Check In.• How are you guys doing with this?• Comfortable with the material so far?• Be prepared to talk about what you have learned the past few days and apply it?• Haven’t talked yet? Lets hear from you.• Reminder: H/w in the box.
Quick Lesson on “note-taking”Strategies for easier and faster notes:1. Come prepared: No Pencil No Paper No bueno!2. These notes are not for me. They are for you. Coping doesn’t cut it! Your words – Your memory - Your connections!3. Abbreviations: @ # ! & , conjunctions, ppl, plc4. Summarize: Key player, key date, key location goes first. Easy for retention – easy to find!5. Strong words stay! Weak words do not.
Tricks to shrink them.1. Turn a section into a question. Questions have a much stronger ability call up memories2. If you re-copy, use a highlights and only grab sentences and words that you absolutely need.3. “Fact-lets” – who/what/where…Maybe why..Ex: “George Rutabengu/Def. Min/Kigali 1994”
Rwanda: You Must Know (YMK)• April 6, 1994, and for the next hundred days, up to 800,000 Tutsis were killed by Hutu militia by as many as 10,000 killed each day.• Fact: Rwanda is one of the smallest countries in Central Africa, with just 7 million people, and is comprised of two main ‘ethnic’ groups, the Hutu and the Tutsi.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• Hutus account for 90 percent of the population.• In the past, the Tutsi minority was considered the aristocracy of Rwanda and dominated under Belgian colonial rule.• Following independence from Belgium in 1962, the Hutu majority seized power and reversed the roles, oppressing the Tutsi.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• 200,000 Tutsis fled to neighboring countries and formed a rebel guerrilla army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front.• 1990, RPF invades Rwanda and forces Hutu President Juvenal Habyalimana into signing an agreement which required power sharing.• Tensions heighten, October 1993 when Melchior Ndadaye was an assassinated. the first popularly elected Hutu president of Burundi.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• United Nations dispatches a peacekeeping force of 2,500 multinational soldiers to preserve the fragile Tutis/Hutu cease-fire.• Peace is threatened by Hutu extremists who are violently opposed to sharing power with any Tutsis: This violence included extermination.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• April 1994, Rwandan President Habyalimana and Burundis new President, Cyprien Ntaryamira, hold several peace meetings with Tutsi rebels.• April 6, returning from a meeting in Tanzania, a small jet carrying the two presidents is shot down by a ground-fired missile as it approaches Rwandas Kigali Airport.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• Rwanda plunges into political turmoil as Hutu extremists begin targeting those on their death-lists: prominent opposition, moderate Hutu politicians, and Tutsi leaders.• The killings spread throughout the countryside as Hutu militia, armed with machetes, clubs, guns and grenades, began indiscriminately killing Tutsi civilians and any sympathizers.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• U.N. peacekeeping forces are overwhelmed as terrified Tutsi families and moderate politicians seek protection.• Ten soldiers from Belgium are captured by the Hutus, tortured and murdered.• As a result, the United States, France, Belgium, and Italy all began evacuating all personnel from Rwanda.• Evacuate: Tutsi civilians or Hutu moderates are left behind at the mercy of the avenging Hutu.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• U.N, New York, killings are initially categorized as a breakdown in the cease-fire between the Tutsi and Hutu. Throughout the massacre, both the U.N. and the U.S. carefully refrain from labeling the killings as genocide: which would necessitate emergency intervention.• April 21, Red Cross estimates that hundreds of thousands of Tutsi have already been massacred since April 6 - an extraordinary rate of killing.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• U.N. Security Council responds by voting unanimously to abandon Rwanda. The remainder of U.N. peacekeeping troops are pulled out, leaving behind only tiny force of about 200 soldiers for the entire country.• Hutu, without opposition from the world, engage in genocidal mania, clubbing and hacking the defenseless to death.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• In local villages, militiamen force Hutus to kill their Tutsi neighbors or face a death themselves.• By mid May, an estimated 500,000 Tutsis had been slaughtered.• Confronted with international TV images depicting genocide, the U.N. Security Council votes to send 5,000 troops to Rwanda. However, the Security Council fails to establish a meaningful timetable and troops remain un- deployed.
Rwanda: YMK Cont.• The killings ends after armed Tutsi rebels, invading from neighboring countries, managed to defeat the Hutus and halt the genocide in July 1994. By then, over one-tenth of the population, an estimated 800,000 persons, had been killed.
Warm it Up!Surprise: No need to write. Pencils down. Ears open – Minds on!Task: Think/Pair/Share – 3min1) Please share two facts from your notes from yesterday. Pertinent. Meaningful. Surprising.2) Please share two questions you still have…
Day Two: Hollywood• Selected Clips from: Hotel Rwanda and Sometimes in April.• Things to think about:
How would you write a review to afilm with this subject/topic matter?– You will write a short film review or bio-short on what you have seen.– Keep it short, clean, and tightly worded.– This should be something you would expect to see in a magazine or on the back of a book. This tells your audience concisely: what they should expect, what were exciting, memorable moments, and an incomplete synopsis that leaves them curious.
Responsibilities• Make no mistake! This is a sensitive issue.• How would you suggest we address it?• Making movies? Historical fact/Fiction?• Is there some level of social responsibility to report these histories accurately or can we embellish, choose, or entertain? If so, to what degree?
Reminder:Poor Answer: I think the movie was really good because it showed a lot about the Rwanda conflict. There was some genocide and stuff – which is bad. The actors seemed real so I guess it was pretty close to the real thing. You should go see this movie because it’s great. Enjoy…
Reminder.Good Answer: Hollywood has approached the Rwandan conflict with fictional accounts of the genocide. Each film plays to the strengths of historical facts but yields a solid product that provides both entertainment and considerable thought. Sometimes in April and Hotel Rwanda help to illuminate the conflict that has been so easily forgotten and reminds us that complacence comes at a very substantial cost.
Task:3-5 sentences or one paragraph will suffice. (EACH)Task 1: Film review/Bio/Synopsis of what you saw and what stories are told. And…Task 2: Op/Ed Piece. How should the entertainment and media industries use historical or controversial material? What do you think?