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A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector

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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) is a double blind peer reviewed International Journal that provides rapid publication (within a month) of articles in all areas of business and managemant and its applications. The journal welcomes publications of high quality papers on theoretical developments and practical applications inbusiness and management. Original research papers, state-of-the-art reviews, and high quality technical notes are invited for publications.

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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 12 .Ver. III (Dec. 2015), PP 06-09
www.iosrjournals.org
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 6 | Page
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour
in Corporate Sector
1
T.Shobana Thulasi, 2
Dr.A.Geetha
Research scholar of Mother Teresa women’s university, kodaikannal,INDIA.
Assistant professor of Mother Teresawoman’suniversity,Kodaikanal, INDIA
Abstract: Organizational citizenship is discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s normal
requirements from the employers but that nevertheless improves the effective functioning of the organization.
Effective organizations need employees who will perform duties more than their normal job duties and provide
performance that is beyond expectations. In order to achieve the organisational goal, the management need to
fulfil employee’s job satisfaction, understand their motivation, and create suitable work environments are some
of the important thing in management reality.
Key words: Organisational citizenship behaviour, factors of Organisational citizenship behaviour,
organisational effectiveness, organisational efficiency,positive work environment.
I. Introduction:
This research paper is very important to create improvement in organisational efficiency and
effectiveness. As defined by Organ , OCB shows a “good soldier syndrome” which is so essential for the
prosperity and smooth functioning of every organization. That means doing a better job, making an effort in
every aspect which beyond formal requirements, and filling the gap among procedures, rules and regulations on
the one hand, and dynamic as well as practical reality on the other. OCB is usually perceived as extracting
exceptionally good behaviours for the sake of the organization and informally supporting the organisational
members. Till date and as far as we could find, no study have investigated the meaning and application of OCB
behaviours in the third sector. Obviously, such behaviours are vital to private organizations since they affect
their effectiveness and profitability. Thus, OCB represent a most powerful element of free-will conduct, most
relevant in corporate organizations, which highlight values of voluntary personal behaviour especially among
employees. Consequently it is essential to examine how OCB is manifested in interpersonal relationships with
organisation.
II. Statement Of The Problem:
Research of organizational citizenship behaviours has been extensive behaviour since its introduction
around thirty two years ago. The vast majority of organizational citizenship behaviour research since has
focused on the effects of organizational citizenship behaviour on individual and organizational performance.
There is consensus in the field that organizational citizenship behaviours are salient behaviours for
organizational enterprises. However, the antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviours are not well
established.
This paper focuses on clearly defining the relationship between influences of various Characteristics
and OCB. This paper will also discuss the implications of the OCB and try to find out how to improve OCB. To
improve OCB is lowest cost and best way for businesses to reach organizational effectiveness.
Objectives
 To study about Organisational Citizenship Behaviour.
 To know the factors influence in OCB.
 To know the level of satisfaction with factor involved in Organisational Citizenship behaviour.
III. Research Methodology:
This is a analytical research paper and the primary data were collected from the employees of various
corporate sectors to analyse the organisational citizenship behaviour. The secondary data were collected from
brouchers, articles, books and other related materials. Data were collected in and around Chennai (area) based
on convenient sampling method and the samples were collected based on random sampling method. I selected
the employees of four corporate sectors TCS, HCL, COGNIZENT, R.V.K International for data collection. The
research was analytical in nature. The data were collected through questionnaire method from 300 employees of
selected corporate sectors. From 300 employees I scrutinized the data from 250 employees based on sufficient
information provided by them. So my sample size was 250.
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 7 | Page
Statistical tools used:
Percentage analysis and ANOVA techniques were used.
OCB influence organisational efficiency
Helping co-workers makes the work system more effective because one worker can utilize their lag
time to assist another on a more urgent task. Acts of civic virtue may include providing suggestions for cost
improvement or other resource saving ideas, which may directly influencing efficiency. To a minimum extent,
conscientiousness employees, as well as those who reduce personal gain or other negative behaviours,
demonstrate compliance with company policies and maintain predictable, consistent work schedules, increasing
the reliability and accuracy of the service. As reliability increases, the costs of rework are reduced, making the
organisation more efficient.
Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is still the leading predetermination of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. This is
problematic because, descriptively, job satisfaction is in and of itself a challenging outcome sought by
organizational middle management. The resulting implications are hesitated to sufficient that OCB is likely
when workers are satisfied.
Motivation
Motivation is another observation for understating OCB. Three motive paradigms are often researched.
Viewing OCB from these three motive frames, one can more easily account for the various approaches taken in
prior OCB research. The altruistic path is covered quite well with the affiliation motive and part of the
achievement motive, but the darker side is more clearly understood from the power motive. It is easy to see why
OCB may correlate with ratings of performance. Original position that disposition can have vital effects on
organizational citizenship behaviour. Individuals with collectivism and propensity to trust are more likely to
believe they can be a part of the organization, to value this role, and because of this, engage in behaviours to
make a difference in the organization.
Hypothesis
 Assume that there is no significance difference between the acceptance of positive relationship of level
of satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic involved in OCB.
TABLE 1: Characteristics or Factors with level of satisfaction on organisational citizenship behaviour
Individual Characteristic
influence in OCB
Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total
Employee attitude 175(70%) 50(20%) 25(10%) 250
Dispositional variables 200(80%) 35(14%) 15(6%) 250
Employee role perception 150(60%) 80(32%) 20(8%) 250
Demographic variable 225(90%) 20(8%) 5(2%) 250
Employee attitude and
individual differences
200(80%) 37(14.8%) 13(5.2%) 250
Organisational
Characteristic
influence in OCB
Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total
Organisational
formulation
60(24%) 180(72%) 10(4%) 250
Organisational flexibility 70(28%) 160(64%) 20(8%) 250
Advisory/Staff report 100(40%) 120(48%) 30(12%) 250
Demographic variable 125(50%) 110(44%) 15(6%) 250
Employee attitude and
individual differences
110(44%) 120(48%) 20(8%) 250
Leadership Characteristic
influence in OCB
Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total
High performance
expectations
150(60%) 75(30%) 25(10%) 250
Group goals 175(70%) 60(24%) 15(6%) 250
Leader member exchange 100(40%) 120(48%) 30(12%) 250
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 8 | Page
TABLE 2:(ANOVA TABLE)
Characteristic or
factors influence in
OCB
Average of
Highly
satisfied(X1)
Average of
satisfied(X2)
Average of
dissatisfied(X3)
X1^2 X2^2 X3^2
Individual
Characteristics
190 44 16 36100 1936 256
Organisational
Characteristics
93 138 19 8649 19044 361
Leadership
Characteristics
142 85 23 20164 7225 529
Total 425 267 58 64913 28205 1146
Number of observations=9
Total number of observations=425+267+58=750
Step 1:
T^2/N=(750)^2/9=562500/9=62500
Step 2:
SST
64913+28205+1146-62500=31764
SSC
(425)^2/3 +(267)^2/3 +(58)^2/3 - 62500 = 22592.6666
SSE
SSE=SST-SSC
=31764-22592.6666=9171.3334
Number of degree of freedom (2, 6) at 5% significance level is =19.33(Table value)
Here the table or standard value (19.33) of F is greater than the calculated or actual (7.389) F value. So accept
Ho and reject H1.
Conditions of hypothesis:
Ho: There is no significance difference between the acceptance of positive relationship of level of
satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic involved in OCB. H1: There is significance difference
between the acceptance of positive relationship of level of satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic
involved in OCB.
Conclusion of Hypothesis:
So accept Ho and reject H1 and there is no significance difference between the acceptance of positive
relationship of level of satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic involved in OCB.
IV. Findings:
Individual characteristics, organisational characteristics and leadership characteristic were positively
influence in Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. Positive and smooth organisational citizenship behaviour
leads to good morale and organisational ethics.
V. Discussion And Conclusion:
Organization’s desires and needs the employees who may do those things that weren’t in any job
description. And the evidence indicates that those organizations that had such employees outperform those that
didn’t perform such things. As a result, some human and personal studies were concerned with organizational
citizenship behaviour as a dependent variable.
Organizational citizenship behaviours have often been conceptualized and practical oriented as
inherently a socially desirable class of behaviours. In doing so, a variety of motives can be examined as
potential reasons why employees might exhibit OCB. Much research is still needed to validate the ideas
expressed in this paper. Optimistic characters related to individual or personal, organisational and leadership
highlighted the significant improvement in Organisational Citizenship Behaviour.
Source of variation Sum of squares Degree of freedom Mean sum of square Variation ratio
Between columns SSC C-1=(3-1)=2 22592.66/2=11296.33 F=MSC/MSE
Error SSE N-C=9-3=6 9171.666/6=1528.611 11296.33/1528.611
Total 8 7.389(calculated or
actual F value)
A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 9 | Page
References
[1]. Maslow, A. Motivation, and Personality. New York: Harper & Row, 1954.
[2]. Morrison, E. W. Role definitions and organizational citizenship behaviour: The importance of the employee's perspective. Academy
of Management Journal, 37, 1994.
[3]. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. The social psychology of organizations. New York: 1978
[4]. Organ, D.W. O.C.B. : The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington Books: Lexington, MA, 1988.
[5]. Organ, D.W. The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behaviour. Research in Organizational Behaviour 1990. Ehrhart,
M. G. (2004).
[6]. Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behaviour. Personnel Psychology,
57, 61-94.
[7]. USA: D.C. Heath and Company. Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006).
[8]. Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. USA: Sage Publications, Inc.

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A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector

  • 1. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 12 .Ver. III (Dec. 2015), PP 06-09 www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 6 | Page A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector 1 T.Shobana Thulasi, 2 Dr.A.Geetha Research scholar of Mother Teresa women’s university, kodaikannal,INDIA. Assistant professor of Mother Teresawoman’suniversity,Kodaikanal, INDIA Abstract: Organizational citizenship is discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s normal requirements from the employers but that nevertheless improves the effective functioning of the organization. Effective organizations need employees who will perform duties more than their normal job duties and provide performance that is beyond expectations. In order to achieve the organisational goal, the management need to fulfil employee’s job satisfaction, understand their motivation, and create suitable work environments are some of the important thing in management reality. Key words: Organisational citizenship behaviour, factors of Organisational citizenship behaviour, organisational effectiveness, organisational efficiency,positive work environment. I. Introduction: This research paper is very important to create improvement in organisational efficiency and effectiveness. As defined by Organ , OCB shows a “good soldier syndrome” which is so essential for the prosperity and smooth functioning of every organization. That means doing a better job, making an effort in every aspect which beyond formal requirements, and filling the gap among procedures, rules and regulations on the one hand, and dynamic as well as practical reality on the other. OCB is usually perceived as extracting exceptionally good behaviours for the sake of the organization and informally supporting the organisational members. Till date and as far as we could find, no study have investigated the meaning and application of OCB behaviours in the third sector. Obviously, such behaviours are vital to private organizations since they affect their effectiveness and profitability. Thus, OCB represent a most powerful element of free-will conduct, most relevant in corporate organizations, which highlight values of voluntary personal behaviour especially among employees. Consequently it is essential to examine how OCB is manifested in interpersonal relationships with organisation. II. Statement Of The Problem: Research of organizational citizenship behaviours has been extensive behaviour since its introduction around thirty two years ago. The vast majority of organizational citizenship behaviour research since has focused on the effects of organizational citizenship behaviour on individual and organizational performance. There is consensus in the field that organizational citizenship behaviours are salient behaviours for organizational enterprises. However, the antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviours are not well established. This paper focuses on clearly defining the relationship between influences of various Characteristics and OCB. This paper will also discuss the implications of the OCB and try to find out how to improve OCB. To improve OCB is lowest cost and best way for businesses to reach organizational effectiveness. Objectives  To study about Organisational Citizenship Behaviour.  To know the factors influence in OCB.  To know the level of satisfaction with factor involved in Organisational Citizenship behaviour. III. Research Methodology: This is a analytical research paper and the primary data were collected from the employees of various corporate sectors to analyse the organisational citizenship behaviour. The secondary data were collected from brouchers, articles, books and other related materials. Data were collected in and around Chennai (area) based on convenient sampling method and the samples were collected based on random sampling method. I selected the employees of four corporate sectors TCS, HCL, COGNIZENT, R.V.K International for data collection. The research was analytical in nature. The data were collected through questionnaire method from 300 employees of selected corporate sectors. From 300 employees I scrutinized the data from 250 employees based on sufficient information provided by them. So my sample size was 250.
  • 2. A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 7 | Page Statistical tools used: Percentage analysis and ANOVA techniques were used. OCB influence organisational efficiency Helping co-workers makes the work system more effective because one worker can utilize their lag time to assist another on a more urgent task. Acts of civic virtue may include providing suggestions for cost improvement or other resource saving ideas, which may directly influencing efficiency. To a minimum extent, conscientiousness employees, as well as those who reduce personal gain or other negative behaviours, demonstrate compliance with company policies and maintain predictable, consistent work schedules, increasing the reliability and accuracy of the service. As reliability increases, the costs of rework are reduced, making the organisation more efficient. Job satisfaction Job satisfaction is still the leading predetermination of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. This is problematic because, descriptively, job satisfaction is in and of itself a challenging outcome sought by organizational middle management. The resulting implications are hesitated to sufficient that OCB is likely when workers are satisfied. Motivation Motivation is another observation for understating OCB. Three motive paradigms are often researched. Viewing OCB from these three motive frames, one can more easily account for the various approaches taken in prior OCB research. The altruistic path is covered quite well with the affiliation motive and part of the achievement motive, but the darker side is more clearly understood from the power motive. It is easy to see why OCB may correlate with ratings of performance. Original position that disposition can have vital effects on organizational citizenship behaviour. Individuals with collectivism and propensity to trust are more likely to believe they can be a part of the organization, to value this role, and because of this, engage in behaviours to make a difference in the organization. Hypothesis  Assume that there is no significance difference between the acceptance of positive relationship of level of satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic involved in OCB. TABLE 1: Characteristics or Factors with level of satisfaction on organisational citizenship behaviour Individual Characteristic influence in OCB Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total Employee attitude 175(70%) 50(20%) 25(10%) 250 Dispositional variables 200(80%) 35(14%) 15(6%) 250 Employee role perception 150(60%) 80(32%) 20(8%) 250 Demographic variable 225(90%) 20(8%) 5(2%) 250 Employee attitude and individual differences 200(80%) 37(14.8%) 13(5.2%) 250 Organisational Characteristic influence in OCB Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total Organisational formulation 60(24%) 180(72%) 10(4%) 250 Organisational flexibility 70(28%) 160(64%) 20(8%) 250 Advisory/Staff report 100(40%) 120(48%) 30(12%) 250 Demographic variable 125(50%) 110(44%) 15(6%) 250 Employee attitude and individual differences 110(44%) 120(48%) 20(8%) 250 Leadership Characteristic influence in OCB Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total High performance expectations 150(60%) 75(30%) 25(10%) 250 Group goals 175(70%) 60(24%) 15(6%) 250 Leader member exchange 100(40%) 120(48%) 30(12%) 250
  • 3. A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 8 | Page TABLE 2:(ANOVA TABLE) Characteristic or factors influence in OCB Average of Highly satisfied(X1) Average of satisfied(X2) Average of dissatisfied(X3) X1^2 X2^2 X3^2 Individual Characteristics 190 44 16 36100 1936 256 Organisational Characteristics 93 138 19 8649 19044 361 Leadership Characteristics 142 85 23 20164 7225 529 Total 425 267 58 64913 28205 1146 Number of observations=9 Total number of observations=425+267+58=750 Step 1: T^2/N=(750)^2/9=562500/9=62500 Step 2: SST 64913+28205+1146-62500=31764 SSC (425)^2/3 +(267)^2/3 +(58)^2/3 - 62500 = 22592.6666 SSE SSE=SST-SSC =31764-22592.6666=9171.3334 Number of degree of freedom (2, 6) at 5% significance level is =19.33(Table value) Here the table or standard value (19.33) of F is greater than the calculated or actual (7.389) F value. So accept Ho and reject H1. Conditions of hypothesis: Ho: There is no significance difference between the acceptance of positive relationship of level of satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic involved in OCB. H1: There is significance difference between the acceptance of positive relationship of level of satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic involved in OCB. Conclusion of Hypothesis: So accept Ho and reject H1 and there is no significance difference between the acceptance of positive relationship of level of satisfaction and factors (or) characteristic involved in OCB. IV. Findings: Individual characteristics, organisational characteristics and leadership characteristic were positively influence in Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. Positive and smooth organisational citizenship behaviour leads to good morale and organisational ethics. V. Discussion And Conclusion: Organization’s desires and needs the employees who may do those things that weren’t in any job description. And the evidence indicates that those organizations that had such employees outperform those that didn’t perform such things. As a result, some human and personal studies were concerned with organizational citizenship behaviour as a dependent variable. Organizational citizenship behaviours have often been conceptualized and practical oriented as inherently a socially desirable class of behaviours. In doing so, a variety of motives can be examined as potential reasons why employees might exhibit OCB. Much research is still needed to validate the ideas expressed in this paper. Optimistic characters related to individual or personal, organisational and leadership highlighted the significant improvement in Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. Source of variation Sum of squares Degree of freedom Mean sum of square Variation ratio Between columns SSC C-1=(3-1)=2 22592.66/2=11296.33 F=MSC/MSE Error SSE N-C=9-3=6 9171.666/6=1528.611 11296.33/1528.611 Total 8 7.389(calculated or actual F value)
  • 4. A Study Factors Influence on Organisation Citizenship Behaviour in Corporate Sector DOI: 10.9790/487X-171230609 www.iosrjournals.org 9 | Page References [1]. Maslow, A. Motivation, and Personality. New York: Harper & Row, 1954. [2]. Morrison, E. W. Role definitions and organizational citizenship behaviour: The importance of the employee's perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1994. [3]. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. The social psychology of organizations. New York: 1978 [4]. Organ, D.W. O.C.B. : The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington Books: Lexington, MA, 1988. [5]. Organ, D.W. The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behaviour. Research in Organizational Behaviour 1990. Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). [6]. Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behaviour. Personnel Psychology, 57, 61-94. [7]. USA: D.C. Heath and Company. Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). [8]. Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. USA: Sage Publications, Inc.