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Tier II Interventions for
   Work Avoidance

 Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD
 University of Oregon




      canders@uoregon.edu
Tier III/Function-based support


                  Tier II/Group interventions
Tier 1
•SWPBS Tier I
•Second Steps
+
Meeting the Needs of All Students

       Problem
           Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be successful

       Solution?
           Individualized interventions for all?
+
Meeting the Needs of All Students

       Problem
           Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be successful

       Solution?
           Individualized interventions for all?
                               Alternative:
                           Tier II Interventions
+
    Key Features of Tier II
    Interventions
       Matches needs of school

       Instructional features
           Linked to Tier I intervention
           Explicit instruction in desired behavior and opportunities to practice
           Enhanced reinforcement for desired behavior

       Efficient
           Similar across students
           Staff are trained in key features
           Coaching readily available
           Materials on hand

       Decision rules exist to determine
           Who begins an intervention
           Is the intervention working (for a given student, for all)
           When do we stop an intervention
Tier II Interventions Require



         SYSTEMS               DATA




                   PRACTICES
+ Tier II Foundation: CICO

  Evidence-based

  Manualized     implementation and data systems
  Low   cost—time and materials
  Intervention    features
   Provides   structure for more frequent, positive adult
    contact
   Provides frequent feedback on behavioral expectations
   Links home and school
   Can be faded to a self monitoring program
•RFA
                                                     •ODR (SWPBS Team)
  Student Recommended for CICO
                                                   •Parent recommendation
                                                •Administrator recommendatio

           CICO is Implemented
                                                      •CICO Coordinator



                                                       CICO Coordinator
                  Morning                              summarizes data
                  check-in                            for decision making



 Parent                       Regular teacher       Bi-weekly coordination
feedback                         feedback          Meeting to assess student
                                                           progress


                  Afternoon
                  check-out

                                                       Revise            Exit
                                                      program          program
       cards     home
+
+
    Key Question at Tier II: Does
    intervention match student need?
       Identify the target behavior



       Identify the context




       Best guess at function
+
    Key Question at Tier II: Does
    intervention match student need?
       Identify the target behavior No                yes
                                    • Very severe or   Moderate intensity
                                      high intensity   Non-dangerous

       Identify the context




       Best guess at function
+
    Key Question at Tier II: Does
    intervention match student need?
       Identify the target behavior


                                 No                  yes
       Identify the context
                                 • Problem in only   Problem in multiple
                                   one class or      classes
                                   activity
                                 • Classroom
                                   management is
                                   poor
       Best guess at function
+
    Key Question at Tier II: Does
    intervention match student need?
       Identify the target behavior



       Identify the context




       Best guess at function     No                 yes
                                   • Work avoidance   Teacher or peer
                                                      attention
+
    Tier II for Avoidance Behavior

       Breaks are Better
           Provides functionally equivalent response
           Useful for
               Moderate rates of active work avoidance
               Students receiving Tier II academic intervention

       Academic Behavior CICO
           Moderate rates of work avoidance
           Students struggling with organization
           Students with homework completion difficulties
Student Recommended for BrB




           BrB is Implemented




                                                      Coordinator
                  Morning                          summarizes data
                  check-in                        for decision making



 Parent                      Regular teacher    Bi-weekly coordination
feedback                        feedback       Meeting to assess student
                                                       progress


                 Afternoon
                 check-out

                                                   Revise            Exit
                                                  program          program
+
    BrB


   Builds off CICO

   Modifications designed to
       Increase structure and feedback for appropriately asking for breaks
        when needed
       Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations
       Provide incentives for positive academic behavior
+
    BrB During Academic Routines
•   Student engages in academic routines

•   Student can request a break
      • 2 min break
      • Predefined break activities
      • Student returns to work after break



                                              Breaks are
                                              Bettter
+
    BrB During Academic Routines

    •   Student engages in academic routines

    •   Student can request a break
          • 2 min break
          • Specific activities during break
          • Student returns to work after break
                                                  Breaks are
                                                  Bettter
Points          How Points
Activity
                   Possible         are Earned
                                      Student attends
Morning Check-in         2          check-in (1) and has
                                       materials (1)

                                    Meet behavioral and
                    Up to 2 per
   Feedback                              academic
                    expectation
                                       expectations

                                       Taking breaks
                   1 per feedback
 Break Tracker                        appropriately if
                       session
                                          needed

                                    Attend checkout (1)
Afternoon Check-
                         2          and have teacher(s)
       out
                                         ratings (1)
% 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior
                                                 100%
                                                                   Baseline              BrB              Baseline             BrB
                                                  80%
                                                  60%
                                                  40%
                                                  20%                                                                                                          Destiny
                                                  0%
                                                         1 2 3 4       5 6        7 8 9 10         11 12 13 14 15 16      17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

                                                  100%         Baseline                   BrB                 Baseline                 BrB
                                                  80%

                                                  60%
                                                                                    Spring Break
                                                  40%
                                                                                                                                                                James
                                                  20%

                                                   0%
                                                         1 2 3 4 5            6 7 8 9     10 11 12 13      14 15 16      17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30


                                                 100%       Baseline                    BrB               Baseline               BrB

                                                 80%

                                                 60%

                                                 40%

                                                 20%                                                                                                            Edmond
                                                  0%
                                                         1 2 3 4 5 6            7 8 10 11 12 13         14 15 16 17      18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
Student Recommended for BrB




           BrB is Implemented




                                                      Coordinator
                  Morning                          summarizes data
                  check-in                        for decision making



 Parent                      Regular teacher    Bi-weekly coordination
feedback                        feedback       Meeting to assess student
                                                       progress


                 Afternoon
                 check-out

                                                   Revise            Exit
                                                  program          program
+
    Academic Behavior CICO


   Builds off CICO

   Modifications designed to
       Increase structure and feedback around recording assignments
       Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations
       Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day
       Provide incentives for positive academic behavior
+
    ABC During Academic Routines

       Student engages in academic routine

       Student records assignments on tracker

       Student receives feedback (points) for
           Meeting social behavior expectations
           Meeting academic behavior expectations
           Using tracker
Points          How Points
Activity
                   Possible         are Earned
                                        Student has
Morning Check-in         2           materials (1) and
                                    work is complete (1)

                                    Meet behavioral and
                    Up to 2 per
   Feedback                              academic
                    expectation
                                       expectations

                   1 per feedback       Assignments
Homework Tracker
                       session       recorded correctly

                                    Attend checkout (1)
Afternoon Check-
                         2          and have teacher(s)
       out
                                        signature (1)
% 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior   100           Baseline                             ABC Intervention                   Baseline                 ABC Intervention
                                                  80                                                                                                                                 Off-task
                                                  60
                                                                                                                                                                                     Disruption
                                                  40                                                      Spring Break
                                                  20
                                                                                                                                                                               Lupe
                                                   0
                                                       1   2   3    4     5    6        7       8       9 10       11 12 13        14 15 16 17          18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

                                                 100           Baseline                         ABC              Baseline                    ABC Intervention
                                                  80

                                                  60

                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                     Marshall
                                                  20

                                                   0
                                                       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9               10 11 12 13 14          15 16 17 18 19   20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34       Follow Up

                                                 100            Baseline                    ABC Intervention                Baseline                  ABC Intervention
                                                  80

                                                  60

                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                   Aaron
                                                  20

                                                   0
                                                       1   2    3   4      5       6        7       8    9 10 11         12 13 14 15          16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
+
    How do I Begin BrB or ABC?

       Materials
           Intervention manual
           BrB point card
           Data system

       Pre-requisites
           CICO in place
           Attend training in implementation (web or in-vio)
           Coaching capacity established

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Tier II for Work Avoidance (Implementer's Forum 2011)

  • 1. + Tier II Interventions for Work Avoidance Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD University of Oregon canders@uoregon.edu
  • 2. Tier III/Function-based support Tier II/Group interventions Tier 1 •SWPBS Tier I •Second Steps
  • 3. + Meeting the Needs of All Students  Problem  Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be successful  Solution?  Individualized interventions for all?
  • 4. + Meeting the Needs of All Students  Problem  Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be successful  Solution?  Individualized interventions for all? Alternative: Tier II Interventions
  • 5. + Key Features of Tier II Interventions  Matches needs of school  Instructional features  Linked to Tier I intervention  Explicit instruction in desired behavior and opportunities to practice  Enhanced reinforcement for desired behavior  Efficient  Similar across students  Staff are trained in key features  Coaching readily available  Materials on hand  Decision rules exist to determine  Who begins an intervention  Is the intervention working (for a given student, for all)  When do we stop an intervention
  • 6.
  • 7. Tier II Interventions Require SYSTEMS DATA PRACTICES
  • 8. + Tier II Foundation: CICO  Evidence-based  Manualized implementation and data systems  Low cost—time and materials  Intervention features  Provides structure for more frequent, positive adult contact  Provides frequent feedback on behavioral expectations  Links home and school  Can be faded to a self monitoring program
  • 9. •RFA •ODR (SWPBS Team) Student Recommended for CICO •Parent recommendation •Administrator recommendatio CICO is Implemented •CICO Coordinator CICO Coordinator Morning summarizes data check-in for decision making Parent Regular teacher Bi-weekly coordination feedback feedback Meeting to assess student progress Afternoon check-out Revise Exit program program cards home
  • 10. +
  • 11. + Key Question at Tier II: Does intervention match student need?  Identify the target behavior  Identify the context  Best guess at function
  • 12. + Key Question at Tier II: Does intervention match student need?  Identify the target behavior No yes • Very severe or Moderate intensity high intensity Non-dangerous  Identify the context  Best guess at function
  • 13. + Key Question at Tier II: Does intervention match student need?  Identify the target behavior No yes  Identify the context • Problem in only Problem in multiple one class or classes activity • Classroom management is poor  Best guess at function
  • 14. + Key Question at Tier II: Does intervention match student need?  Identify the target behavior  Identify the context  Best guess at function No yes • Work avoidance Teacher or peer attention
  • 15. + Tier II for Avoidance Behavior  Breaks are Better  Provides functionally equivalent response  Useful for  Moderate rates of active work avoidance  Students receiving Tier II academic intervention  Academic Behavior CICO  Moderate rates of work avoidance  Students struggling with organization  Students with homework completion difficulties
  • 16. Student Recommended for BrB BrB is Implemented Coordinator Morning summarizes data check-in for decision making Parent Regular teacher Bi-weekly coordination feedback feedback Meeting to assess student progress Afternoon check-out Revise Exit program program
  • 17. + BrB  Builds off CICO  Modifications designed to  Increase structure and feedback for appropriately asking for breaks when needed  Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations  Provide incentives for positive academic behavior
  • 18. + BrB During Academic Routines • Student engages in academic routines • Student can request a break • 2 min break • Predefined break activities • Student returns to work after break Breaks are Bettter
  • 19.
  • 20. + BrB During Academic Routines • Student engages in academic routines • Student can request a break • 2 min break • Specific activities during break • Student returns to work after break Breaks are Bettter
  • 21. Points How Points Activity Possible are Earned Student attends Morning Check-in 2 check-in (1) and has materials (1) Meet behavioral and Up to 2 per Feedback academic expectation expectations Taking breaks 1 per feedback Break Tracker appropriately if session needed Attend checkout (1) Afternoon Check- 2 and have teacher(s) out ratings (1)
  • 22. % 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior 100% Baseline BrB Baseline BrB 80% 60% 40% 20% Destiny 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 100% Baseline BrB Baseline BrB 80% 60% Spring Break 40% James 20% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 100% Baseline BrB Baseline BrB 80% 60% 40% 20% Edmond 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
  • 23. Student Recommended for BrB BrB is Implemented Coordinator Morning summarizes data check-in for decision making Parent Regular teacher Bi-weekly coordination feedback feedback Meeting to assess student progress Afternoon check-out Revise Exit program program
  • 24. + Academic Behavior CICO  Builds off CICO  Modifications designed to  Increase structure and feedback around recording assignments  Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations  Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day  Provide incentives for positive academic behavior
  • 25. + ABC During Academic Routines  Student engages in academic routine  Student records assignments on tracker  Student receives feedback (points) for  Meeting social behavior expectations  Meeting academic behavior expectations  Using tracker
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. Points How Points Activity Possible are Earned Student has Morning Check-in 2 materials (1) and work is complete (1) Meet behavioral and Up to 2 per Feedback academic expectation expectations 1 per feedback Assignments Homework Tracker session recorded correctly Attend checkout (1) Afternoon Check- 2 and have teacher(s) out signature (1)
  • 29. % 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior 100 Baseline ABC Intervention Baseline ABC Intervention 80 Off-task 60 Disruption 40 Spring Break 20 Lupe 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 100 Baseline ABC Baseline ABC Intervention 80 60 40 Marshall 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Follow Up 100 Baseline ABC Intervention Baseline ABC Intervention 80 60 40 Aaron 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
  • 30. + How do I Begin BrB or ABC?  Materials  Intervention manual  BrB point card  Data system  Pre-requisites  CICO in place  Attend training in implementation (web or in-vio)  Coaching capacity established