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Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management 2018, Introduction

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Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management 2018, Università di Bergamo. Introduction.

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Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management 2018, Introduction

  1. 1. Critical analysis 1.The Concept of Heritage 2. Structure of a Proposal 3. Implications of Heritage 4. Legislation and Copyright 5. Critical Analysis 6. Context Analysis 7. Services and Interpretations 8. Stakeholders 9.Target Groups 10.Authenticity Map a territory (identify heritage) Context analysis proposal budget Analyse Message(s) promoted Identify legislation and rights SWOT References and Wikipedia Identify Services Identify Stakeholders Analyze Target groups involved Identify Existing Gaps Lessons Assignment Competence As-is analysis Critical analysis As-is analysis Critical analysis Estimated time 20 hours Concepts and proposal Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management, Università di Bergamo, 2018. iolanda.pensa@supsi.ch - http://iopensa.it
  2. 2. Lessons 2018 15/11 Introduction to the course and description of the assignment. The concept of heritage and mapping a territory. 19/11 Structure of a proposal. The project system: context analysis, keywords, objectives, activities, expected results, budget and calendar. 22/11 The political and ideological implications of heritage. Critical analysis of case studies. With Sanja Iguman. 26/11 Legislation, copyright, copyleft and attribution. The role of legislation, copyright, copyleft and freedom of panorama in cultural heritage management. How to attribute and how to use and release content. 29/11 Strengths and Weaknesses. Critical assessment of the as-is analysis. Threats and Opportunities. Strategic use of resources and new strategies. 03/12 Context analysis. Research, information, the relationship with visitors, the role of interpretation and programs. 06/12 Services and Interpretations. 10/12 The stakeholders. The Cross-national institutions (UNESCO, ICOMOS, European Commission), the role of the public administrations and the institutions (associations, trusts, commissions) responsible for promoting and managing "heritage (tourism) activities”. 13/12 Target groups. Critical analysis of case studies. 17/12 Ideas and authenticity. The concepts of authenticity, staged authenticity, as presented in artistic and creative practice. The system of concentric circles to map territories and content.
  3. 3. Bibliography D.J.Timothy, S.Boyd, HeritageTourism, Prentice Hall, 2003, pp. 286. One book at choice: • F.Tilden, Interpreting Our Heritage,The University of South Carolina Press, 1972. • Engaging Heritage, Engaging Communities, Edited by Bryony Onciul, Michelle L. Stefano, Stephanie Hawke, Boydell Press, 2017.

  4. 4. Researcher SUSPI (since 2013) Senior researcher and head of the researcher area “Culture and Territory” (since 2018) Laboratory of visual culture / Department for Environment Constructions and Design SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management, Università di Bergamo, 2018. iolanda.pensa@supsi.ch - http://iopensa.it
  5. 5. Douala Cameroon - research since 2003 Dakar Senegal - research since 1998 Consultant Cape Town South Africa 2004-2005 Volunteer on Wikipedia since 2006 CH - Researcher at SUSPI (since 2013) Cairo US research on grant-makers Teheran Minsk Siberia Rotterdam NL - Founder of the iStrike Foundation (2005-2007) Volunteer in Esino Lario (LC - Italy) - Since 2003 Archivio Pietro Pensa/Ecomuseo delle Grigne/Wikimania Milan - Scientific director Fondazione lettera27 now Moleskine Foundation (2006-2012) Far East Russia Tunis Born in Geneva in 19975. Lives in Milan. Swiss and Italian. Art critic and collaborator of magazines and art magazine since 2001 (among them “Flash Art” and “Domus”) Milan - Università Cattolica - Laurea in lettere moderne - Medieval Art history, thesis in contemporary art on the Dakar Biennale Ph.D. in social anthropology and ethnology at the EHESS (France) and in urban planning at the Politecnico di Milano High School Degree CapistranoValley High School USA European volunteer service Cambridge UK (1999) Arabic language and literature (1995-1997)
  6. 6. © Lara Baladi. heading for the exceptional (not a standard strategy)
  7. 7. © Iman Issa, Going Places, Cairo, 2003. art and culture open scenarios (experimentation, exceptional)
  8. 8. The Dakar Biennale of contemporary African art as a project of cooperation and development
  9. 9. Context Objective Activities Expected results Structure of a project. Evaluation Calendar Budget
  10. 10. Context Objective Activities Calendar Budget Expected results Problem solving Intercultural dialogue Cultural industries Active citizenships Freedom of expression Participation Public Engagement Infrastructures Development Quantitative Qualitative Metrics Number of people Coherence with the expected results Structure of a project. Evaluation Biennial = 2 years Triennial = 3 years Research and experimentation? Culture Value
  11. 11. THE PROJECT RESEARCH TEAM RESEARCH FINDINGS The research “Mobile A2K: Culture and Safety in Africa. Documenting and assessing the impact of  cultural events and public art on urban safety” is an applied research with an interdisciplinary and comparative approach, conceived to document and assess the impact of cultural events and public art on urban safety in relationship with the Millennium Development Goal 7d (“By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers”). More specifically the research aimed at: 1. Documenting and mapping cultural events and public art produced between 1991 and 2013 in the cities of Douala, Luanda and Johannesburg and making this documentation accessible through ICT. 2. Assessing the impact of cultural events and public art on urban safety by exploring a series of case studies and compare them. Research question. How cultural events and public art affect urban safety  in African cities? Can we assess these changes as positive according to a group of factors? Hypothesis. The arts are a space for experimentation and  research, not directly connected to urban safety, but capable of triggering unforeseen ways of producing higher livability, civil cohabitation and social cohesion. According to its objectives, the research has documented and mapped cultural events and public art in Douala, Luanda and Johannesburg between 1991 and 2013, and – through case studies (with maps and qualitative and quantitative interviews) – it has analyzed the impact of those cultural events and public art on urban safety. mobileA2K.org - April 2014 The research team was composed of scholars in the fields of arts, communication, design, architecture, anthropology and sociology, and with representatives of institutions working in the three cities at the centre of our analysis. The research was coordinated by the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI), conceived and supported by lettera27 Foundation, co-funded by the Swiss Network for International Studies (SNIS) and implemented in partnership with the African Center for Cities at the University of Cape Town, Chimurenga, doual’art, Ecole Cantonale d'Art du Valais (ECAV), École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, Fundação Sindika Dokolo, Latitude, NewMinE at University of Lugano, University Iuav of Venice. Davide Fornari (coordinator), Iolanda Pensa (curator), Fernando Alvim, Alfred Anangwe, Emanuela Fanny Bonini Lessing, Serena Cangiano, Lorenzo Cantoni, Marilyn Douala Bell, Ntone Edjabe, Ismail Farouk, Aude Guyot, Inge M. Ruigrok, Sylvie Kandé, Federica Martini, Luca Morici, Simon Njami, Edgar Arthur PieterseMarta Pucciarelli, Isabella Rega, Didier Schaub, Andy Spitz, Fabio Vanin, Caroline Wanjiku Kihato. What emerges from the comparative analysis of the research findings: 1. The space of experimentation and research of the arts is much more limited than we expected. The arts are limited by a series internal and external of factors (selection, location of the artwork, technical aspects of the production, frame of the concept, role of the clients, maintenance of the work and assessment of artistic quality). More than any other art production, the outdoor nature and the size of cultural event and public art are influenced by those limitations. 2. By looking at the positive and negative impact of cultural events and public art on urban safety what it emerges is that there is not only an indirect impact, but also direct one (positive and negative), in particular through the production of forced evictions and infrastructural artworks. 3. By observing the different typologies of artworks produced in the cities at the centre of our analysis, the research highlighted four different type of productions which appear to have recurrent characteristics and fall-outs: proximity artworks, artworks in passageways, large-scale sculptures and monuments and urban- scale artworks and cultural events. 4. Land ownership and negotiation plays a determinate role on the impact of cultural events and public art on urban safety. The process engaged in producing cultural events and public art can support community-building, it can reinforce sense of ownership, it can trigger individual and group actions in maintaining and improving a shared space and it can produce restoration and repurpose of sites. At the same time the production of cultural events and public art can lead to forced evictions, vandalism and conflicts. The process and who is involved in the process is a direct consequence of land ownership and negotiation. MOBILE A2K Culture and Safety in Africa SOSO| ESCOM SOSO|GLOBO arte contemporânea SOSO| BALEIZÃO _ LOTUS SOSO|LAX _ SINDIKA DOKOLO UNAP SOSO|BAI ARTE Rua do sMercado res Rua Rain ha Gin ga Av 4 de Fevereiro Largo Rainha Ginga Rua Rainha GInga RuaHenriqueCarvalho Rua Hengrácia Fragoso Rua Robert Shi eld s Praça do Ambiente Largo do Kinaxixi Rua da Missão Museu das Forças Armadas Rua Frederich Engles Estádio dos Coqueiros espaços restaurados FUNDAÇÃO SINDIKA DOKOLO | TRIENAL DE LUANDA _ ESPAÇOS CORREIOS
  12. 12. Still dal video.Alessandro Serravalle, Wikipedia dietro le quinte, 2015, cc by-sa.
  13. 13. Robin Good, http://www.masternewmedia.org la licenza fa la differenze the license makes the difference
  14. 14. DensityDesign Research Lab-INDACO Department Politecnico di Milano, ShareYour Knowledge, 2011-2012, cc by-sa.
  15. 15. WikiAfrica/ShareYour Knowledge 2012. Iolanda Pensa, status report with mistakes, 2013, CC by-sa. Status http://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/GLAM/Case_studies/WikiAfrica/Share_Your_Knowledge/Institutions Event: conference/training/workshop Research Archives Wiki Loves Monuments Notebooks (Detour, myDetour,WikiAfrica special editions) Presentations and events Creative Commons affiliate Orange and Orange Foundation (free Wikipedia on mobile phones) Brooklyn Museum Feed My Starving Children International Institute for Communication and Development Sustainable Sanitation Alliance Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung AfricaFilms.tv Western Province Government – Department of museums - 28 museums in Western Cape Province, South Africa, Bartolomeu Dias Museum, Beaufort-West Museum, Caledon Museum, Cango Caves Museum, Cape Medical Museum, CP Nel Museum, Drostdy Museum, Fransie Pienaar Museum, Genadendal Mission Museum, George Museum, Groot-Brakrivier Museum, Hout Bay Museum, Huguenot Memorial Museum, Jan Dankaert Museum, Koopmans De Wet House Museum, Montagu Museum, Old Harbour Museum, Paarl Museum, Robertson Museum, SA Fisheries Museum, Sendinggestig(Missionary)Museum, Shipwreck Museum, Simon's Town Museum, Stellenbosch Museum, Transport Riders Museum, Wellington Museum, Wheat Industry Museum, Worcester Museum Gambia National Museum Sungani Zakwathu Cultural Heritage Promotions Postal Museum, Matengatenga, Malawi Zanzibar National Museum Phuthidikabo Museum, Mochudi, BotswanaSeychelles People Defense Forces Museum (SPDF) Uganda National Museum Dataset of administrations in Botswana
  16. 16. The windmills of Kinderdijk,The Netherlands,Author:Tarod,Wikimedia Commons, 2012, cc by-sa.   Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.Author:Thaler – Tamás Thaler,Wikimedia Commons, 2013, cc by-sa. Monastery and chateau in Zbraslav, Prague, Czech Republic.Author: Zdeněk Fiedler,Wikimedia Commons, 2013, cc by-sa. Baptistery of St. Peter, San Pietro in Consavia church,Asti, Italy.Author: Marco Odina,Wikimedia Commons, 2012, cc by-sa.
  17. 17. Caricare le foto Un sapere migliore per tutti anche per scopi commerciali Mettere la foto di un monumento su Wikipedia con la licenza Creative Commons attribuzione condividi allo stesso modo, anche per uso commerciale.
  18. 18. Cosa significa in Italia mettere la foto di un monumento su Wikipedia con la licenza Creative Commons attribuzione condividi allo stesso modo, anche per uso commerciale. Autorizzazione del proprietario Lista dei monumenti Georeferenziazione del monumento (Autorizzazione dell’autore) (Autorizzazione della soprintendenza) Un sapere migliore per tutti anche per scopi commerciali Caricare le foto
  19. 19. Condividi anche le tue foto Un sapere migliore per tutti anche per scopi commerciali Caricare le foto Come aiutare in Italia a mettere la foto di un monumento su Wikipedia con la licenza Creative Commons attribuzione condividi allo stesso modo, anche per uso commerciale. Autorizzazione del proprietario Lista dei monumenti Georeferenziazione del monumento (Autorizzazione dell’autore) (Autorizzazione della soprintendenza) Cambiare la legge (o emettere una circolare): Permettere l’uso commerciale delle immagini dei beni culturali!
  20. 20. Il paesaggio culturale alpino su Wikipedia. Progetto Italia-Svizzera. https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/The_Alps_on_Wikipedia
  21. 21. Dal 2006 licenza libera compatibile con Wikipedia e documentazione storica e contemporanea caricata su Wikimedia Commons alla massima risoluzione.
  22. 22. Niccolò Caranti,Wikimania Esino Lario, cc by-sa, 2016.
  23. 23. 2006 Harvard University 2012 George Washington University 2009 Centro Cultural San Martín, Buenos Aires 2015 Hilton, Mexico City 2008 Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt 2011 Haifa Auditorium Complex, Israel 2013 Hong Kong Polytechnic University 2007Youth CenterTaipei 2016The entire village of Esino Lario, Lake Como area, Italy 2014 Barbican Centre in London 2010 Polish Baltic Philharmonic, Gdańsk 2005Youth Hostel Frankfurt, Germany 2018 CapeTown 2017 Montréal
  24. 24. 600300 100 100 50 100 38 100 200 38 100 100 150 Esino Lario, Provincia di Lecco, Regione Lombardia, Italia. MeetupsPanels Support
  25. 25. Mobile A2K, photo Zetalab for lettera27, Dakar, 2010, cc by-sa.
  26. 26. https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia_Primary_School - April 2014 WIKIPEDIA PRIMARY SCHOOL Providing on Wikipedia the information necessary to complete the cycle of primary education in the languages used by the different education systems. RESEARCH PROBLEM The research is developed within a Swiss-South African cooperation lead by the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI) and the University of Cape Town, in partnership with Wikimedia Switzerland and the Africa Centre based in Cape Town, and with the support of SNF and the South African National Research Foundation (NRF).! Iolanda Pensa (principal investigator Switzerland), Tobias Schönwetter (principal investigator South Africa), Luca Botturi, Davide Fornari, Giancarlo Gianocca, Isla Haddow-Flood, Erica Litrenta, Giovanni Profeta, Kelsey Wiens. Wikipedia is meant to be an educational tool and it is currently available online, via mobile phones and offline. Experiences have shown that, once accessible, Wikipedia does not provide information that responds directly to curriculum-based questions. The project relies on Wikipedia as an existing and growing resource, it solves the need for an encyclopedia capable of responding to curriculum-based questions, and it fosters Wikipedia content, quality and outreach. THE PROJECT RESEARCH TEAM The research project developed within a Swiss-South African cooperation (2014-2017) focuses on the theoretical frame of Wikipedia Primary School and in developing and evaluating a system to assess Wikipedia articles for primary education and to involve a wide network of scholars and contributors in their production. ! More specifically the project aims at:! 1. Bridging Wikipedia and primary education. This objective implies to move the Wikipedia community towards a focus on primary education, and at the same time to strengthen the capacity of the education ecosystem to contribute to Wikipedia, and in general to open collaborative knowledge. 2. Enriching Wikipedia with new content relevant to primary education. This objective implies an assessment of the articles produced. 3. Fostering the development of translations and new content in different Wikipedia linguistic editions. This objective implies the release of existing educational resources (OER in cc by or cc by-sa), the production of datasets and the involvement of the Wikimedia movement. 4. Verifying and evaluating the use of Wikipedia as a source of information for primary education. This objective implies the involvement of stakeholders and data analysis. Wikipedia Primary School contributes to universal primary education and to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG2: Achieve Universal Primary Education). Even if it is scalable and international, the project is conceived primarily to address African countries and languages.
  27. 27. Wikipedia Primary School, visualization by Giovanni Profeta, https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia_Primary_School, cc by-sa. August 2015 March 2016
  28. 28. © Basim Madgi. culture is not innocent
  29. 29. © Tsesler &Voichenko,Welcome, Minsk, Road sign. make sure you support something you believe in
  30. 30. Critical analysis 1.The Concept of Heritage 2. Structure of a Proposal 3. Implications of Heritage 4. Legislation and Copyright 5. Critical Analysis 6. Context Analysis 7. Services and Interpretations 8. Stakeholders 9.Target Groups 10.Authenticity Map a territory (identify heritage) Context analysis proposal budget Analyse Message(s) promoted Identify legislation and rights SWOT References and Wikipedia Identify Services Identify Stakeholders Analyze Target groups involved Identify Existing Gaps Lessons Assignment Competence As-is analysis Critical analysis As-is analysis Critical analysis Estimated time 20 hours Concepts and proposal Assignment
  31. 31. Assignment Map a territory (identify heritage) Identify Stakeholders Identify Services Analyze Target groups involved Analyse Message(s) promoted Identify Existing Gaps Context analysis proposal budget Produce a SWOT Describe your concept A personal research focusing on a specific territory. The research includes cultural mapping and as-is analysis, critical analysis and personal proposal.Around 7500 words presented with slides. Concepts and As-is analysis Critical analysis Proposal AssignmentCompetence Expected Outcomes (format) Area Heritage Services Wikipedia Target Groups Message(s) Gaps Concept SWOT Heritage New Services Budget (excel) References and Wikipedia Identify legislation and rights Add the license on your work, use images correctly and attribute References Legislation Stakeholders
  32. 32. Assignment Evaluation Sufficient At least 20 heritage sites mapped and described, plus the list. At least 20 services mapped and described. All content produced according to the request. Up to 5 mistakes. Good No mistakes. Excellent No mistakes and depth of the as-is analysis, critical analysis and proposal. Map a territory (identify heritage) Identify Stakeholders Identify Services Analyze Target groups involved Analyse Message(s) promoted Identify Existing Gaps Context analysis proposal budget Produce a SWOT Describe your concept Assignment Expected Outcomes (format) Area Heritage Services Wikipedia Target Groups Message(s) Gaps Concept SWOT Heritage New Services Budget (excel) References and Wikipedia Identify legislation and rights References Legislation Stakeholders A personal research focusing on a specific territory. The research includes cultural mapping and as-is analysis, critical analysis and personal proposal.Around 7500 words presented with slides.
  33. 33. As-is analysis Context analysis Feasibility study The structureYour personal research How is the situation? 1. 2. 3. What is missing? What is wrong? What can/should change? Critical analysis Your proposal Your proposal. Wikipedia Target Groups Message(s) Gaps Concept Heritage New Services Budget (excel) SWOT Area Heritage Services Wikipedia References Legislation Stakeholders
  34. 34. Critical analysis 1.The Concept of Heritage 2. Structure of a Proposal 3. Implications of Heritage 4. Legislation and Copyright 5. Critical Analysis 6. Context Analysis 7. Services and Interpretations 8. Stakeholders 9.Target Groups 10.Authenticity Map a territory (identify heritage) Context analysis proposal budget Analyse Message(s) promoted Identify legislation and rights SWOT References and Wikipedia Identify Services Identify Stakeholders Analyze Target groups involved Identify Existing Gaps Lessons Assignment Competence As-is analysis Critical analysis As-is analysis Critical analysis Estimated time 20 hours Concepts and proposal Oral Exam
  35. 35. Bibliography D.J.Timothy, S.Boyd, HeritageTourism, Prentice Hall, 2003, pp. 286. One book at choice: • F.Tilden, Interpreting Our Heritage,The University of South Carolina Press, 1972. • Engaging Heritage, Engaging Communities, Edited by Bryony Onciul, Michelle L. Stefano, Stephanie Hawke, Boydell Press, 2017.

  36. 36. Questions for the oral exam 1.What factors account for the complexity that exists with the term “heritage”? 1.What significance do you attach to heritage that is present in the region in which you currently live? 1.What is the evidence to support heritage tourism as one of the oldest forms of tourism? 1. How much support do you give to the idea that we are creating new “Grand Tours” where heritage is concerned? 2. Describe the type of heritage attractions that can be found in the area in which you currently live. 2.To what extend do you see scale playing a role here? 2.Why are components of heritage supply often connected with mainly urban places? 2. Do you think that heritage attractions can exist in the absence of support services and facilities? 2. Is there a danger of over segmenting the heritage tourism supply? 3.What factors, as of late, explain the growth in interest in heritage tourism? 3. Do heritage visitors have certain key characteristics that make them distinctive? 3.To what extend is latent demand the most important type of demand where heritage tourism is concerned? 3. Using heritage places in your locality, what factors best explain their non-use in terms of visitation? 4.Why have we conserved our past(s)? 4. How useful is it to classify perspectives of conservation as passive and active? 4.Why are conservation bodies and legislation predominantly found in developed world nations? Are there any exceptions? 4.What are the major challenges facing heritage conservation in your locality? 4.With reference to heritage in your own locality, what are the major physical and socio-cultural impact that heritage managers have to face? 5. How does ownership of heritage influence how it is managed? 5.What are the pros and the cons of asking visitors to pay to see heritage? 5.Along what lines have visitors management frameworks developed? 5. How is heritage marketing linked to managing heritage? 6. Is education more important than entertainment regarding heritage interpretation? 6.What are the key factors influencing formal and informal education at heritage sites? 6. In what ways are heritage attractions accommodating the special needs visitor? 6. Evaluate the pros and cons of personal and non personal interpretative media? 7.What are the four types of authenticity described by Cohen? To what extent is it possible to shift from one type to another? 7.To what extent is authenticity within heritage shaped by culture, context and place? 7.Are heritage places guilty of sanitizing and idealizing the past? 8.Why is heritage a political concept? 8. How have power arrangements influenced and shaped heritage tourism? 8. Can the ‘contestation’ element ever be removed from heritage tourism? 8. How has war and conflict impacted upon and affected heritage and heritage tourism? 8.What are the benefits of heritage tourism planning being developed to the community level? 9. Can a consensus be reached over what is meant by heritage tourism? 9.Which of the two is more important - heritage tourism supply or the demand for heritage tourism? 9.What role(s) can technology play in heritage interpretation? 9. Does heritage tourism have a long-term future?
  37. 37. Discussions based on notions 1.What factors account for the complexity that exists with the term “heritage”? 1.What is the evidence to support heritage tourism as one of the oldest forms of tourism? 3. Do heritage visitors have certain key characteristics that make them distinctive? 3.To what extend is latent demand the most important type of demand where heritage tourism is concerned? 4. How useful is it to classify perspectives of conservation as passive and active? 4.Why are conservation bodies and legislation predominantly found in developed world nations? Are there any exceptions? 5.Along what lines have visitors management frameworks developed? 5. How is heritage marketing linked to managing heritage? 6.What are the key factors influencing formal and informal education at heritage sites? 6. Evaluate the pros and cons of personal and non personal interpretative media? 7.What are the four types of authenticity described by Cohen? To what extent is it possible to shift from one type to another? 9. Can a consensus be reached over what is meant by heritage tourism?
  38. 38. Critical discussions 1. How much support do you give to the idea that we are creating new “Grand Tours” where heritage is concerned? 2.Why are components of heritage supply often connected with mainly urban places? 2. Do you think that heritage attractions can exist in the absence of support services and facilities? 2. Is there a danger of over segmenting the heritage tourism supply? 3.What factors, as of late, explain the growth in interest in heritage tourism? 4.Why have we conserved our past(s)? 5. How does ownership of heritage influence how it is managed? 5.What are the pros and the cons of asking visitors to pay to see heritage? 6. Is education more important than entertainment regarding heritage interpretation? 6. In what ways are heritage attractions accommodating the special needs visitor? 7.To what extent is authenticity within heritage shaped by culture, context and place? 7.Are heritage places guilty of sanitizing and idealizing the past? 8.Why is heritage a political concept? 8. How have power arrangements influenced and shaped heritage tourism? 8. Can the ‘contestation’ element ever be removed from heritage tourism? 8. How has war and conflict impacted upon and affected heritage and heritage tourism? 8.What are the benefits of heritage tourism planning being developed to the community level? 9.What role(s) can technology play in heritage interpretation? 9.Which of the two is more important - heritage tourism supply or the demand for heritage tourism? 9. Does heritage tourism have a long-term future?
  39. 39. Experience 1.What significance do you attach to heritage that is present in the region in which you currently live? 2. Describe the type of heritage attractions that can be found in the area in which you currently live. 2.To what extend do you see scale playing a role here? 3. Using heritage places in your locality, what factors best explain their non-use in terms of visitation? 4.What are the major challenges facing heritage conservation in your locality? 4.With reference to heritage in your own locality, what are the major physical and socio-cultural impact that heritage managers have to face?

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