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Unit 1 final

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Unit 1 final

  1. 1. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Unit 1: Terminology The
%irst
Unit
on
Terminology
will
cover: Slide
2:

De%ining
the
term
“music” Slide
3:

De%ining
the
term
“music
theory” Slide
4:

Sound
Sources
and
Waves Slide
5:

Sound
Waves:

Characteristics Slide
6:

Sine
waves Slide
7:

Harmonic
Series Slide
8:


Envelopes Slide 1 of 9
  2. 2. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Defining the Term Music There
are
many
de%initions
of
the
word
music.

The
online
Merriam‐Webster
dictionary
de%ines
music
as: “1.
a.
the
science
or
art
of
ordering
tones
or
sounds
in
succession,
in
combination,
and
in
temporal
relationships
to
produce
a
composition
 having
unity
and
continuity
b:
vocal,
instrumental,
or
mechanical
sounds
having
rhythm,
melody,
or
harmony 2
a:
an
agreeable
sound”
 Slide 2 of 9
  3. 3. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Defining the Term Music There
are
many
de%initions
of
the
word
music.

The
online
Merriam‐Webster
dictionary
de%ines
music
as: “1.
a.
the
science
or
art
of
ordering
tones
or
sounds
in
succession,
in
combination,
and
in
temporal
relationships
to
produce
a
composition
 having
unity
and
continuity
b:
vocal,
instrumental,
or
mechanical
sounds
having
rhythm,
melody,
or
harmony 2
a:
an
agreeable
sound”
 A
WordNet
Search
on
the
web
brings
up
the
following
de%initions: 
 “[1]
an
artistic
form
of
auditory
communication
incorporating
instrumental
or
vocal
tones
in
a
structured
and
continuous
manner
.
.
.
 
 [2]
euphony;
any
agreeable
(pleasing
and
harmonious)
sound
.
.
. 
 [3]
musical
activity
(singing
or
whistling
etc)
.
.
. 
 [4]
the
sounds
produced
by
singers
or
musical
instruments
(or
reproductions
of
such
sounds).” 
 All
of
these
de%initions
can
cause
debates.
For
example,
the
Merriam‐Webster
entry
under
1b
may
not
be
viable
to
some
since
certain
 types
of
music
do
not
have
melody,
harmony
and/or
rhythm.
Merriam‐Webster
de%inition
2a
and
WordNet
de%inition
2
may
also
not
be
 usable
since
there
are
some
types
of
music
that
many
people
do
not
%ind
“agreeable”,
as
they
contain
harsh
sounds.
Some
of
the
other
 de%initions
(WordNet
1,
2
and
4)
exclude
music
of
composers
such
as
John
Cage
who
do
not
use
conventional
instruments
in
some
of
 their
compositions.
 Slide 2 of 9
  4. 4. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Defining the Term Music There
are
many
de%initions
of
the
word
music.

The
online
Merriam‐Webster
dictionary
de%ines
music
as: “1.
a.
the
science
or
art
of
ordering
tones
or
sounds
in
succession,
in
combination,
and
in
temporal
relationships
to
produce
a
composition
 having
unity
and
continuity
b:
vocal,
instrumental,
or
mechanical
sounds
having
rhythm,
melody,
or
harmony 2
a:
an
agreeable
sound”
 A
WordNet
Search
on
the
web
brings
up
the
following
de%initions: 
 “[1]
an
artistic
form
of
auditory
communication
incorporating
instrumental
or
vocal
tones
in
a
structured
and
continuous
manner
.
.
.
 
 [2]
euphony;
any
agreeable
(pleasing
and
harmonious)
sound
.
.
. 
 [3]
musical
activity
(singing
or
whistling
etc)
.
.
. 
 [4]
the
sounds
produced
by
singers
or
musical
instruments
(or
reproductions
of
such
sounds).” 
 All
of
these
de%initions
can
cause
debates.
For
example,
the
Merriam‐Webster
entry
under
1b
may
not
be
viable
to
some
since
certain
 types
of
music
do
not
have
melody,
harmony
and/or
rhythm.
Merriam‐Webster
de%inition
2a
and
WordNet
de%inition
2
may
also
not
be
 usable
since
there
are
some
types
of
music
that
many
people
do
not
%ind
“agreeable”,
as
they
contain
harsh
sounds.
Some
of
the
other
 de%initions
(WordNet
1,
2
and
4)
exclude
music
of
composers
such
as
John
Cage
who
do
not
use
conventional
instruments
in
some
of
 their
compositions.
 Perhaps
the
most
inclusive
de%inition
is
the
%irst
Merriam‐Webster
entry
above.
But
music
may
be
described
in
even
simpler
terms:

 Music
is
an
aural
art.

Music
is
something
meant
to
be
heard. Slide 2 of 9
  5. 5. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Music Theory Music
theory
is
a
%ield
of
music
that
includes
the
analysis
of
music.
Many
people
believe
that
the
study
of
music
theory
 only
involves
topics
such
as
scales,
intervals,
key
signatures,
harmonies,
etc.,
but
it
is
important
to
remember
that
music
 theory
is
ultimately
theorizing
of
why
and
how
composers
wrote
music
the
way
they
did.
 Slide 3 of 9
  6. 6. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Music Theory Music
theory
is
a
%ield
of
music
that
includes
the
analysis
of
music.
Many
people
believe
that
the
study
of
music
theory
 only
involves
topics
such
as
scales,
intervals,
key
signatures,
harmonies,
etc.,
but
it
is
important
to
remember
that
music
 theory
is
ultimately
theorizing
of
why
and
how
composers
wrote
music
the
way
they
did.
 Other
%ields
for
the
study
of
music
include
musicology
(the
study
of
music,
usually
thought
of
as
study
of
music
 history),
ethnomusicology
(the
study
of
non‐Western
musical
styles
and
cultures),
and
music
composition
(the
 writing
of
music). Slide 3 of 9
  7. 7. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Sources and Waves Music
comes
from
a
sound
source,
usually
a
vibrating
object
(e.g.,
a
column
of
air,
string,
or
membrane).
This
vibration
 produces
disturbances
that
transmit
energy
called
sound
waves.

A
single
cycle
of
a
sound
wave
is
shown
below. 1 cycle ! Slide 4 of 9
  8. 8. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Sources and Waves Music
comes
from
a
sound
source,
usually
a
vibrating
object
(e.g.,
a
column
of
air,
string,
or
membrane).
This
vibration
 produces
disturbances
that
transmit
energy
called
sound
waves.

A
single
cycle
of
a
sound
wave
is
shown
below. 1 cycle ! The
height
of
the
wave
determines
its
amplitude. The
cycle
of
the
wave
determines
its
frequency. Slide 4 of 9
  9. 9. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Waves One
may
observe
characteristics
of
sounds
through
a
few
notable
parameters
of
their
sound
waves. Slide 5 of 9
  10. 10. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Waves One
may
observe
characteristics
of
sounds
through
a
few
notable
parameters
of
their
sound
waves. The
amplitude
is
the
height
of
a
wave
and
creates/affects
the
sounds
intensity,
or
the
volume
of
the
sound.

 Slide 5 of 9
  11. 11. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Waves One
may
observe
characteristics
of
sounds
through
a
few
notable
parameters
of
their
sound
waves. The
amplitude
is
the
height
of
a
wave
and
creates/affects
the
sounds
intensity,
or
the
volume
of
the
sound.

 The
frequency
of
the
wave,
or
the
number
of
times
it
repeats
per
second,
affects
the
highness
or
lowness
of
the
sound,
 which
is
formally
called
its
pitch.
Frequency
is
calculated
in
hertz,
a
unit
of
measurement
de%ined
as
the
number
of
 complete
cycles
per
second.
Consider
the
note
A
(the
A
above
middle
C)
that
is
normally
heard
as
an
orchestra
tunes
up
 before
a
performance.
This
A
has
a
frequency
of
440
cycles
per
second
(A
440).
If
one
moves
higher
or
lower
from
this
pitch
 each
subsequent
octave
doubles
or
halves
in
frequency.
For
instance,
an
A220
sounds
an
octave
lower
than
A440,
and
an
 A880
sounds
an
octave
higher. Slide 5 of 9
  12. 12. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Waves The
wave
shown
below
is
a
sine
wave
and
will
produce
a
pure
sound. 1 cycle ! Click
to
hear
this
sine
wave Slide 6 of 9
  13. 13. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Waves The
wave
shown
below
is
a
sine
wave
and
will
produce
a
pure
sound. 1 cycle ! Click
to
hear
this
sine
wave Slide 6 of 9
  14. 14. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Sound Waves The
wave
shown
below
is
a
sine
wave
and
will
produce
a
pure
sound. 1 cycle ! Click
to
hear
this
sine
wave Sine
waves
may
be
produced
by
electronic
instruments
and
tuning
forks;
most
instruments
 do
not
generate
pure
sounds.
A
pure
sound
includes
a
single
wave
and
frequency,
while
 instruments
create
sounds
that
are
combinations
of
many
sine
waves,
each
having
a
different
 frequency
and
therefore
a
different
pitch. Slide 6 of 9
  15. 15. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Harmonic Series The
combination
(of
these
different
pitches)
changes
for
each
instrument,
so
each
has
a
different
tone
color,
or
timbre.
The
pitches
 that
can
be
produced
are
the
members
of
a
tones
harmonic
overtone
series.
The
harmonic
series
on
C
is
shown
below: ˙ #œ ˙ œ bœ n˙ & ˙ bœ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ? ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ [Notes shown with black note-heads will be out of tune.] Slide 7 of 9
  16. 16. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Harmonic Series The
combination
(of
these
different
pitches)
changes
for
each
instrument,
so
each
has
a
different
tone
color,
or
timbre.
The
pitches
 that
can
be
produced
are
the
members
of
a
tones
harmonic
overtone
series.
The
harmonic
series
on
C
is
shown
below: ˙ #œ ˙ œ bœ n˙ & ˙ bœ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ? ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ [Notes shown with black note-heads will be out of tune.] When
playing
instruments,
musicians
play
at
least
some
of
the
notes
of
the
harmonic
series
when
overblowing
the
notes.
 Musicians
that
play
brass
and
string
instruments
are
especially
familiar
with
playing
notes
of
the
harmonic
series. Slide 7 of 9
  17. 17. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Harmonic Series The
combination
(of
these
different
pitches)
changes
for
each
instrument,
so
each
has
a
different
tone
color,
or
timbre.
The
pitches
 that
can
be
produced
are
the
members
of
a
tones
harmonic
overtone
series.
The
harmonic
series
on
C
is
shown
below: ˙ #œ ˙ œ bœ n˙ & ˙ bœ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ? ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ [Notes shown with black note-heads will be out of tune.] When
playing
instruments,
musicians
play
at
least
some
of
the
notes
of
the
harmonic
series
when
overblowing
the
notes.
 Musicians
that
play
brass
and
string
instruments
are
especially
familiar
with
playing
notes
of
the
harmonic
series. At
this
point,
it
is
important
to
understand
that
differing
timbres
help
give
individuality
to
particular
instruments.
This
is
the
 reason
why
a
tuba
and
a
violin
may
play
the
same
note
but
sound
very
different.
 Slide 7 of 9
  18. 18. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Envelopes A
sound
wave
produced
by
a
pitch
also
has
an
envelope.
The
envelope
consists
of
the
notes
attack,
sustain,
 decay,
and
release,
and
each
parameter
of
the
envelope
presents
a
particular
part
of
the
note’s
sound.
 [picture from : Bernstein, David. “Auditory Content: An Introduction.” https://users.cs.jmu.edu/bernstdh/web/ common/lectures/images/sound-envelope.gif accessed July 16, 2009. Slide 8 of 9
  19. 19. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Envelopes A
sound
wave
produced
by
a
pitch
also
has
an
envelope.
The
envelope
consists
of
the
notes
attack,
sustain,
 decay,
and
release,
and
each
parameter
of
the
envelope
presents
a
particular
part
of
the
note’s
sound.
 [picture from : Bernstein, David. “Auditory Content: An Introduction.” https://users.cs.jmu.edu/bernstdh/web/ common/lectures/images/sound-envelope.gif accessed July 16, 2009. The
musical
affect
generated
by
various
instruments’
sound
wave
envelopes
can
give
interesting
character
to
that
 instrument.
Consider
the
difference
between
the
rapid
attack
time
of
a
glockenspiel
compared
to
the
somewhat
 sluggish
attack
of
low
notes
played
on
a
tuba,
for
example. Slide 8 of 9
  20. 20. <- Back Next -><<- First Last ->> Unit 1: Terminology Unit
1
on
Terminology
covered: •

The
term
“music” •

The
term
“music
theory” •

Sound
Sources
and
Waves •

Sound
Waves •

Harmonic
Series •

Envelopes Click
on
any
of
the
above
topics
to
return
to
that
portion
of
the
 presentation.
 Slide 9 of 9

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