your school• Homework tracker?Develop Progress Report(Appendix A)
• Rationale: Enhance strength of intervention• Ideal: Positive adult interaction functions as reinforcer• Options  • No in...
•   Small tangible items (e.g., stickers, snack, art supplies)•   “Secret teacher” note•   Extra time in preferred activit...
ABC P 6; BrB P 8
•   Planning for ABC•   Developing ABC daily progress report•   Progress monitoring ABC•   Implementing ABCImplementation ...
• Standardized assessment/SpEd eligibility• Group conversations• Best guessData-Based Decision-Making at Tier II
• Determine progress goals• Identify measurement system• Set timeline for achieving goals    80% of points for 4 out   Mon...
• CICO/SWIS• IPBS spreadsheet (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)• Make your own spreadsheetOptions for Progress               ...
• Standard selection criteria• Consider  •   Students not succeeding on CICO  •   Students recommended by others  •   Teac...
•   Planning for ABC•   Developing ABC daily progress report•   Progress monitoring ABC•   Implementing ABCImplementation ...
• ABC Parents Guide (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)• Hold parent meeting  • Purpose of ABC and why child was selected  • De...
• Provide rationale• Obtain student buy-in  • Student is eager  • Student uncertain  • Student unwilling• Student contract...
GETTING STARTED: A FEW TIPS
• Start with ALL possible candidates• Begin with the most difficult students• Begin with students of most challenging teac...
Questionshttp://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/
Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop
Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop
Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop
Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop
Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop
Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop
Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop
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Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop

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  • Known as home-school notes, DPR, home/school notes,DBRS, BRC, etc.
  • Robust research base BUT-studies focused on one or a few children-point cards now are used pretty widely in schools--fidelity is a big question as are outcomes
  • Selection process—most schools don’t have system for identifying students in need of intervention or likely to benefit.Fidelity—remember how to implement with each studentResponse effort—new materials each time, etc
  • Tier I begins w/clear goalsWhat do we expect students to learn?How will we know if it is learned?How do we respond when students have not learned?How do we respond when students learn early?
  • Tier III guiding questionsWhat is the current level of performance?Where do we want to be & by when?How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there?What resources are needed to move at this rate?
  • Tier II guiding questionsWhat is the current level of performance?Where do we want to be & by when?How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there?What resources are needed to move at this rate?
  • Parent handbookStudent contract
  • Use parent handbook
  • Sit in the back of the roomLook at a book in my seatDoodlePut my head down on my deskLook out the windowGo to the back of the room and stretchGo sharpen my pencilSort papers for my teacher
  • Who wants BrBWho wants ABCWho wants both?
  • Coordinator often is more than one person
  • Anyone can enter but SOMEONE needs to graph!
  • Suggest: begin with same and modify as needed. NEVER take away and add new ones—the ones the student succeeded on likely will “come back.”
  • Use this to develop your point card—see appendix A (you can get an e-copy on line)
  • In increasing order of complexity
  • P 6 ABCP 8 BrB
  • Why don’t we use data for Tiers II and III like we do for Tier I?
  • P 8 ABCP 10BrB
  • Make less likely to “miss” kids
  • 8 ABC, 10 BrB
  • Tier II for Work Avoidance Workshop

    1. 1. Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD, BCBA-D University of Oregon
    2. 2. • Point card interventions—rationale and background• Point cards within a multi-tiered system• Tier II interventions—enhancing systems for positive and durable outcomes• CICO—a foundation for Tier II interventions• Breaks are Better• Academic Behavior CICO Agenda
    3. 3. • Target behaviors operationally defined• Assessment of student behavior • Pre-determined times • Numerical scale with defined values• Contingencies for target behavior• Home component• Robust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002, 2005; Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010; Schumaker et al., 1977)Point Card Interventionsin Schools
    4. 4. • Reliance on home contingencies• Selection process inconsistent• Individualized • Target responses • Evaluation metric and schedule • contingenciesTraditional “home-schoolnotes” may be difficult toscale up
    5. 5. • Intervention for ALL students• Effective: 80% or more meeting benchmarksTier I 5 5
    6. 6. • Intervention • Explicit instruction • Opportunities to practice in target settings • Feedback• Systems • Defined and measurable outcomes • Student progress monitored • Team-based problem solving, coachingTier I
    7. 7. • Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee • Teachers are implementing • All students have access• “At risk” students need proactive behavior management• Before implementing more intensive support, ask yourself…Considerations
    8. 8. At least 80% of students aresuccessful…what about the rest? 8 8
    9. 9. Tier III 9 9
    10. 10. Core + SupplementalTier II 10 10
    11. 11. • Match needs of school• Are implemented rapidly • Similar across students • Staff trained in intervention • Materials on hand Enhance fidelity• Match problem • Intensity • Mechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficit• Use data-based decision-making • Who will likely benefit? • Is the intervention working? • Next steps Tier II Interventions Tier II Assessm ent Tool
    12. 12. CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT: TIER II BEHAVIOR REPORT CARDS• Manualized intervention (Crone et al., 2010)
    13. 13. Student Recommended for CICO CICO is Implemented CICO Coordinator Morning summarizes data check-in for decision making Parent Regular teacher Bi-weekly coordinationfeedback feedback Meeting to assess student progress Afternoon check-out
    14. 14. • 10 studies to date • Elementary school (7) & middle school (3) • Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008) • CICO most effective for students emitting attention- maintained problem behavior (Campbell & Anderson, 2008; March & Horner, 2007; McIntosh et al., 2009)Empirical Support
    15. 15. ACADEMIC BEHAVIOR CICOJ. Turtura
    16. 16. • Shares several features with CICO • Morning and afternoon checks in and out • Daily point card is foundation • Similar across students receiving intervention • Data guide decision-making• Modifications designed to • Increase structure and feedback around recording assignments • Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations • Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day • Provide incentives for positive academic behavior Academic Behavior CICO
    17. 17. • Morning check-in• Daily feedback sessions• Afternoon check-out• Home sessionComponents of ABC
    18. 18. Student meets with coordinator/mentor• Is student prepared?• Are assignments complete?• Review home note• Provide point card & tracker 2 points possibleMorning Check-in
    19. 19. 3 points per expectation &• Student keeps point card (or separate tracker and have for 1 point student turn in to teacher) tracker use• Student meets academic expectations• Student completes assignment tracker• Feedback at end of class period • Academic expectations • Homework recorded accuratelyDaily Feedback Sessions
    20. 20. Student meets with coordinator/mentor• Review point card--% points earned • Provide incentives if using • Positive verbal feedback• Review homework tracker—plan for work completion• Complete home note• End with encouragement 2 points possibleAfternoon Check-out
    21. 21. Points How Points Activity Possible are Earned Student has materials Morning Check-in 2 (1) and work is complete (1) Meet behavioral and Up to 3 per Feedback academic expectation expectations 1 per feedback Assignments recordedHomework Tracker session correctly Attend checkout (1)Afternoon Check-out 2 and have teacher(s) signature (1)
    22. 22. • Location• Materials available • Minimum: pencils, paper, erasers, etc. • Consider individual items such as textbooks• Homework completion • Complete now—get pass to be late to class • Complete later—receive homework pass • 3 or more incompletes in 2-week period: consider new interventionMorning Check-in Logistics
    23. 23. • Parent workshop first!Home Component
    24. 24. • Approximately 20 min• Overview of ABC• Establishing a homework routine• Planning for long-term projects• Organizing for successParent Workshop
    25. 25. • Parents do: • Review Assignments • Problem-solve homework completion/study plan • Complete home note• Parents do not: • Complete work for child • Argue, use continued reminders • Offer additional incentives or negative consequencesHome Component
    26. 26. Similarities Differences • Morning check-in• Morning/afternoon check-in & • Bonus points out • Opportunity to get ready for• Frequent feedback on behavior day (avoid EOs)• Point card to monitor progress • Feedback on academic and social behavior• Incentives for desired behavior • Assignment tracker provided w/feedback • Home component • Parent training • Homework structure ABC and CICO
    27. 27. BREAKS ARE BETTERJustin Boyd
    28. 28. • Shares several features with CICO • Morning and afternoon checks in and out • Daily point card is foundation • Similar across students receiving intervention • Data guide decision-making• Modifications designed to • Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations • Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day • Provide incentives for positive academic behavior • Provide “replacement skill” to obtain brief break Breaks are Better (BrB)
    29. 29. • Student meets with coordinator/mentor• Is student prepared?• Review home note• Provide point card, timer, & tracker 2 points possibleMorning Check-in
    30. 30. • Student keeps point card• Student meets academic & social behavior expectations• Student takes breaks when needed• Feedback at end of class period • Meeting expectations 3 points per • Taking breaks if needed expectation & 1 point for tracker useDaily Feedback Sessions
    31. 31. Student meets with coordinator/mentor• Review point card--% points earned • Provide incentives if using • Positive verbal feedback• Complete home note• Student turns in timer 2 points• End with encouragement possibleAfternoon Check-out
    32. 32. • Student engages in academic routines • Student can request a break • 2 min break • Specific activities during break • Student returns to work after break Breaks are BettterBrB During AcademicRoutines
    33. 33. • Why should we allow breaks?• Three breaks is too many!CommonQuestions/Concerns
    34. 34. Points How Points Activity Possible are Earned Student attends Morning Check-in 2 check-in (1) and has materials (1) Meet behavioral and Up to 3 per Feedback academic expectation expectations Taking breaks 1 per feedback Break Tracker appropriately if session needed Attend checkout (1)Afternoon Check-out 2 and have teacher(s) ratings (1)
    35. 35. WORK TIME: PLANNING FORIMPLEMENTATION
    36. 36. • Planning for ABC and BrB• Developing daily progress report• Progress monitoring• Implementing ABC and BrBImplementation Planning
    37. 37. • Selecting coordinator(s)• Modifying school-wide expectationsPlanning for Implementation
    38. 38. • Roles and responsibilities • Ensure materials are available • Maintain staff buy-in • Train teachers, students • Inform parents • Monitor outcomes • Problem-solve• Key characteristics • Fluent with ABC or BrB • Respected by adults and students • Time and skills to “make things happen” Intervention Coordinator
    39. 39. • One coordinator for whole school (CICO, BrB, ABC)• One coordinator for each intervention• Multiple roles per or across interventions • One person monitors data and trains across intervention(s) • One or more individuals perform check in and out • One or more individuals enter data* Coordinator options
    40. 40. • Organize Materials • Counselor• Train staff, student, families • Counselor ddddddddd• Graph data • Counselor• Oversee progress monitoring • Counselor ddddddddd• Check students in and out • CounselorLiberty ElementarySchool—300 students, 18on CICO, 14 on BrB
    41. 41. • Program graduate/parent• Organize Materials volunteer ccccddddd • Counselor dddddbbbbbddd• Train staff, student, families • IA• Graph data • Counselor/IPBS team• Oversee progress monitoring • Counselor (12 ABC, 5 “advanced”• Check students in and out CICO) Librarian (12 ABC), CICO: head receptionist, vice principal, grandparent volunteer Oceanside Middle—520 students 28 on CICO, 24 on ABC
    42. 42. Action Plan (ABC p 4, BRB p 5)
    43. 43. • Selecting coordinator• Modifying school-wide expectations
    44. 44. • Linked to school-wide expectations• All students have same academic expectations • Easy to implement • May not always match each student’s needs• Students have individualized expectations • Easier to match student needs • May reduce fidelityExpectations are… p. 5 ABC; p 6, BrB
    45. 45. • Planning for ABC• Developing daily progress report• Progress monitoring• ImplementingImplementation Planning
    46. 46. • School-wide expectations AND academic expectations• Age appropriate rating scale• Teacher friendly• Data easy to summarize and determine if goal is met Designing Daily Progress Reports
    47. 47. • Morning check in • Points tied to specific behaviors? • Plan if homework isn’t completed• Daily feedback • BrB: how many breaks to be allotted? • ABC: points for assignments after each class (1,0 or 2,1,0)• Afternoon check out • Points tied to specific behaviors • Home component DPR Variations to Consider
    48. 48. Workbook (ABC, p 5; BrB,p 6)
    49. 49. • Modify point card to fit your school• Homework tracker?Develop Progress Report(Appendix A)
    50. 50. • Rationale: Enhance strength of intervention• Ideal: Positive adult interaction functions as reinforcer• Options • No incentives, just adult contact/relationship • Add incentive system for all • Incentives are for participation only • Students earn incentive for meeting point goal on 4/5 days • Incentives purchased for varying points Using Incentives in ABC and BrB
    51. 51. • Small tangible items (e.g., stickers, snack, art supplies)• “Secret teacher” note• Extra time in preferred activity (e.g., library, computer)• Seat choice at lunch• SWPBS points, trip to treasure chest• Free ticket to school event (e.g., sports game)• Parking pass for a day• Lunch with principal or favorite teacher/staffAcknowledgement Ideas
    52. 52. ABC P 6; BrB P 8
    53. 53. • Planning for ABC• Developing ABC daily progress report• Progress monitoring ABC• Implementing ABCImplementation Planning
    54. 54. • Standardized assessment/SpEd eligibility• Group conversations• Best guessData-Based Decision-Making at Tier II
    55. 55. • Determine progress goals• Identify measurement system• Set timeline for achieving goals 80% of points for 4 out Monitoring Student of 5 days within two Progress weeks Work book p 8
    56. 56. • CICO/SWIS• IPBS spreadsheet (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)• Make your own spreadsheetOptions for Progress BrB ABCMonitoring
    57. 57. • Standard selection criteria• Consider • Students not succeeding on CICO • Students recommended by others • Teacher referral indicates work avoidance • Off-task behavior is key problemSelecting Students forIntervention
    58. 58. • Planning for ABC• Developing ABC daily progress report• Progress monitoring ABC• Implementing ABCImplementation Planning
    59. 59. • ABC Parents Guide (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)• Hold parent meeting • Purpose of ABC and why child was selected • Develop homework routine with parents • Review positive ways to respond to child when • Daily goals are or are not met • Homework is or is not completedIntroduce ABC to Parents
    60. 60. • Provide rationale• Obtain student buy-in • Student is eager • Student uncertain • Student unwilling• Student contract (Appendix C, p. 15) Introduce ABC to Students
    61. 61. GETTING STARTED: A FEW TIPS
    62. 62. • Start with ALL possible candidates• Begin with the most difficult students• Begin with students of most challenging teachers Begin with 3-5 students Students and teachers most likely to succeed What Not to Do
    63. 63. Questionshttp://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/

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