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SWPBS: A
MULTI-TIERED
PREVENTION
FRAMEWORK
ORGANIZER: WHY INVEST IN MULTI-TIER
PREVENTION
 Recognizing Tier I when you see it
 Sustained systems-change

 Capacity building
WHERE
IT
STARTS
WHERE IT OFTEN ENDS




  C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
COMMON APPROACHES TO ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL
BEHAVIOR CONCERNS

  Piecemeal approach
  Reactionary strategies and “wait to fail”
  Reliance on one individual to “fix” kids
  Train and hope
  “Best guess” interventions
“TRAIN & HOPE”

          WAIT for                 REACT to
          New                      Problem
          Problem                  Behavior




    Expect, But
                                         Select &
    HOPE for
                                         ADD
    Implementation
                                         Practice


                     Hire EXPERT
                     to Train
                     Practice
HOW DO WE IMPROVE
                 SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS?



C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
WE KNOW WHAT WORKS…
 Prevention   and early intervention
 Interventions derived from behavior
  analysis
    Explicit instruction
    Opportunities to practice
    Reinforcement of desired behavior
    Minimized reinforcement for problem
     behavior
    Immediate feedback
    Plan for generalization and maintenance
 Progress monitoring & data-based decisions


 C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
IMPLEMENTATION IS A CHALLENGE
 Limited    resources
   Expertise
   Time
   Money
 Multiple   competing initiatives and “interests”
 Lot’s   of research on what works, little on
  how to do it
IMPLEMENTATION OF ANY INTERVENTION



                         CHEAP            FAST




                                   GOOD



  C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
INTERVENTIONS ALONE ARE NOT ENOUGH




          Systems   Outcomes
SWPB IS
3-5 expectations and
rewards

  An intervention


     One size fits all


        A new idea
SWPB IS
A framework to enhance adoption
& sustained implementation of


   A continuum of evidence-based
   interventions to achieve


      Desired academic and behavioral
      outcomes for



          ALL students
TIER I: Core, Universal
 • Intervention is for ALL        Tier I begins w/clear goals
   students                       1. What do we expect students
 • Effective if at least 80% of      to learn?
   students are meeting           2. How will we know if it is
   benchmarks                        learned?
                                  3. How do we respond when
                                     students have not learned?
                                  4. How do we respond when
                                     students learn early?



                                                          16


                                                           16
WHY FOCUS ON THE WHOLE SCHOOL?
   What we need is stiffer consequences!
COMMON RESPONSE: GET TOUGH!

Re-re-re-re   review
 rules
Counseling
“aversive”
 consequences
100

                                        90
Mean Perentage of Students with ODRs




                                        80

                                        70

                                        60                                      6 or more
                                                                                2-5
                                        50
                                                                                0-1
                                        40

                                        30

                                        20

                                        10

                                         0
                                             Elementary   Middle   High   K-8
6 or more
                                                                                           2-5
                                                             8%
                                                  100                                      0-1
Mean Perentage of ODRs Generated by Students in




                                                   90

                                                   80

                                                   70

                                                   60
                    Group




                                                   50

                                                   40

                                                   30

                                                   20

                                                   10

                                                    0
                                                        Elementary   Middle   High   K-8
KEY PRACTICES AT TIER I
1.   Consistent approach to school discipline
2.   Clear set of positively worded
     expectations & behaviors
3.   Procedures for teaching expected behavior
4.   Continuum of procedures for encouraging
     expected behavior
5.   Continuum of procedures for discouraging
     inappropriate behavior
KEY PRACTICES AT TIER I
1.   Consistent approach to school discipline
2.   Clear set of positively worded
            As PBIS Team, your job
     expectationsto provide a solid
               is & behaviors
3.   Proceduresrationale for each
                  for teaching expected behavior
4.   Continuumpractice & guide encouraging
                  of procedures for
     expecteddecisions around what
               behavior
5.   Continuum of procedures your
              this looks like in for discouraging
                       school.
     inappropriate behavior
TIER I SYSTEMS
 Team guides school-wide implementation
 Data used to guide decision-making prior to
  implementation
 Goals are defined in measurable terms and are measure
 Evidence-based interventions emphasized
 Supports are in place to support initial and sustained
  implementation
 Data used to monitor
       Status of implementation
       Outcomes
   Modifications are based on data
TIER I: Core, Universal


                           At least 80% of
                            students are
                          successful…what
                           about the rest?




                                             25


                                              25
MEETING THE NEEDS OF ALL
STUDENTS
   Problem
       Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be
        successful
   Solution?
       Individualized interventions for all?
MEETING THE NEEDS OF ALL
STUDENTS
   Problem
       Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be
        successful
   Solution?
       Individualized interventions for all?
TIER II: Supplemental, Targeted
• For students who haven’t
  responded to Tier I
• Effective if at least 70-80% of
  students are meeting set
  goals                             Tier II guiding questions
                         Core
                                    1. What is the current level of
                           +
                     Supplemental      performance?
                                    2. Where do we want to be &
                                       by when?
                                    3. How much growth must be
                                       demonstrated by month/year
                                       to get there?
                                    4. What resources are needed
                                                               28
                                       to move at this rate?
                                                               28
Does intervention…
1. Match needs of child (target, intensity)
2. Get implemented with fidelity
3. Result in significant growth for most
   students?
TIER II INTERVENTIONS
 Match needs of school
 Are implemented rapidly
     Similar across students            Enhance
     Staff trained in intervention      fidelity
     Materials on hand
   Match problem
     Intensity
     Mechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficit
   Use data-based decision-making
     Who will likely benefit?
     Is the intervention working?
     Next steps
KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES
 Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee
  teachers are implementing it & “at risk students
  are getting it
 “At Risk” students need proactive behavior
  management
 Before implementing a Tier II support, ask
  yourself…
 Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g.,
  CICO), ask yourself…
KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES
 Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee
  teachers are implementing it & “at risk students
  are getting it
 “At Risk” students need proactive behavior
  management
 Before implementing a Tier II support, ask
  yourself…
 Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g.,
  CICO), ask yourself…
KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES
 Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee
  teachers are implementing it & “at risk students
  are getting it
 “At Risk” students need proactive behavior
  management
 Before implementing a Tier II support, ask
  yourself…
 Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g.,
  CICO), ask yourself…
KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES
 Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee
  teachers are implementing it & “at risk students
  are getting it
            If Not, STOP
 “At Risk” students need proactive behavior
  management
 Before implementing a Tier II support, ask
  yourself…
 Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g.,
  CICO), ask yourself…
TIER III: Individualized
• For students who haven’t
  responded to Tier I & II
• Effective if at least 70-80% of
  students are meeting set
  goals                                    Tier III guiding questions
                     Core                  1. What is the current level of
                        +                     performance?
                 Supplemental
                        +
                                           2. Where do we want to be &
        Intensive Individual Instruction      by when?
                                           3. How much growth must be
                                              demonstrated by month/year
                                              to get there?
                                           4. What resources are needed
                                                                      38
                                              to move at this rate?
                                                                      38
 Settings: common areas, classrooms
 PBIS in classrooms is not:
     One size fits all
     Tickets/tokens for all
     Mandated behavior management
 Settings: common areas, classrooms
 PBIS in classrooms is not:
      One size fits all
      Tickets/tokens for all
    SWPBS is multi-tiered system for use
      Mandated behavior management
     in ALL settings with ALL students
PBIS IN CLASSROOMS: TIER I
 School-wide expectations
 Rules for specific routines

 Explicit instruction in desired behavior

 Agreement about office versus classroom
  managed behavior
 Incentives for desired behavior

 Routines-focused systems are SUPPLEMENT
SUPPLEMENTAL SYSTEMS
 Contingency-focused
 Positive or negative?

 How do you know if it is working?
BUILDING CAPACITY IN CLASSROOMS
 Include at start IF you have teacher buy-in
 If Tier I is not in place with fidelity, add
  classrooms LATER
 Determine whether school-wide tickets will be
  used in classrooms
 Develop plan for enhancing classroom capacity
     What are the goals? (what, when)
     How will goals be measured? (who, how, when)
     How will instruction/training occur? (who, how,
      when)
IMPLEMENTATION LOGIC
1
     • Build data system


2
     • Establish measurable outcomes


3
     • Collect, analyze, & prioritize data


4
     • Select evidence-based practices


5
     • Ensure efficient, accurate, and durable implementation


6
     • Implement


7
     • Monitor implementation (progress monitoring)



Fixsen,Blase, Duda, Naoom, & Van Dyke (2010).

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SWPBS: A framework for multi-tiered prevention

  • 2. ORGANIZER: WHY INVEST IN MULTI-TIER PREVENTION  Recognizing Tier I when you see it  Sustained systems-change  Capacity building
  • 4. WHERE IT OFTEN ENDS C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
  • 5. COMMON APPROACHES TO ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR CONCERNS  Piecemeal approach  Reactionary strategies and “wait to fail”  Reliance on one individual to “fix” kids  Train and hope  “Best guess” interventions
  • 6. “TRAIN & HOPE” WAIT for REACT to New Problem Problem Behavior Expect, But Select & HOPE for ADD Implementation Practice Hire EXPERT to Train Practice
  • 7. HOW DO WE IMPROVE SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS? C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
  • 8. WE KNOW WHAT WORKS…  Prevention and early intervention  Interventions derived from behavior analysis  Explicit instruction  Opportunities to practice  Reinforcement of desired behavior  Minimized reinforcement for problem behavior  Immediate feedback  Plan for generalization and maintenance  Progress monitoring & data-based decisions C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
  • 9. C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
  • 10. IMPLEMENTATION IS A CHALLENGE  Limited resources  Expertise  Time  Money  Multiple competing initiatives and “interests”  Lot’s of research on what works, little on how to do it
  • 11. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANY INTERVENTION CHEAP FAST GOOD C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
  • 12. C Anderson U Oregon March 2010
  • 13. INTERVENTIONS ALONE ARE NOT ENOUGH Systems Outcomes
  • 14. SWPB IS 3-5 expectations and rewards An intervention One size fits all A new idea
  • 15. SWPB IS A framework to enhance adoption & sustained implementation of A continuum of evidence-based interventions to achieve Desired academic and behavioral outcomes for ALL students
  • 16. TIER I: Core, Universal • Intervention is for ALL Tier I begins w/clear goals students 1. What do we expect students • Effective if at least 80% of to learn? students are meeting 2. How will we know if it is benchmarks learned? 3. How do we respond when students have not learned? 4. How do we respond when students learn early? 16 16
  • 17. WHY FOCUS ON THE WHOLE SCHOOL?  What we need is stiffer consequences!
  • 18. COMMON RESPONSE: GET TOUGH! Re-re-re-re review rules Counseling “aversive” consequences
  • 19. 100 90 Mean Perentage of Students with ODRs 80 70 60 6 or more 2-5 50 0-1 40 30 20 10 0 Elementary Middle High K-8
  • 20. 6 or more 2-5 8% 100 0-1 Mean Perentage of ODRs Generated by Students in 90 80 70 60 Group 50 40 30 20 10 0 Elementary Middle High K-8
  • 21.
  • 22. KEY PRACTICES AT TIER I 1. Consistent approach to school discipline 2. Clear set of positively worded expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior
  • 23. KEY PRACTICES AT TIER I 1. Consistent approach to school discipline 2. Clear set of positively worded As PBIS Team, your job expectationsto provide a solid is & behaviors 3. Proceduresrationale for each for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuumpractice & guide encouraging of procedures for expecteddecisions around what behavior 5. Continuum of procedures your this looks like in for discouraging school. inappropriate behavior
  • 24. TIER I SYSTEMS  Team guides school-wide implementation  Data used to guide decision-making prior to implementation  Goals are defined in measurable terms and are measure  Evidence-based interventions emphasized  Supports are in place to support initial and sustained implementation  Data used to monitor  Status of implementation  Outcomes  Modifications are based on data
  • 25. TIER I: Core, Universal At least 80% of students are successful…what about the rest? 25 25
  • 26. MEETING THE NEEDS OF ALL STUDENTS  Problem  Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be successful  Solution?  Individualized interventions for all?
  • 27. MEETING THE NEEDS OF ALL STUDENTS  Problem  Foundation in place: 10-20% of students will not be successful  Solution?  Individualized interventions for all?
  • 28. TIER II: Supplemental, Targeted • For students who haven’t responded to Tier I • Effective if at least 70-80% of students are meeting set goals Tier II guiding questions Core 1. What is the current level of + Supplemental performance? 2. Where do we want to be & by when? 3. How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there? 4. What resources are needed 28 to move at this rate? 28
  • 29.
  • 30. Does intervention… 1. Match needs of child (target, intensity) 2. Get implemented with fidelity 3. Result in significant growth for most students?
  • 31. TIER II INTERVENTIONS  Match needs of school  Are implemented rapidly  Similar across students Enhance  Staff trained in intervention fidelity  Materials on hand  Match problem  Intensity  Mechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficit  Use data-based decision-making  Who will likely benefit?  Is the intervention working?  Next steps
  • 32.
  • 33. KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES  Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee teachers are implementing it & “at risk students are getting it  “At Risk” students need proactive behavior management  Before implementing a Tier II support, ask yourself…  Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g., CICO), ask yourself…
  • 34. KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES  Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee teachers are implementing it & “at risk students are getting it  “At Risk” students need proactive behavior management  Before implementing a Tier II support, ask yourself…  Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g., CICO), ask yourself…
  • 35. KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES  Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee teachers are implementing it & “at risk students are getting it  “At Risk” students need proactive behavior management  Before implementing a Tier II support, ask yourself…  Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g., CICO), ask yourself…
  • 36. KEY SYSTEMS FEATURES  Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee teachers are implementing it & “at risk students are getting it If Not, STOP  “At Risk” students need proactive behavior management  Before implementing a Tier II support, ask yourself…  Before adding a new Tier II intervention (e.g., CICO), ask yourself…
  • 37.
  • 38. TIER III: Individualized • For students who haven’t responded to Tier I & II • Effective if at least 70-80% of students are meeting set goals Tier III guiding questions Core 1. What is the current level of + performance? Supplemental + 2. Where do we want to be & Intensive Individual Instruction by when? 3. How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there? 4. What resources are needed 38 to move at this rate? 38
  • 39.  Settings: common areas, classrooms  PBIS in classrooms is not:  One size fits all  Tickets/tokens for all  Mandated behavior management
  • 40.  Settings: common areas, classrooms  PBIS in classrooms is not:  One size fits all  Tickets/tokens for all SWPBS is multi-tiered system for use  Mandated behavior management in ALL settings with ALL students
  • 41. PBIS IN CLASSROOMS: TIER I  School-wide expectations  Rules for specific routines  Explicit instruction in desired behavior  Agreement about office versus classroom managed behavior  Incentives for desired behavior  Routines-focused systems are SUPPLEMENT
  • 42. SUPPLEMENTAL SYSTEMS  Contingency-focused  Positive or negative?  How do you know if it is working?
  • 43. BUILDING CAPACITY IN CLASSROOMS  Include at start IF you have teacher buy-in  If Tier I is not in place with fidelity, add classrooms LATER  Determine whether school-wide tickets will be used in classrooms  Develop plan for enhancing classroom capacity  What are the goals? (what, when)  How will goals be measured? (who, how, when)  How will instruction/training occur? (who, how, when)
  • 44. IMPLEMENTATION LOGIC 1 • Build data system 2 • Establish measurable outcomes 3 • Collect, analyze, & prioritize data 4 • Select evidence-based practices 5 • Ensure efficient, accurate, and durable implementation 6 • Implement 7 • Monitor implementation (progress monitoring) Fixsen,Blase, Duda, Naoom, & Van Dyke (2010).

Editor's Notes

  1. Goals for todayTeaming structure and agenda for Tier II and grade level teamsDecision rules for Tier II interventions and how to progress monitor individual students and the overall system
  2. Tier I LOOKS different at different schoolsExample: school for children with sig behavior concerns, small versus large, elem versus highTier I is the level of support YOUR students need so that most can succeed (meet your goals)
  3. Elem: 3,128Middle: 917High: 391K-8: 255
  4. Middle: 17% responsible for 81%High 21% responsible for 83%K-8 14% responsible for 79%
  5. You see more of what you pay attention to.The best way to promote desired behavior is to TEACH using effective teaching strategies
  6. Big thing at Tier III: Interventions need to involve small steps. We wouldn’t expect a child who can’t read to write an essay would we?
  7. If you want to enhance Tier I and make it sustainable—see what steps you already have in place and then go forward