SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State

iosrjce
iosrjce

IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) is a double blind peer reviewed International Journal that provides rapid publication (within a month) of articles in all areas of business and managemant and its applications. The journal welcomes publications of high quality papers on theoretical developments and practical applications inbusiness and management. Original research papers, state-of-the-art reviews, and high quality technical notes are invited for publications.

Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State

1 of 7
Download to read offline
IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 12 .Ver. II (Dec. 2015), PP 98-104
www.iosrjournals.org
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 98 | Page
Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of
Selected Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State.
1
Dr. Sam Otamiri MNIM,
2
Ogbonda, G.A.
1
Dean, Faculty of Business Education St. John’s Diobu Campus, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education
Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
2
Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Abstract: The research was mounted to investigate how gender impacted on the job performance of the
secretary. Secretaries working in two State owned Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria were used. The
population was 102 and sample was 32. One questionnaire designed to elicit information from administrators
on the performance activities of their secretaries was used. Four null hypotheses bothering on critical job areas
of the secretary were formulated. The areas covered included computer operation and data processing;
organizing and covering of meetings, supervision of other staff; and handling of office materials and equipment.
The chi-square parametric test was applied in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Results revealed that
the calculated chi-square value for all the hypotheses were greater than the critical table values indicating that
there are significant differences in the job performance of male and female secretaries in the job areas so
investigated. A further breakdown of the data revealed that while the male secretaries were better in computer
operation and data processing, and in organizing and covering meetings, the female secretaries were better in
the areas of supervision of staff and handling of materials and equipment.
Keywords: Administrators, Gender, Job Performance, Office Materials & Secretaries
I. Introduction
Gender equality and inequality has become topical in recent discourse in various areas of endeavour. It
is common fact that the issue of gender appears to favour men in all areas where they are mentioned. Perhaps
because it is generally believed that men possess more skill and ability endeavours.
It is common knowledge that the job of a Secretary is usually referred to as a females’ job even when
we have many men also doing the job. Even advertisement and recruitment of Secretaries in many organizations
– public or private favour women. Today’s Secretary is no longer the typist and shorthand writer of old. There is
widespread evidence to prove that today’s Secretary operates more like information manager than a coffee-
fetching waiter.
Even when women seem to dominate the Secretarial field, men were the first entrants. Ogbondah
(2014) posit that men were in ancient times and all through the middle ages, the ones who developed the
shorthand, took notes, handled correspondences and administrative duties and otherwise assisted leaders in
confidential matters from the 1860s to the late 1870s.
Ogbondah went on to assert that it was until the industrial revolution and the development of the
typewriter during the 1860s and 1880s that women began to get involved into stenographic positions, and
diminished male dominance.
The recent development in information and communication technology and the introduction of
computer-based technology into Secretarial job put male and female gender side by side in the secretarial
workplace. Here lies the need to consider and measure performance of secretaries along gender lines.
II. The Problem
With the preponderance of male and female practitioners of the Secretarial profession, one wonders
what influences gender choice among employers of labour. Whereas female secretaries are seen as more
humble, cautious, better dressed, more pleasant, the men on the other hand appear more creative, more skilled,
could put in extra hours and can work under any amount of pressure. Whereas men’s strength and ability could
be undermined by their non-succulent nature, women secretaries could also be hampered by other exigencies
like lateness, truancy due to pregnancy and childbirth.
The big questions still remain unanswered in terms of general duty performance, who is better? What
are the major duties of the Secretary? Over and above theoretical formulations, in practical terms which of the
genders perform more? Who is a better Secretary – Male or female?
Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions…
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 99 | Page
III. Related Reading
Job performance relates to the worker’s ability to accomplish set objectives and responsibilities
associated with the position. We must accept here at first instance that in the present day workplace, there is no
particular task that is seen as the exclusive reserve of any gender. Men and women compete for recognition in
almost all life endeavours (Otamiri, 2011).
Whereas the above assertion stands true, Ewubare (2004) posit that women all over the world and more
in developing countries of Africa are highly discriminated. According to her, women are under-utilized, under-
represented in the socio-economic structure, neglected and indeed oppressed. Anele (2008) commenting on
intellectual bias and gender, observed that a lot of men believe that because majority of the world’s renowned
scientists and intellectuals are men, therefore men must be intellectually superior to women. Nowell and
Hedges, (1998) and Ballatine (2001) also argue that gender differences in education and performance persist
even in developed countries of the world even after several decades of intense scrutiny and policy change.
Unger and Crawford (1992) developed two theoretical perspectives for the discussion of gender
differences in occupational performance. According to them, the first perspective views gender as an individual
property that is correlated with occupational and job variables and the individual differences between men and
women as a result of these correlates. They observed that sex is a career variable for differences in experience
and personal history that determine the difference obtained. By this perspective, Unger and Crawford (1992)
assert that when the correlates of gender are controlled, differences between men and women in the workplace
disappear.
The second perspective in their view treats gender not only as a property that individuals bring with
them to the workplace, but also as an institutionalized character of the workplace, of occupations and
occupational environments. But Acker (2000) sounding rather more succinctly, opined that only efficient and
competent persons should handle the position of Secretary in organizations and discrimination against the
females based on old conceived belief in gender inequality should be discouraged.
Hall and Rabinowitz (1970) had much earlier posited that it is not the person’s sex that determines the
job performance of work. Some employers prefer male Secretaries due to their steadiness in the performance of
their job, while others prefer female Secretaries because of the good qualities they possess. They concluded that
job performance is not a gender attribute and that employers should employ Secretaries based on qualification,
experience and skills.
IV. Methodology
The study adopted the descriptive survey design, which focused on determining how gender impacted
on the job performance of Secretaries in the employ of tertiary institutions in Rivers State. The population
comprised of One Hundred and Two (102) male and female Secretaries in Rivers State University of Science
and Technology and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education. The sample stood at 32 made of 16 males and 16
females.
Four research hypotheses were formulated for the study to cover specific areas of the Secretary’s task
namely – computer operation and Data processing; handling of office materials and equipment; supervision of
office staff and organizing and covering meetings. The hypotheses read thus:
(1) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in Computer Operation
and Data Processing.
(2) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in handling office
materials and equipment.
(3) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in the supervision of
office staff.
(4) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in organizing and
covering meetings.
To gather data for the research, a questionnaire was designed with statements of activity of the
Secretary in the chosen variables and on a four-point likert scale of Not all (1); Sometimes (2); Frequently (3);
Very Frequently (4); In the analysis of the research, data collected through responses given in the instrument
were classified, tabulated and analysed using percentages. The chi-square method was applied in testing the
hypotheses to determine whether to accept or reject any of the hypotheses. The formula for calculating the chi-
square is given as follows:-
X2
= ∑ (Fo – Fe)2
Fe
Where Fo = Observed frequency
Fe = expected frequency
∑ = Sum of
Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions…
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 100 | Page
X2
= Value of chi-square
To calculate the expected Frequency (Fe)
Fe = Row total X Column total
Grand total (GT)
Degree of freedom is established by
DF = (R – 1) (C – 1)
Where
R = Number of Rows
C = Number of columns
Assumed level of significance is 50% or 0.05 alpha level.
V. Decision Rule
If the calculated chi-square value is greater than the table value, the null hypothesis is rejected, while it
is accepted if the calculated value is less than the table value.
VI. Results
The results from the data generated and analysed using the chi-square are presented here-under. For
easier understanding of the presentation, the results are presented along the line of the hypotheses tested.
Decisions reached according to the decision rule are specified after every analysis.
Hypothesis One (1): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in
Computer Operation and Data Processing
Computer Operation and Data Processing
S/No Questions NA S F VF Total
1. Does perfect typing, typesetting, formatting - 4 12 9 25
2. Excellent in spread sheet and excel 2 6 15 2 25
3. Very competent in Internet, www and Networking 4 4 13 4 25
4. Excellent in social network applications 1 4 9 11 25
5. Efficient in handling of correspondence 5 4 14 2 25
Cell O E O-E (O-E)2
/∑
1. - - -
2. 2 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 0.8 0.533
3. 4 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 2.8 6.533
4. 1 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 -0.2 0.033
5. 5 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 3.8 12.033
6. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036
7. 6 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 1.6 0.582
8. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036
9. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036
10. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036
11. 12 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 0.6 0.29
12. 15 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 -2.4 0.457
13. 13 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 0.4 0.013
14. 9 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 -3.6 0.156
15. 14 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 1.4 2.064
16. 9 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 3.4 2.314
17. 2 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 -3.6 0.457
18. 4 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 -1.6 5.207
19. 11 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 5.4 2.314
20. 2 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 -3.6 2.314
Total 35.444
Computed (calculated) X2
= 35.444
Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1)
= (5 – 1) (4 – 1)
4 x 3
= 12
Significant level 5% = 0.05
Critical value = 21.03
Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions…
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 101 | Page
Using the table given in Appendix B, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03 our
observed value of X2
is 35.444 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2
> X2
0.05, 12 i.e. X2 > 35.444.
Decision Rule
Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2
< critical value
Reject Null hypothesis (ho) if X2
> critical value.
However, the computed or calculated value of X2
is 35.444 which is greater than critical value of
12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is
significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in Computer Operation and Data
processing. Further examination of the Data shows that male secretaries perform better than the female
secretaries in Computer operation and Data processing.
Hypothesis Two (2): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in
Organizing and Covering Meetings.
VII. Organizing and Covering Meetings
S/No Questions NA S F VF Total
6. Proper handling of meeting notices - 9 11 5 25
7. Competent in preparation and distribution of agenda 4 6 7 8 25
8. Covers meetings competently (shorthand/longhand) 5 5 10 5 25
9. Efficient production and distribution of minutes of meeting 2 4 15 4 25
10. Excellent drafting of motions and resolutions 5 6 10 4 25
Total 16 30 53 36 125
Cell O E O-E (O-E)2
/∑
1. - - -
2. 4 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 -2.7 1.088
3. 5 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 1.8 1.013
4. 2 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 0.8 0.2
5. 5 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 1.8 1.013
6. 9 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 3 1.5
7. 6 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 0 0
8. 5 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 -1 0.167
9. 4 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 -2 0.667
10. 6 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 0 0
11. 11 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 0.4 0.015
12. 7 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 -3.6 1.223
13. 10 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 -0.6 0.033
14. 15 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 4.4 1.826
15. 10 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 -0.6 0.034
16. 5 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 -0.2 7.692
17. 8 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 2.8 1.508
18. 5 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 2.8 7.692
19. 4 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 -0.2 0.277
20. 4 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 -1.2 0.277
Total 26.225
Computed (calculated) X2
= 26.225
Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1)
= (5 – 1) (4 – 1)
4 x 3
= 12
Significant level 5% = 0.05
Critical value = 21.03
Using the table given in Appendix B, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03
our observed value of X2
is 26.225 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2
> X2
0.05, 12 i.e. X2 >
26.225.
Decision Rule
Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2
< critical value
Reject Null hypothesis (ho) if X2
> critical value.
However, the computed or calculated value of X2
is 26.225 which is greater than critical value of
12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is
Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions…
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 102 | Page
significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in Organizing and covering meetings.
From the data presented and analysed, it could be concluded that male Secretaries performed better than female
Secretaries in Organizing and covering meetings.
Hypothesis Three (3): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in
Supervision of other staff.
Supervision of other staff
S/No Questions NA S F VF Total
11. Keep and maintain proper attendance register - 4 6 15 25
12. Ensures punctuality and regularity of staff 1 2 9 13 25
13. Carries out proper appraisal of staff 7 8 4 6 25
14. Effective discharge of responsibilities 3 10 9 3 25
15. Effective coordination of work assignment in office 2 5 10 8 25
Total 13 29 38 45 125
Cell O E O-E (O-E)2
/∑
1. - - -
2. 1 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 -1.6 0.985
3. 7 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 4.4 7.446
4. 3 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 0.4 0.062
5. 2 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 -0.6 0.138
6. 4 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 -1.8 0.559
7. 2 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 -3.8 2.490
8. 8 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 2.2 0.834
9. 10 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 4.2 3.041
10. 5 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 -0.8 0.441
11. 6 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 -1.6 0.337
12. 9 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 1.4 0.258
13. 4 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 -3.6 1.705
14. 9 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 1.4 0.258
15. 10 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 2.4 0.758
16. 15 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 6 4
17. 13 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 4 1.778
18. 6 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 -3 1
19. 3 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 -6 4
20. 8 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 -1 111
Total 30.201
Computed (calculated) X2
= 30.201
Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1)
= (5 – 1) (4 – 1)
4 x 3
= 12
Significant level 5% = 0.05
Critical value = 21.03
Using the table given in Appendix B, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03
our observed value of X2
is 30.201 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2
> X2
0.05, 12 i.e. X2 >
30.201.
Decision Rule
Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2
< critical value
Reject Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2
> critical value.
However, the computed or calculated value of X2
is 30.201 which is greater than critical value of
12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is
significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in the supervision of office staff. A
closer examination of the analysis revealed that the female Secretaries performed better than male Secretaries in
Staff Supervision and Control.
Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions…
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 103 | Page
Hypothesis Four (4): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in
the Handling of Office Materials and Equipment.
Handling of Office Materials & Equipment
S/No Questions NA S F VF Total
16. Keep proper inventory of materials and supply 4 4 10 7 25
17. Ensure orderly and decent use of office equipment - 4 13 8 25
18. Effective at economic order quantity 4 6 10 5 25
19. Effective at office supply management 1 6 6 12 25
20. Proper arrangement and use of equipment 2 2 11 10 25
Total 11 22 50 42 125
Cell O E O-E (O-E)2
/∑
1. 4 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -18 14.73
2. - (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -22 22
3. 4 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -18 14.73
4. 1 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -21 20.05
5. 2 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -20 18.18
6. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -40 36.36
7. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -40 36.36
8. 6 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -38 32.82
9. 6 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -38 32.82
10. 2 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -42 40.10
11. 10 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 0 0
12. 13 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 3 0.9
13. 10 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 0 0
14. 6 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 -4 1.6
15. 11 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 1 0.1
16. 7 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 -1.4 0.233
17. 8 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 -0.4 0.019
18. 5 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 -3.4 1.376
19. 12 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 3.6 1.543
20. 10 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 1.6 0.305
Total 274.226
Computed (calculated) X2
= 274.226
Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1)
= (5 – 1) (4 – 1)
4 x 3
= 12
Significant level 5% = 0.05
Critical value = 21.03
Using the table given above, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03 our
observed value of X2
is 274.226 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2
> X2
0.05, 12 i.e. X2 >
274.226.
Decision Rule
Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2
< critical value
Reject Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2
> critical value.
However, the computed or calculated value of X2
is 274.226 which is greater than critical value of
12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is
significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in handling of office materials and
equipment. Further examination of the results showed that female Secretaries were better in the handling of
office materials and equipment than male Secretaries.

Recommended

A study of the existence of glass ceiling in the telecommunication sector of ...
A study of the existence of glass ceiling in the telecommunication sector of ...A study of the existence of glass ceiling in the telecommunication sector of ...
A study of the existence of glass ceiling in the telecommunication sector of ...iosrjce
 
An Appraisal Of Indexing And Abstracting Services In The Institute Of Educati...
An Appraisal Of Indexing And Abstracting Services In The Institute Of Educati...An Appraisal Of Indexing And Abstracting Services In The Institute Of Educati...
An Appraisal Of Indexing And Abstracting Services In The Institute Of Educati...iosrjce
 
Childhood Factors that influence success in later life
Childhood Factors that influence success in later lifeChildhood Factors that influence success in later life
Childhood Factors that influence success in later lifeiosrjce
 
3205 12611-1-pb
3205 12611-1-pb3205 12611-1-pb
3205 12611-1-pbEric Sassi
 
Battle of Sexes in the Workplace
Battle of Sexes in the WorkplaceBattle of Sexes in the Workplace
Battle of Sexes in the WorkplaceIJAEMSJORNAL
 
Gender Communication In The Workplace
Gender Communication In The WorkplaceGender Communication In The Workplace
Gender Communication In The WorkplaceKatherine Alexander
 
Women-directors-contribution-to-organizational-inn_2018_Scandinavian-Journal.pdf
Women-directors-contribution-to-organizational-inn_2018_Scandinavian-Journal.pdfWomen-directors-contribution-to-organizational-inn_2018_Scandinavian-Journal.pdf
Women-directors-contribution-to-organizational-inn_2018_Scandinavian-Journal.pdfsaeedahmed433704
 

More Related Content

Similar to Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State

Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross
Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross
Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross Alexander Decker
 
Codruta Berbece 8103
Codruta Berbece 8103Codruta Berbece 8103
Codruta Berbece 8103iomm23
 
Masculinity and femenity
Masculinity and femenityMasculinity and femenity
Masculinity and femenityKatalia1
 
Running head LITERATURE REVIEW .docx
Running head LITERATURE REVIEW                                   .docxRunning head LITERATURE REVIEW                                   .docx
Running head LITERATURE REVIEW .docxcharisellington63520
 
Different Schools Within Two Separate School Districts
Different Schools Within Two Separate School DistrictsDifferent Schools Within Two Separate School Districts
Different Schools Within Two Separate School DistrictsDawn Mora
 
Fisher Lit Review May 17
Fisher Lit Review May 17Fisher Lit Review May 17
Fisher Lit Review May 17Kathleen Fisher
 
Chapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organi
Chapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organiChapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organi
Chapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organiJinElias52
 
Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...
Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...
Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...umbcpsych357
 
emerging issues in educational leadership and management
emerging issues in educational leadership and managementemerging issues in educational leadership and management
emerging issues in educational leadership and managementAliza Zaina
 
A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...
A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...
A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...Nicole Heredia
 
Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of
Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of
Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of POLY33
 
Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...
Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...
Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...QUESTJOURNAL
 
Gender Sensitivity- Meysoon Amin
Gender Sensitivity- Meysoon AminGender Sensitivity- Meysoon Amin
Gender Sensitivity- Meysoon AminMeysoonAmin
 
SAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docx
SAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docxSAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docx
SAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docxrtodd599
 

Similar to Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State (20)

Thesis Proposal
Thesis ProposalThesis Proposal
Thesis Proposal
 
Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross
Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross
Contextual factors that impact leadership practices in cross
 
Codruta Berbece 8103
Codruta Berbece 8103Codruta Berbece 8103
Codruta Berbece 8103
 
Masculinity and femenity
Masculinity and femenityMasculinity and femenity
Masculinity and femenity
 
Running head LITERATURE REVIEW .docx
Running head LITERATURE REVIEW                                   .docxRunning head LITERATURE REVIEW                                   .docx
Running head LITERATURE REVIEW .docx
 
Qassim presentation1
Qassim presentation1Qassim presentation1
Qassim presentation1
 
Different Schools Within Two Separate School Districts
Different Schools Within Two Separate School DistrictsDifferent Schools Within Two Separate School Districts
Different Schools Within Two Separate School Districts
 
Fisher Lit Review May 17
Fisher Lit Review May 17Fisher Lit Review May 17
Fisher Lit Review May 17
 
Gender & Culture
Gender & Culture Gender & Culture
Gender & Culture
 
Chapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organi
Chapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organiChapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organi
Chapter III Methodology As observed in recent years, large organi
 
Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...
Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...
Envisioning Oneself As A leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and th...
 
Leadership.pdf
Leadership.pdfLeadership.pdf
Leadership.pdf
 
emerging issues in educational leadership and management
emerging issues in educational leadership and managementemerging issues in educational leadership and management
emerging issues in educational leadership and management
 
BBP_11_24
BBP_11_24BBP_11_24
BBP_11_24
 
A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...
A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...
A CASE STUDY EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF MANAGING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY ON DIVERSIT...
 
Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of
Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of
Niels opstrup is assistant professor in the department of
 
Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...
Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...
Narrations of Work-Life Balance among Academic Staff in an Open Distance Lear...
 
Research in hr
Research in hrResearch in hr
Research in hr
 
Gender Sensitivity- Meysoon Amin
Gender Sensitivity- Meysoon AminGender Sensitivity- Meysoon Amin
Gender Sensitivity- Meysoon Amin
 
SAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docx
SAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docxSAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docx
SAMPLE ANSWERPublic Attributions for Poverty in Canada – Reutt.docx
 

More from iosrjce

An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...
An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...
An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...iosrjce
 
Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?
Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?
Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?iosrjce
 
Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...
Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...
Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...iosrjce
 
Customer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in Dubai
Customer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in DubaiCustomer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in Dubai
Customer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in Dubaiiosrjce
 
A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...
A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...
A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...iosrjce
 
Consumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model Approach
Consumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model ApproachConsumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model Approach
Consumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model Approachiosrjce
 
Student`S Approach towards Social Network Sites
Student`S Approach towards Social Network SitesStudent`S Approach towards Social Network Sites
Student`S Approach towards Social Network Sitesiosrjce
 
Broadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperative
Broadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperativeBroadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperative
Broadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperativeiosrjce
 
A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...
A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...
A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...iosrjce
 
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...iosrjce
 
Consumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on Bangladesh
Consumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on BangladeshConsumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on Bangladesh
Consumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on Bangladeshiosrjce
 
Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...
Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...
Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...iosrjce
 
Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...
Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...
Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...iosrjce
 
Media Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & Consideration
Media Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & ConsiderationMedia Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & Consideration
Media Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & Considerationiosrjce
 
Customer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative study
Customer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative studyCustomer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative study
Customer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative studyiosrjce
 
Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...
Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...
Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...iosrjce
 
Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...
Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...
Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...iosrjce
 
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...iosrjce
 
Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...
Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...
Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...iosrjce
 
Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...
Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...
Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...iosrjce
 

More from iosrjce (20)

An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...
An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...
An Examination of Effectuation Dimension as Financing Practice of Small and M...
 
Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?
Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?
Does Goods and Services Tax (GST) Leads to Indian Economic Development?
 
Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...
Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...
Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance Relationship: A Study on Sales Pe...
 
Customer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in Dubai
Customer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in DubaiCustomer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in Dubai
Customer’s Acceptance of Internet Banking in Dubai
 
A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...
A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...
A Study of Employee Satisfaction relating to Job Security & Working Hours amo...
 
Consumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model Approach
Consumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model ApproachConsumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model Approach
Consumer Perspectives on Brand Preference: A Choice Based Model Approach
 
Student`S Approach towards Social Network Sites
Student`S Approach towards Social Network SitesStudent`S Approach towards Social Network Sites
Student`S Approach towards Social Network Sites
 
Broadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperative
Broadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperativeBroadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperative
Broadcast Management in Nigeria: The systems approach as an imperative
 
A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...
A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...
A Study on Retailer’s Perception on Soya Products with Special Reference to T...
 
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate ...
 
Consumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on Bangladesh
Consumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on BangladeshConsumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on Bangladesh
Consumers’ Behaviour on Sony Xperia: A Case Study on Bangladesh
 
Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...
Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...
Design of a Balanced Scorecard on Nonprofit Organizations (Study on Yayasan P...
 
Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...
Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...
Public Sector Reforms and Outsourcing Services in Nigeria: An Empirical Evalu...
 
Media Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & Consideration
Media Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & ConsiderationMedia Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & Consideration
Media Innovations and its Impact on Brand awareness & Consideration
 
Customer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative study
Customer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative studyCustomer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative study
Customer experience in supermarkets and hypermarkets – A comparative study
 
Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...
Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...
Social Media and Small Businesses: A Combinational Strategic Approach under t...
 
Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...
Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...
Implementation of Quality Management principles at Zimbabwe Open University (...
 
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, ...
 
Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...
Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...
Impact of education on innovation performance: evidence from Azerbaijan const...
 
Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...
Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...
Performance Assessment of Agricultural Research Organisation Priority Setting...
 

Recently uploaded

Database Set Up Basics Bloomerang Academy
Database Set Up Basics Bloomerang AcademyDatabase Set Up Basics Bloomerang Academy
Database Set Up Basics Bloomerang AcademyBloomerang
 
publicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdf
publicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdfpublicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdf
publicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdfmmople
 
How to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales Systems
How to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales SystemsHow to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales Systems
How to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales SystemsSalesScripter
 
PDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / Techcrunch
PDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / TechcrunchPDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / Techcrunch
PDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / TechcrunchHajeJanKamps
 
Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024
Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024
Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024Neil Kimberley
 
Eni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 results
Eni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 resultsEni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 results
Eni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 resultsEni
 
SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)
SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)
SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)SYYIR
 
The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...
The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...
The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...Diego Riobo Cabot
 
5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdf
5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdf5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdf
5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdfRemar Barquilla
 
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024Franchize Consultants
 
Sample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO Strategy
Sample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO StrategySample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO Strategy
Sample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO StrategyRemar Barquilla
 
02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdf
02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdf02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdf
02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdfBloomerang
 
The Coca-Cola Company Presentation at CAGNY 2024.pdf
The Coca-Cola Company Presentation at  CAGNY 2024.pdfThe Coca-Cola Company Presentation at  CAGNY 2024.pdf
The Coca-Cola Company Presentation at CAGNY 2024.pdfNeil Kimberley
 
Trending Topics for events Presentation.pdf
Trending Topics for events Presentation.pdfTrending Topics for events Presentation.pdf
Trending Topics for events Presentation.pdfgaju619
 
General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024
General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024
General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024Neil Kimberley
 
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024Franchize Consultants
 
Communications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdf
Communications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdfCommunications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdf
Communications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdfBloomerang
 
Truths and Myths of Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Truths and Myths of Innovation and EntrepreneurshipTruths and Myths of Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Truths and Myths of Innovation and EntrepreneurshipYannis Charalabidis
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Database Set Up Basics Bloomerang Academy
Database Set Up Basics Bloomerang AcademyDatabase Set Up Basics Bloomerang Academy
Database Set Up Basics Bloomerang Academy
 
publicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdf
publicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdfpublicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdf
publicpolicy-130621235359-phpapp02 2.pdf
 
How to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales Systems
How to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales SystemsHow to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales Systems
How to Get Around Sales Objection | The SMART Sales Systems
 
PDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / Techcrunch
PDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / TechcrunchPDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / Techcrunch
PDT 84 - 16m - Series A - Equals for Pitch Deck Teardown / Techcrunch
 
Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024
Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024
Pernod Ricard presentation at CAGNY 2024
 
Eni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 results
Eni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 resultsEni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 results
Eni: fourth quarter and full year 2023 results
 
SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)
SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)
SYY CAGNY 2024 PRESENTATION (February 20, 2024)
 
The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...
The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...
The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful digital transformation of teams, produc...
 
Carol Scott - How to Thrive in the AI Era.pdf
Carol Scott - How to Thrive in the AI Era.pdfCarol Scott - How to Thrive in the AI Era.pdf
Carol Scott - How to Thrive in the AI Era.pdf
 
5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdf
5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdf5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdf
5 Common Writing Mistakes Infographic.pdf
 
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
 
Polyene General Industries Private Limited
Polyene General Industries Private LimitedPolyene General Industries Private Limited
Polyene General Industries Private Limited
 
Sample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO Strategy
Sample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO StrategySample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO Strategy
Sample Competitors' SWOT Analysis for your SEO Strategy
 
02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdf
02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdf02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdf
02.20 Webinar - Online Giving Trends.pdf
 
The Coca-Cola Company Presentation at CAGNY 2024.pdf
The Coca-Cola Company Presentation at  CAGNY 2024.pdfThe Coca-Cola Company Presentation at  CAGNY 2024.pdf
The Coca-Cola Company Presentation at CAGNY 2024.pdf
 
Trending Topics for events Presentation.pdf
Trending Topics for events Presentation.pdfTrending Topics for events Presentation.pdf
Trending Topics for events Presentation.pdf
 
General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024
General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024
General Mills Presentation at CAGNY 2024
 
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
New Zealand Franchising Confidence Index | January 2024
 
Communications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdf
Communications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdfCommunications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdf
Communications Trends for Fundraising Success in 2024.pdf
 
Truths and Myths of Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Truths and Myths of Innovation and EntrepreneurshipTruths and Myths of Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Truths and Myths of Innovation and Entrepreneurship
 

Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State

  • 1. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 12 .Ver. II (Dec. 2015), PP 98-104 www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 98 | Page Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State. 1 Dr. Sam Otamiri MNIM, 2 Ogbonda, G.A. 1 Dean, Faculty of Business Education St. John’s Diobu Campus, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2 Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Abstract: The research was mounted to investigate how gender impacted on the job performance of the secretary. Secretaries working in two State owned Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria were used. The population was 102 and sample was 32. One questionnaire designed to elicit information from administrators on the performance activities of their secretaries was used. Four null hypotheses bothering on critical job areas of the secretary were formulated. The areas covered included computer operation and data processing; organizing and covering of meetings, supervision of other staff; and handling of office materials and equipment. The chi-square parametric test was applied in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Results revealed that the calculated chi-square value for all the hypotheses were greater than the critical table values indicating that there are significant differences in the job performance of male and female secretaries in the job areas so investigated. A further breakdown of the data revealed that while the male secretaries were better in computer operation and data processing, and in organizing and covering meetings, the female secretaries were better in the areas of supervision of staff and handling of materials and equipment. Keywords: Administrators, Gender, Job Performance, Office Materials & Secretaries I. Introduction Gender equality and inequality has become topical in recent discourse in various areas of endeavour. It is common fact that the issue of gender appears to favour men in all areas where they are mentioned. Perhaps because it is generally believed that men possess more skill and ability endeavours. It is common knowledge that the job of a Secretary is usually referred to as a females’ job even when we have many men also doing the job. Even advertisement and recruitment of Secretaries in many organizations – public or private favour women. Today’s Secretary is no longer the typist and shorthand writer of old. There is widespread evidence to prove that today’s Secretary operates more like information manager than a coffee- fetching waiter. Even when women seem to dominate the Secretarial field, men were the first entrants. Ogbondah (2014) posit that men were in ancient times and all through the middle ages, the ones who developed the shorthand, took notes, handled correspondences and administrative duties and otherwise assisted leaders in confidential matters from the 1860s to the late 1870s. Ogbondah went on to assert that it was until the industrial revolution and the development of the typewriter during the 1860s and 1880s that women began to get involved into stenographic positions, and diminished male dominance. The recent development in information and communication technology and the introduction of computer-based technology into Secretarial job put male and female gender side by side in the secretarial workplace. Here lies the need to consider and measure performance of secretaries along gender lines. II. The Problem With the preponderance of male and female practitioners of the Secretarial profession, one wonders what influences gender choice among employers of labour. Whereas female secretaries are seen as more humble, cautious, better dressed, more pleasant, the men on the other hand appear more creative, more skilled, could put in extra hours and can work under any amount of pressure. Whereas men’s strength and ability could be undermined by their non-succulent nature, women secretaries could also be hampered by other exigencies like lateness, truancy due to pregnancy and childbirth. The big questions still remain unanswered in terms of general duty performance, who is better? What are the major duties of the Secretary? Over and above theoretical formulations, in practical terms which of the genders perform more? Who is a better Secretary – Male or female?
  • 2. Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions… DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 99 | Page III. Related Reading Job performance relates to the worker’s ability to accomplish set objectives and responsibilities associated with the position. We must accept here at first instance that in the present day workplace, there is no particular task that is seen as the exclusive reserve of any gender. Men and women compete for recognition in almost all life endeavours (Otamiri, 2011). Whereas the above assertion stands true, Ewubare (2004) posit that women all over the world and more in developing countries of Africa are highly discriminated. According to her, women are under-utilized, under- represented in the socio-economic structure, neglected and indeed oppressed. Anele (2008) commenting on intellectual bias and gender, observed that a lot of men believe that because majority of the world’s renowned scientists and intellectuals are men, therefore men must be intellectually superior to women. Nowell and Hedges, (1998) and Ballatine (2001) also argue that gender differences in education and performance persist even in developed countries of the world even after several decades of intense scrutiny and policy change. Unger and Crawford (1992) developed two theoretical perspectives for the discussion of gender differences in occupational performance. According to them, the first perspective views gender as an individual property that is correlated with occupational and job variables and the individual differences between men and women as a result of these correlates. They observed that sex is a career variable for differences in experience and personal history that determine the difference obtained. By this perspective, Unger and Crawford (1992) assert that when the correlates of gender are controlled, differences between men and women in the workplace disappear. The second perspective in their view treats gender not only as a property that individuals bring with them to the workplace, but also as an institutionalized character of the workplace, of occupations and occupational environments. But Acker (2000) sounding rather more succinctly, opined that only efficient and competent persons should handle the position of Secretary in organizations and discrimination against the females based on old conceived belief in gender inequality should be discouraged. Hall and Rabinowitz (1970) had much earlier posited that it is not the person’s sex that determines the job performance of work. Some employers prefer male Secretaries due to their steadiness in the performance of their job, while others prefer female Secretaries because of the good qualities they possess. They concluded that job performance is not a gender attribute and that employers should employ Secretaries based on qualification, experience and skills. IV. Methodology The study adopted the descriptive survey design, which focused on determining how gender impacted on the job performance of Secretaries in the employ of tertiary institutions in Rivers State. The population comprised of One Hundred and Two (102) male and female Secretaries in Rivers State University of Science and Technology and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education. The sample stood at 32 made of 16 males and 16 females. Four research hypotheses were formulated for the study to cover specific areas of the Secretary’s task namely – computer operation and Data processing; handling of office materials and equipment; supervision of office staff and organizing and covering meetings. The hypotheses read thus: (1) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in Computer Operation and Data Processing. (2) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in handling office materials and equipment. (3) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in the supervision of office staff. (4) There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in organizing and covering meetings. To gather data for the research, a questionnaire was designed with statements of activity of the Secretary in the chosen variables and on a four-point likert scale of Not all (1); Sometimes (2); Frequently (3); Very Frequently (4); In the analysis of the research, data collected through responses given in the instrument were classified, tabulated and analysed using percentages. The chi-square method was applied in testing the hypotheses to determine whether to accept or reject any of the hypotheses. The formula for calculating the chi- square is given as follows:- X2 = ∑ (Fo – Fe)2 Fe Where Fo = Observed frequency Fe = expected frequency ∑ = Sum of
  • 3. Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions… DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 100 | Page X2 = Value of chi-square To calculate the expected Frequency (Fe) Fe = Row total X Column total Grand total (GT) Degree of freedom is established by DF = (R – 1) (C – 1) Where R = Number of Rows C = Number of columns Assumed level of significance is 50% or 0.05 alpha level. V. Decision Rule If the calculated chi-square value is greater than the table value, the null hypothesis is rejected, while it is accepted if the calculated value is less than the table value. VI. Results The results from the data generated and analysed using the chi-square are presented here-under. For easier understanding of the presentation, the results are presented along the line of the hypotheses tested. Decisions reached according to the decision rule are specified after every analysis. Hypothesis One (1): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in Computer Operation and Data Processing Computer Operation and Data Processing S/No Questions NA S F VF Total 1. Does perfect typing, typesetting, formatting - 4 12 9 25 2. Excellent in spread sheet and excel 2 6 15 2 25 3. Very competent in Internet, www and Networking 4 4 13 4 25 4. Excellent in social network applications 1 4 9 11 25 5. Efficient in handling of correspondence 5 4 14 2 25 Cell O E O-E (O-E)2 /∑ 1. - - - 2. 2 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 0.8 0.533 3. 4 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 2.8 6.533 4. 1 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 -0.2 0.033 5. 5 (6 x 25) ÷ 125 = 1.2 3.8 12.033 6. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036 7. 6 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 1.6 0.582 8. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036 9. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036 10. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 4.4 -0.4 0.036 11. 12 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 0.6 0.29 12. 15 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 -2.4 0.457 13. 13 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 0.4 0.013 14. 9 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 -3.6 0.156 15. 14 (63 x 25) ÷ 125 = 12.6 1.4 2.064 16. 9 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 3.4 2.314 17. 2 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 -3.6 0.457 18. 4 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 -1.6 5.207 19. 11 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 5.4 2.314 20. 2 (28 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.6 -3.6 2.314 Total 35.444 Computed (calculated) X2 = 35.444 Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1) = (5 – 1) (4 – 1) 4 x 3 = 12 Significant level 5% = 0.05 Critical value = 21.03
  • 4. Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions… DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 101 | Page Using the table given in Appendix B, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03 our observed value of X2 is 35.444 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2 > X2 0.05, 12 i.e. X2 > 35.444. Decision Rule Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2 < critical value Reject Null hypothesis (ho) if X2 > critical value. However, the computed or calculated value of X2 is 35.444 which is greater than critical value of 12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in Computer Operation and Data processing. Further examination of the Data shows that male secretaries perform better than the female secretaries in Computer operation and Data processing. Hypothesis Two (2): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in Organizing and Covering Meetings. VII. Organizing and Covering Meetings S/No Questions NA S F VF Total 6. Proper handling of meeting notices - 9 11 5 25 7. Competent in preparation and distribution of agenda 4 6 7 8 25 8. Covers meetings competently (shorthand/longhand) 5 5 10 5 25 9. Efficient production and distribution of minutes of meeting 2 4 15 4 25 10. Excellent drafting of motions and resolutions 5 6 10 4 25 Total 16 30 53 36 125 Cell O E O-E (O-E)2 /∑ 1. - - - 2. 4 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 -2.7 1.088 3. 5 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 1.8 1.013 4. 2 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 0.8 0.2 5. 5 (16 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6.7 1.8 1.013 6. 9 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 3 1.5 7. 6 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 0 0 8. 5 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 -1 0.167 9. 4 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 -2 0.667 10. 6 (30 x 25) ÷ 125 = 6 0 0 11. 11 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 0.4 0.015 12. 7 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 -3.6 1.223 13. 10 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 -0.6 0.033 14. 15 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 4.4 1.826 15. 10 (53 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10.6 -0.6 0.034 16. 5 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 -0.2 7.692 17. 8 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 2.8 1.508 18. 5 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 2.8 7.692 19. 4 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 -0.2 0.277 20. 4 (26 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.2 -1.2 0.277 Total 26.225 Computed (calculated) X2 = 26.225 Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1) = (5 – 1) (4 – 1) 4 x 3 = 12 Significant level 5% = 0.05 Critical value = 21.03 Using the table given in Appendix B, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03 our observed value of X2 is 26.225 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2 > X2 0.05, 12 i.e. X2 > 26.225. Decision Rule Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2 < critical value Reject Null hypothesis (ho) if X2 > critical value. However, the computed or calculated value of X2 is 26.225 which is greater than critical value of 12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is
  • 5. Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions… DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 102 | Page significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in Organizing and covering meetings. From the data presented and analysed, it could be concluded that male Secretaries performed better than female Secretaries in Organizing and covering meetings. Hypothesis Three (3): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in Supervision of other staff. Supervision of other staff S/No Questions NA S F VF Total 11. Keep and maintain proper attendance register - 4 6 15 25 12. Ensures punctuality and regularity of staff 1 2 9 13 25 13. Carries out proper appraisal of staff 7 8 4 6 25 14. Effective discharge of responsibilities 3 10 9 3 25 15. Effective coordination of work assignment in office 2 5 10 8 25 Total 13 29 38 45 125 Cell O E O-E (O-E)2 /∑ 1. - - - 2. 1 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 -1.6 0.985 3. 7 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 4.4 7.446 4. 3 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 0.4 0.062 5. 2 (13 x 25) ÷ 125 = 2.6 -0.6 0.138 6. 4 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 -1.8 0.559 7. 2 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 -3.8 2.490 8. 8 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 2.2 0.834 9. 10 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 4.2 3.041 10. 5 (29 x 25) ÷ 125 = 5.8 -0.8 0.441 11. 6 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 -1.6 0.337 12. 9 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 1.4 0.258 13. 4 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 -3.6 1.705 14. 9 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 1.4 0.258 15. 10 (38 x 25) ÷ 125 = 7.6 2.4 0.758 16. 15 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 6 4 17. 13 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 4 1.778 18. 6 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 -3 1 19. 3 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 -6 4 20. 8 (45 x 25) ÷ 125 = 9 -1 111 Total 30.201 Computed (calculated) X2 = 30.201 Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1) = (5 – 1) (4 – 1) 4 x 3 = 12 Significant level 5% = 0.05 Critical value = 21.03 Using the table given in Appendix B, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03 our observed value of X2 is 30.201 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2 > X2 0.05, 12 i.e. X2 > 30.201. Decision Rule Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2 < critical value Reject Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2 > critical value. However, the computed or calculated value of X2 is 30.201 which is greater than critical value of 12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in the supervision of office staff. A closer examination of the analysis revealed that the female Secretaries performed better than male Secretaries in Staff Supervision and Control.
  • 6. Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions… DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 103 | Page Hypothesis Four (4): There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in the Handling of Office Materials and Equipment. Handling of Office Materials & Equipment S/No Questions NA S F VF Total 16. Keep proper inventory of materials and supply 4 4 10 7 25 17. Ensure orderly and decent use of office equipment - 4 13 8 25 18. Effective at economic order quantity 4 6 10 5 25 19. Effective at office supply management 1 6 6 12 25 20. Proper arrangement and use of equipment 2 2 11 10 25 Total 11 22 50 42 125 Cell O E O-E (O-E)2 /∑ 1. 4 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -18 14.73 2. - (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -22 22 3. 4 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -18 14.73 4. 1 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -21 20.05 5. 2 (11 x 25) ÷ 125 = 22 -20 18.18 6. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -40 36.36 7. 4 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -40 36.36 8. 6 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -38 32.82 9. 6 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -38 32.82 10. 2 (22 x 25) ÷ 125 = 44 -42 40.10 11. 10 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 0 0 12. 13 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 3 0.9 13. 10 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 0 0 14. 6 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 -4 1.6 15. 11 (50 x 25) ÷ 125 = 10 1 0.1 16. 7 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 -1.4 0.233 17. 8 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 -0.4 0.019 18. 5 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 -3.4 1.376 19. 12 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 3.6 1.543 20. 10 (42 x 25) ÷ 125 = 8.4 1.6 0.305 Total 274.226 Computed (calculated) X2 = 274.226 Degree of freedom (df) = (R – 1) (C – 1) = (5 – 1) (4 – 1) 4 x 3 = 12 Significant level 5% = 0.05 Critical value = 21.03 Using the table given above, the percentage critical value at 12 degrees of freedom is 21.03 our observed value of X2 is 274.226 and this is greater than the 5% critical value. X2 > X2 0.05, 12 i.e. X2 > 274.226. Decision Rule Accept Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2 < critical value Reject Null hypothesis (Ho) if X2 > critical value. However, the computed or calculated value of X2 is 274.226 which is greater than critical value of 12.03. Therefore, we reject Null hypothesis (Ho) and accept Alternate hypothesis (HA) which means that there is significant difference in the performance of male and female secretaries in handling of office materials and equipment. Further examination of the results showed that female Secretaries were better in the handling of office materials and equipment than male Secretaries.
  • 7. Secretarial Performance and the Gender Question (A Study of Selected Tertiary Institutions… DOI: 10.9790/487X-1712298104 www.iosrjournals.org 104 | Page VIII. Findings and Conclusions Consequent upon the data generated for this study and the subsequent testing of the four hypotheses raised, the following findings and conclusions were reached. (1) It was revealed that there exist a significant difference in the performance of male and female Secretaries in Computer Operation and Data Processing. From the results it was revealed that male Secretaries performed more than the females in Computer Operation and Word Processing. (2) It is hereby concluded that there exist a significant difference in the job performance of male and female Secretaries in the handling of office materials and equipment. Further examination of data revealed that female Secretaries do better in this respect than the males. (3) It was concluded that there is a significant difference in the job performance of male and female Secretaries in Staff Supervision and Control. (4) The research concluded that there exist a significant difference between the job performance of male and female Secretaries in organizing and covering meetings. It was however found that male Secretaries performed better in this respect than female Secretaries. Conclusively, the research assets that there really exist some significant differences in the job performance of male and female Secretaries. It therefore follows that gender was a factor in the determination of job performance of Secretaries. References [1]. Acker, J. (2006). Hierarchies, Jobs Bodies: A Theory of Gender and Society. New York, Holt Rinehart and Winston Publications. [2]. Anele, D. (2008). The Place of Women in Human Existence: A Critical Inquiry (4) Sunday Vanguard, 23 (1069018). Pp.2. [3]. Ballatine, J. E. (2001). The Sociology of Education: A Systematic Analysis. Upper Saddle ridge, NJ Prentice Hall. [4]. Davis, M. and Levin, B. (1992). Secretarial Administration Made Simple, 2nd Edition, London. African Pitman Business Series. [5]. Ewubare, M. U. (2008). Contending With Gender Impediments to Attaining Job Heights: Implications for Sustainable Development. In Babalola et al (ed). Managing Education for Sustainable Development. A Publication of Nigerian Association for Educational Administration and Planning (NAEAP). [6]. Igbinidoin, A. (2010). Effects of Information and Communication Technology, California. Journal of Information 23, 592-596. [7]. Lorber, J. (1994). Paradoxes of Gender, London. Yale University Press, New Heaven Publishers. [8]. Nowell, A. and Hedges, L. V. (1998). Trends in Gender Differences in Academic Achievement from 1960-1994. An Analysis of Differences in Mean, Variance and Extreme Scores. Sex Roles 39, 21-43. [9]. Ogbondah, G. A. (2014). Relationship Between Gender and Job Performance of Secretaries in Organizations. Unpublished Project Report, Rivers State University of Science and Technology. [10]. Otamiri, S. A. (2011). Gender Considerations in the Academic Achievement of Business Education Students: Focus on Rivers State University of Education. International Journal of Development Studies. 3(2) 201-211. [11]. Rabinowitz, S. and Hall, D. (1970) Organizational Research on Job Involvement: Journal of Applied Psychology, 54, 491-495. [12]. Unger, R. and Crawford, M. (1997). The Psychology of Women and Gender. An Anthropo View. New York: Thomas Nelson Publishers.