Chapter 11 Biotechnology


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Chapter 11 Biotechnology

  1. 2. <ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of biological techniques developed through basic research and now applied to research and product development . </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Genetic Engineering The process of manipulating genes for practical purposes is called genetic engineering .
  3. 4. Steps in a Genetic Engineering Experiment <ul><li>Step 1: Cutting DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired gene is cut out of DNA molecule using restriction enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that cut the DNA at specific sites on the DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EcoR1 = GAATTC cut between G and A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sticky ends are produced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector is cut using restriction enzymes. The vector is an agent used to carry the desired gene into another cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common vectors are plasmids. Plasmids are circular bacterial DNA molecules that replicate quickly. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Restriction Enzymes Used to Make Transgenic Organisms That Contain Recombinant DNA <ul><li>Step 2: Making Recombinant DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA is a combination of the desired gene and the vector </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Making multiple copies of the desired gene </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Identify cells that took up the desired gene </li></ul><ul><li>These cells produce the desired protein, ie. insulin </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to enable them to make new substances or perform new functions. </li></ul></ul>Recombinant DNA in Transgenic Organisms
  6. 8. RFLP Analysis                 
  7. 9. Gel Electrophoresis and DNA Fingerprinting <ul><li>DNA cut with restriction enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Samples placed in electrophoresis apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical current applied, DNA moves towards the + pole </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller fragments move farther </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a unique pattern of fragment lengths </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gel Electrophoresis Basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gel Electrophoresis Animated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You try it! </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Polymerase Chain Reaction The purpose of PCR is to make huge numbers of copies of a gene Used for DNA fingerprinting or genetic research
  9. 11. Gene Therapy                                                                                 Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development.
  10. 12.                                                                                 <ul><ul><li>A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspecific location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene. This approach is most common. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Genetically Engineered Vaccines
  12. 14. Cloning                                                        
  13. 15. Reproductive Cloning
  14. 16. Nuclear Transfer Cloning <ul><li>Obtain an egg from a suitable donor. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the genetic material from the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a somatic cell from the individual to be cloned. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the genetic material from the somatic cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Microinject the nuclear material from the somatic cell into the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>Activate the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>Implant egg back into egg donor's reproductive tract. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Nuclear Transfer Cloning Nuclear Transfer Video
  16. 19. Stem Cells and Stem Cell Research
  17. 20. What are Stem Cells? Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell. However, they have the ability to form any adult cell.
  18. 22. Where do Stem Cells Come From?
  19. 23. Alternatives To Embryonic Stem Cells
  20. 24. Potential Medical Advances A paraplegic rat may be the key to helping Christopher Reeves walk again!!! The actor was paralyzed from the neck down during a horse riding accident in 1995. The Washington University Researchers gave rats similar injuries, then injected some with embryonic stem cells. Six weeks later, the treated rats were walking again!!!