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SCHOOL-BASED    Cynthia M.
                            Ander son, R.

              FUNCTIONAL    Justin Boyd,
                            Nadia Sampson,
                            & Anna Mar shall

     ASSESSMENT: CAPACITY   Univer sity of
                            Oregon
           DEVELOPMENT &
                  SCALING


Funded in part by
OSEP
WHY AREN’T WE “AT SCALE?”

Limited resources
 Expertise
 Time
 Funds
Multiple competing initiatives
Research focus: effective interventions,
 little work on how to implement
INTENSIVE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT

 Goals
   Build district and school capacity at Tiers II and III
   Identify factors affecting implementation, effectiveness, and
    sustainability
 Participants
   Model districts
      2 districts in OR; 8 schools (4 elementary & 4 middle)
   Scaling districts
      5 districts in OR (28 schools)
IPBS

 Systems
   Technical assistance (district)
   Team-based decision-making
 Interventions
   Tier II
   Function-based support
 Data/Progress monitoring
   Student outcomes
   Intervention effectiveness overall
   Fidelity of implementation
BUILDING CAPACIT Y IN SCHOOLS

Process
 Year 1
   Progress monitoring team formed
   CICO implemented
 Year 2
     Build capacity of 1-2 individuals in FBA/BSP
  Years 3 &4
   Train the trainer model of capacity building in schools
RTI MODEL

        Efficient FBA
          School-based staff
          Interview/observation
        Formal FBA
          District/school staff
          Parental involvement
          +structural analysis
        Complex FBA
          District
           staff/consultant
          +experimental
           manipulations
                                   6
YEAR 2 FBA TRAINING

 Attendees selected by district coach
   FTE available to conduct FBA/BSP
   Access to coaching
 FBA Training varied by district (1/2 day to 2 -day)
                             1
   Typical workshop
     FBA interview
     ABC observations
   Emphasis on ABC relations within routines
   Follow-up coaching
OUTCOMES
SAMPLE

 Schools in Pacific NW
   20 elementary schools
   16 middle schools
 All schools implementing Tier I of SWPBS with
  fidelity
 Participants selected by district
   Interested in scaling up
   District personnel with FTE for coaching/TA
TO WHAT EXTENT CAN
SCHOOLS IMPLEMENT
             IPBS?




                     ISSET
Tier III Subscales
                                                                                      BL
                                                                                     T1BL
                         100.00

                                                                                     T2

                          80.00
                                                                                     T3
% Features Implemented




                          60.00                                                      T4




                          40.00




                          20.00




                           0.00
                                  Functional
                                  T3-Assess.          T3-Implement.
                                                      Implementation   T3-Monitor.
                                                                       Progress
                                  Behavior                             Monitoring
                                  Assessment
EVALUATION OF FBA/BSPS

 Participants
   School district in Pacific NW
   Implementing IPBS for 4 years at scale
 Sampling
   Requested copies of all FBAs and support plans
   26 FBA/BSP*
      Most schools had only support plans
      “we just talked about the support plan”
 Scoring
   2 doctoral students
   IOA on 24%
EVALUATION


12% of support plans had accompanying FBA
FBA summary statements (competing behavior
 pathway)
  100% identified ABC relation
  60% operationally defined problem behavior
  Antecedents
    94% technically accurate “setting event” or none
    94% observable & environmental S+
  Consequences
    98% observable & environmental variables
    90% identified more than one reinforcer
SUPPORT PLAN EVALUATION

 Components
    75% logical antecedent strategy
    50% strategy for minimizing reinforcement of target response
    89% reinforcement for desired/alternative response
    99% contained no contra-indicated strategies…….




When EVERYTHING is a reinforcer any
interventions almost any strategies
will be a match
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
SUMMARY

 Documentation of FBA is a problem
 May not be accurately identifying function
 Support plans
   Antecedent & differential reinforcement strong
   Contingencies for problem behavior missing
 Implementation planning rarely occurs
EFFECTS ON STUDENT
          BEHAVIOR
PROPORTION OF POPULATION WITH
                                                        REFERRALS
                                             80%

                                             60%
Mean % Change Between Baseline and Year 4




                                             40%

                                             20%

                                              0%

                                             -20%

                                             -40%                               Implementing
                                             -60%                               Not Implementing

                                             -80%

                                            -100%
                                                     3      4      5      6+
                                                    ODRs   ODRs   ODRs   ODRs
LESSONS LEARNED

1. District involvement is key
 1. District level expertise in function-based support crucial
  1.0 FTE for every 4 schools
    Evidence-based practice
    Data-based decision-making
    Building & maintaining capacity
2. Capacity
    Tier I and Tier II is feasible
    Tier III?
3. Behavior analysis needed in training programs

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Building Capacity in Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools

  • 1. SCHOOL-BASED Cynthia M. Ander son, R. FUNCTIONAL Justin Boyd, Nadia Sampson, & Anna Mar shall ASSESSMENT: CAPACITY Univer sity of Oregon DEVELOPMENT & SCALING Funded in part by OSEP
  • 2. WHY AREN’T WE “AT SCALE?” Limited resources Expertise Time Funds Multiple competing initiatives Research focus: effective interventions, little work on how to implement
  • 3. INTENSIVE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT  Goals  Build district and school capacity at Tiers II and III  Identify factors affecting implementation, effectiveness, and sustainability  Participants  Model districts  2 districts in OR; 8 schools (4 elementary & 4 middle)  Scaling districts  5 districts in OR (28 schools)
  • 4. IPBS  Systems  Technical assistance (district)  Team-based decision-making  Interventions  Tier II  Function-based support  Data/Progress monitoring  Student outcomes  Intervention effectiveness overall  Fidelity of implementation
  • 5. BUILDING CAPACIT Y IN SCHOOLS Process Year 1  Progress monitoring team formed  CICO implemented Year 2  Build capacity of 1-2 individuals in FBA/BSP  Years 3 &4  Train the trainer model of capacity building in schools
  • 6. RTI MODEL  Efficient FBA  School-based staff  Interview/observation  Formal FBA  District/school staff  Parental involvement  +structural analysis  Complex FBA  District staff/consultant  +experimental manipulations 6
  • 7. YEAR 2 FBA TRAINING  Attendees selected by district coach  FTE available to conduct FBA/BSP  Access to coaching  FBA Training varied by district (1/2 day to 2 -day) 1  Typical workshop  FBA interview  ABC observations  Emphasis on ABC relations within routines  Follow-up coaching
  • 9. SAMPLE  Schools in Pacific NW  20 elementary schools  16 middle schools  All schools implementing Tier I of SWPBS with fidelity  Participants selected by district  Interested in scaling up  District personnel with FTE for coaching/TA
  • 10. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN SCHOOLS IMPLEMENT IPBS? ISSET
  • 11. Tier III Subscales BL T1BL 100.00 T2 80.00 T3 % Features Implemented 60.00 T4 40.00 20.00 0.00 Functional T3-Assess. T3-Implement. Implementation T3-Monitor. Progress Behavior Monitoring Assessment
  • 12. EVALUATION OF FBA/BSPS  Participants  School district in Pacific NW  Implementing IPBS for 4 years at scale  Sampling  Requested copies of all FBAs and support plans  26 FBA/BSP*  Most schools had only support plans  “we just talked about the support plan”  Scoring  2 doctoral students  IOA on 24%
  • 13. EVALUATION 12% of support plans had accompanying FBA FBA summary statements (competing behavior pathway)  100% identified ABC relation  60% operationally defined problem behavior  Antecedents  94% technically accurate “setting event” or none  94% observable & environmental S+  Consequences  98% observable & environmental variables  90% identified more than one reinforcer
  • 14. SUPPORT PLAN EVALUATION  Components  75% logical antecedent strategy  50% strategy for minimizing reinforcement of target response  89% reinforcement for desired/alternative response  99% contained no contra-indicated strategies……. When EVERYTHING is a reinforcer any interventions almost any strategies will be a match
  • 16. SUMMARY  Documentation of FBA is a problem  May not be accurately identifying function  Support plans  Antecedent & differential reinforcement strong  Contingencies for problem behavior missing  Implementation planning rarely occurs
  • 17. EFFECTS ON STUDENT BEHAVIOR
  • 18. PROPORTION OF POPULATION WITH REFERRALS 80% 60% Mean % Change Between Baseline and Year 4 40% 20% 0% -20% -40% Implementing -60% Not Implementing -80% -100% 3 4 5 6+ ODRs ODRs ODRs ODRs
  • 19. LESSONS LEARNED 1. District involvement is key 1. District level expertise in function-based support crucial  1.0 FTE for every 4 schools  Evidence-based practice  Data-based decision-making  Building & maintaining capacity 2. Capacity  Tier I and Tier II is feasible  Tier III? 3. Behavior analysis needed in training programs

Editor's Notes

  1. -The empirical and conceptual basis of functional assessment is VERY strong. -Multiple methods of FBA exist (with greater or lesser support however key is skill of implementer)Question: Why do we not see (a) wide-spread use of “good” FBA and (b) effective implementation of support plans--in most schools in the country, with all students needing intensive intervention?
  2. Scaling work now ongoing in IL, MS, MD, and FL
  3. Focus here on the function-based support portion--How we attempted to build capacity--how effective were we?=what did we learn?
  4. Progress monitoring—really hard to move schools away from “admire the problem” to data-based decision makingRequires on-going coaching for about the first 4-6 months
  5. Why match?a. Review of school-wide discipline and academic data suggests that approximately 20% of students require more than Tier 1Elementary school with 400 students==80 students; middle school with 750 students—that is 150 students. Way too many for individualized assessment and intervention. Alternative: package intervention and embed within a multi-tiered prevention system (Gresham, 2004)a) Intensity of intervention is matched to severity of problem; in multi-tiered models prevention is an outcome. Tier I: Prevent, Tier II: Reverse harm, Tier III: reduce harm (e.g., Walker et al., 1996)Point cards are great way to progress monitor at Tier III
  6. Number of schools thus limited by ability to provide follow-up (grant allowed us to have doctoral students help with this)
  7. Completed by outside observers trained in tool; interviews but primarily a review of permanent products (e.g., meeting minutes, copies of support plans)
  8. ISSET—ask coordinator for FBA/BSP—score between 1 and 4 (a lot of them were done by district people or in Eugene, my students!)FBAOperational definitionABC relationTeam have right peopleImplementationIntervention components (multicomponent & linked to hypothesis statement)—missed most; consequence for problem behaviorProgress MonitoringIs there a plan for assessing fidelity and outcomes?
  9. Caveat—small change; talking about 1-3% of populationLooking at proportion