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Addressing
Disruptive Behavior
  in School Using
     Point Card
Interventions: New
     Directions

                      Cynthia M. Anderson, R.
                      Justin Boyd, & Jessica Turtura

                      University of Oregon
Point Card Interventions in Schools
 Core   components
     Target responses operationally defined
     Numerical scale for evaluating student behavior
     Student behavior assessed at set times
     Contingencies for target behavior
     Home component
 Robust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002,
  2005; Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010;
  Schumaker et al., 1977)
Limitations if Scaling is Goal
 Reliance on home contingencies
 Selection process inconsistent
 Individualized

 o Target responses
  Affect fidelity?

 o Evaluation metric and schedule
  Increase response effort
    contingencies
Multi-Tiered Intervention Models
   Rationale
       Emphasize prevention
       Match intensity of intervention to need
   Components
       Evidence-based intervention
       Data-based decision-making
       Emphasis on school and district
        systems/capacity building
   Point    cards
       Tier I
       Tier II
       Tier III

                                                  4
Check-in/Check-Out:
Tier II Behavior Report Cards


•   Manualized intervention (Crone et al.,
    2010)
Student Recommended for CICO




           CICO is Implemented




                                                    CICO Coordinator
                  Morning                           summarizes data
                  check-in                         for decision making



 Parent                       Regular teacher    Bi-weekly coordination
feedback                         feedback       Meeting to assess student
                                                        progress


                  Afternoon
                  check-out
Empirical Support
 10   studies to date
     Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance
      academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell &
      Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken &
      Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008)
BL        CICO      BL             CICO                     Two                          One
                         100
                              80
                              60
                              40
                                                                                                                                           Kyle
                              20
                               0
                                   0         5     10           15        20          25          30           35        40           45          50



                                       BL         CICO          BL         CICO             Two          One    Zero     One
                    100
                              80
                              60
Percentage of 5-s Intervals




                              40
                              20                                                                                                           Mike
with Problem Behavior




                               0
                                   0         5     10       15            20          25          30           35        40           45          50


                                        BL          CICO             BL        CICO        Two         One       Zero     One
                        100
                              80
                              60
                              40
                                                                                                                                           Nick
                              20
                               0
                                   0         5     10           15        20          25           30           35        40           45          50


                                            BL           CICO        BL          CICO             Two          One      Zero     One
                        100
                              80
                              60                                                                                                                        Campbell & Anderson (in press)
                              40
                                                                                                                                                        Check-in/check-out: A Systematic
                                                                                                                                                        Evaluation and Component Analysis.
                              20                                                                                                           Paul
                                                                                                                                                        JABA.
                               0
                                   0         5     10           15        20          25           30           35        40           45          50
Empirical Support
 10   studies to date
     Elementary school (7) & middle school (3)
     Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance
      academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell &
      Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken &
      Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008)
     CICO most effective for students emitting
      attention-maintained problem behavior
      (Campbell & Anderson, 2008; March & Horner, 2007;
      McIntosh et al., 2009)
Tier II Point Card Interventions
for Academic Avoidance
 Interventions    build off CICO
     CICO used in many schools
     Easily alterable
       Target responses
       Schedule for earning points
       Reinforcers
       Point card for easy progress monitoring

 Interventions
     Academic-behavior CICO
     Breaks are Better
ABC
J. Turtura
Participants and Setting
 Participants
     Tom: 8th grade, white male
       Low academic engagement, disruptive
        behavior
       Below state standards in reading

     Kendra: 7th grade white female
       Low academic engagement, disruptive
       Met state standards

     Stan: 6th grade white male
       Low academic engagement
       Met state standards
% 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior   100           Baseline                             ABC Intervention                   Baseline                 ABC Intervention
                                                  80                                                                                                                                 Off-task
                                                  60
                                                                                                                                                                                     Disruption
                                                  40                                                      Spring Break
                                                  20
                                                                                                                                                                               Alex
                                                   0
                                                       1   2   3    4     5    6        7       8       9 10       11 12 13        14 15 16 17          18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

                                                 100           Baseline                         ABC              Baseline                    ABC Intervention
                                                  80

                                                  60

                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                     Marshall
                                                  20

                                                   0
                                                       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9               10 11 12 13 14          15 16 17 18 19   20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34       Follow Up

                                                 100            Baseline                    ABC Intervention                Baseline                  ABC Intervention
                                                  80

                                                  60

                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                   Stan
                                                  20

                                                   0
                                                       1   2    3   4      5       6        7       8    9 10 11         12 13 14 15          16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Breaks are Better
Justin Boyd
Breaks are Better Card
Participants and Setting
 Participants
     Alex: 3rd grade, white male
     Edmund: 5th grade Hispanic male
     James: 5th grade white male
% 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior
                                                 100%
                                                                   Baseline              BrB              Baseline             BrB
                                                  80%
                                                  60%
                                                  40%
                                                  20%                                                                                                          Alex
                                                  0%
                                                         1 2 3 4       5 6        7 8 9 10         11 12 13 14 15 16      17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

                                                  100%         Baseline                   BrB                 Baseline                 BrB
                                                  80%

                                                  60%                               Spring Break

                                                  40%
                                                                                                                                                                James
                                                  20%

                                                   0%
                                                         1 2 3 4 5            6 7 8 9     10 11 12 13      14 15 16      17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30


                                                 100%       Baseline                    BrB               Baseline               BrB

                                                 80%

                                                 60%

                                                 40%

                                                 20%                                                                                                            Edmond
                                                  0%
                                                         1 2 3 4 5 6            7 8 10 11 12 13         14 15 16 17      18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
Summary & Future Directions
  “Packaging”  point card interventions may
   increase scalability
  Needs to be addressed
     System for school-wide screening
     Efficient mechanism to identify likely
      responders to various interventions
     Tier II interventions to address “internalizing”
      problems
Summary & Future Directions
  Empirical   needs
      Mechanism by which interventions are
       effective?
      Wide-scale efficacy/effectiveness trial

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Addressing Disruptive Behavior Problems in Schools Using Point Card Interventions (ABAI 2011)

  • 1. Addressing Disruptive Behavior in School Using Point Card Interventions: New Directions Cynthia M. Anderson, R. Justin Boyd, & Jessica Turtura University of Oregon
  • 2. Point Card Interventions in Schools  Core components  Target responses operationally defined  Numerical scale for evaluating student behavior  Student behavior assessed at set times  Contingencies for target behavior  Home component  Robust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002, 2005; Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010; Schumaker et al., 1977)
  • 3. Limitations if Scaling is Goal  Reliance on home contingencies  Selection process inconsistent  Individualized o Target responses  Affect fidelity? o Evaluation metric and schedule  Increase response effort  contingencies
  • 4. Multi-Tiered Intervention Models  Rationale  Emphasize prevention  Match intensity of intervention to need  Components  Evidence-based intervention  Data-based decision-making  Emphasis on school and district systems/capacity building  Point cards  Tier I  Tier II  Tier III 4
  • 5. Check-in/Check-Out: Tier II Behavior Report Cards • Manualized intervention (Crone et al., 2010)
  • 6. Student Recommended for CICO CICO is Implemented CICO Coordinator Morning summarizes data check-in for decision making Parent Regular teacher Bi-weekly coordination feedback feedback Meeting to assess student progress Afternoon check-out
  • 7. Empirical Support  10 studies to date  Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008)
  • 8. BL CICO BL CICO Two One 100 80 60 40 Kyle 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 BL CICO BL CICO Two One Zero One 100 80 60 Percentage of 5-s Intervals 40 20 Mike with Problem Behavior 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 BL CICO BL CICO Two One Zero One 100 80 60 40 Nick 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 BL CICO BL CICO Two One Zero One 100 80 60 Campbell & Anderson (in press) 40 Check-in/check-out: A Systematic Evaluation and Component Analysis. 20 Paul JABA. 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
  • 9. Empirical Support  10 studies to date  Elementary school (7) & middle school (3)  Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008)  CICO most effective for students emitting attention-maintained problem behavior (Campbell & Anderson, 2008; March & Horner, 2007; McIntosh et al., 2009)
  • 10. Tier II Point Card Interventions for Academic Avoidance  Interventions build off CICO  CICO used in many schools  Easily alterable  Target responses  Schedule for earning points  Reinforcers  Point card for easy progress monitoring  Interventions  Academic-behavior CICO  Breaks are Better
  • 12.
  • 13. Participants and Setting  Participants  Tom: 8th grade, white male  Low academic engagement, disruptive behavior  Below state standards in reading  Kendra: 7th grade white female  Low academic engagement, disruptive  Met state standards  Stan: 6th grade white male  Low academic engagement  Met state standards
  • 14. % 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior 100 Baseline ABC Intervention Baseline ABC Intervention 80 Off-task 60 Disruption 40 Spring Break 20 Alex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 100 Baseline ABC Baseline ABC Intervention 80 60 40 Marshall 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Follow Up 100 Baseline ABC Intervention Baseline ABC Intervention 80 60 40 Stan 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
  • 17.
  • 18. Participants and Setting  Participants  Alex: 3rd grade, white male  Edmund: 5th grade Hispanic male  James: 5th grade white male
  • 19. % 10-s Intervals Scored with Off-Task Behavior 100% Baseline BrB Baseline BrB 80% 60% 40% 20% Alex 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 100% Baseline BrB Baseline BrB 80% 60% Spring Break 40% James 20% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 100% Baseline BrB Baseline BrB 80% 60% 40% 20% Edmond 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
  • 20. Summary & Future Directions  “Packaging” point card interventions may increase scalability  Needs to be addressed  System for school-wide screening  Efficient mechanism to identify likely responders to various interventions  Tier II interventions to address “internalizing” problems
  • 21. Summary & Future Directions  Empirical needs  Mechanism by which interventions are effective?  Wide-scale efficacy/effectiveness trial

Editor's Notes

  1. Known as home-school notes, DPR, home/school notes,DBRS, BRC, etc.
  2. Home component not always in place and used in very different waysFabiano, G.A., Vujnovic, R.K., Pelham, W.E., Waschbusch, D.A., Massetti, G.M.,Pariseau, M.E., Naylor, J.,... Volker, M. (2010). Enhancing the effectiveness ofspecial education programming for children with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder using a daily report card. School Psychology Review, 39(2), 219-239.
  3. Selection process—most schools don’t have system for identifying students in need of intervention or likely to benefit.Fidelity—remember how to implement with each studentResponse effort—new materials each time, etc
  4. Why match?a. Review of school-wide discipline and academic data suggests that approximately 20% of students require more than Tier 1Elementary school with 400 students==80 students; middle school with 750 students—that is 150 students. Way too many for individualized assessment and intervention. Alternative: package intervention and embed within a multi-tiered prevention system (Gresham, 2004)a) Intensity of intervention is matched to severity of problem; in multi-tiered models prevention is an outcome. Tier I: Prevent, Tier II: Reverse harm, Tier III: reduce harm (e.g., Walker et al., 1996)Point cards are great way to progress monitor at Tier III
  5. 7 in elementary and 3 in middle schools2 post-hoc analyses2 group designs (
  6. Identified via referral to school IPBS team; FBA: problem behavior maintained by task avoidance primarilyAll typically developing,Engaged in disruptive behaviors and talking out of turn. Marshall—not academically engaged, lots of off-task
  7. Evaluated with
  8. Identified via referral to school IPBS team; FBA: problem behavior maintained by task avoidance primarilyAll typically developing,Engaged in disruptive behaviors and talking out of turn. Marshall—not academically engaged, lots of off-task