ANDROID Android is the worlds most popular mobile platform. With Android you can use all theGoogle apps you know and love, plus there are more than 600,000 apps and gamesavailable on Google Play to keep you entertained, alongsidemillions of songs and books, and thousands of movies. Android devices are already smart, and will only get smarter, with new features you wont find on anyother platform, letting you focus on whats important and putting you in control of your mobile experience.
Android the worlds most popular mobile platform• Android powers hundreds of millions of mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. Its the largest installed base of any mobile platform and growing fast—every day another million users power up their Android devices for the first time and start looking for apps, games, and other digital content.• Android gives you a world-class platform for creating apps and games for Android users everywhere, as well as an open marketplace for distributing to them instantly.
• Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications (“apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language. In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Androids primary app store, was 25 billion.
• These factors have allowed Android to become the worlds most widely used smart phone platform and the software of choice for technology companies who require a low-cost, customizable, lightweight operating system for high tech devices without developing one from scratch. As a result, despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it has seen additional applications on televisions, games consoles and other electronics. Androids open nature has further encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems.• Android had a worldwide smart phone market share of 75% during the third quarter of 2012, with 500 million devices activated in total and 1.3 million activations per day.
History of Android• Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),Nick Sears. (once VP at T- Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV) to develop, in Rubins words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owners location and preferences". Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones. That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company
Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005,making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Keyemployees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Minerand White, stayed at the company after theacquisition. Not much was known about AndroidInc. at the time, but many assumed that Google wasplanning to enter the mobile phone market with thismove. At Google, the team led by Rubin developeda mobile device platform powered by the Linuxkernel. Google marketed the platform to handsetmakers and carriers on the promise of providing aflexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up aseries of hardware component and softwarepartners and signaled to carriers that it was opento various degrees of cooperation on their part.
• Speculation about Googles intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. Reports from the BBC and the Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007,InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the
• On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T- Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6. The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.
Interface Of Android• Androids user interface is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects. The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.
• Android devices boot to the home screen, the primary navigation and information point on the device, which is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Android home screens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content such as the weather forecast, the users email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the home screen. A home screen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe back and forth between, though Androids home screen interface is heavily customisable, allowing the user to adjust the look and feel of the device to their tastes. Third party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the home screen, and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone. Most manufacturers, and some wireless carriers, customise the look and feel of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from the competition.
Applications Of Android• Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the applications APK file from a third-party site. The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Googles compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the users device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.[ Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download, and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the users monthly bill. As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion.[
• Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks.• In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead.
Global partnerships and large installed base Building on the contributions of the open-sourceLinux community and more than 300 hardware, software,and carrier partners, Android has rapidly become thefastest-growing mobile OS.Android’s openness has made it a favorite for consumersand developers alike, driving strong growth in appconsumption. Android users download more than 1.5 billionapps and games from Google Play each month. With its partners, Android is continuously pushingthe boundaries of hardware and software forward to bringnew capabilities to users and developers. For developers,Android innovation lets you build powerful, differentiatedapplications that use the latest mobile technologies.
Powerful development frameworkAndroid gives you everything you need to build best-in-class app experiences. Itgives you a single application model that lets you deploy your apps broadly tohundreds of millions of users across a wide range of devices—from phones totablets and beyond.Android also gives you tools for creating apps that look great and take advantageof the hardware capabilities available on each device. It automatically adapts yourUI to look its best on each device, while giving you as much control as you wantover your UI on different device types.For example, you can create a single app binary thats optimized for both phoneand tablet form factors. You declare your UI in lightweight sets of XML resources,one set for parts of the UI that are common to all form factors and other sets foroptimizations specific to phones or tablets. At runtime, Android applies thecorrect resource sets based on its screen size, density, locale, and so on.To help you develop efficiently, the Android Developer Tools offer a full Java IDEwith advanced features for developing, debugging, and packaging Android apps.Using the IDE, you can develop on any available Android device or create virtualdevices that emulate any hardware configuration.
appsGoogle Play is the premier marketplace for selling and distributing Android apps.When you publish an app on Google Play, you reach the huge installed base ofAndroid.As an open marketplace, Google Play puts you in control of how you sell yourproducts. You can publish whenever you want, as often as you want, and to thecustomers you want. You can distribute broadly to all markets and devices orfocus on specific segments, devices, or ranges of hardware capabilities.You can monetize in the way that works best for your business—priced or free,with in-app products or subscriptions—for highest engagement and revenues.You also have complete control of the pricing for your apps and in-app productsand can set or change prices in any supported currency at any time.Beyond growing your customer base, Google Play helps you build visibility andengagement across your apps and brand. As your apps rise in popularity, GooglePlay gives them higher placement in weekly "top" charts and rankings, and for thebest apps promotional slots in curated collections.
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Respectfully submitted to:Prof. Erwin M. Globio, MSIT