Grand Canyon,Tuxyso / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0
Hawaii, sulfur dioxide emissions from the Halema`uma`u vent, Kīlauea, Brocken Inaglory, 2008, cc by-sa.
Rock face in Ruby Beach with hot springs in the Olympic National Park, Washington State, USA, Michael Gäbler, 1992, cc by-sa.
Grand Prismatic Spring and Midway Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park,Brocken Inaglory, 2008, cc by-sa.
Taj Mahal, Agra, India, south face.Yann Forget / Wikimedia Commons / 2010 / CC-BY-SA-3.0.
Bagrati Cathedral. Kutaisi, Imereti, Georgia., Photo: Marcin Konsek / Wikimedia Commons /, 2014, CC BY-SA 4.0
Buildings on the Malacca River. Malacca City, Malacca, Malaysia., Photo: Marcin Konsek / Wikimedia Commons, 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0
Vank Cathedral, Isfahan, Iran, Diego Delso, 2016, cc by-sa.
Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, p. 238-
Typology of authenticity (Bruner 1994)
1. Authentic reproduction
2. Replication historically accurate
3. Original instead of copied
4. Authority of legal recognition
Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, p. 241
Typology of authenticity - dynamic (Cohen 1979)
1. Truly authentic experiences (objectively real and accepted by the tourists as real)
2. Staged authenticity (staged or made up for the tourists but the tourists are unable
to distinguish this from reality) - covert tourist space
3. Denial of authenticity: the scene is presented as genuine but the tourists question
4. Contrived authenticity. Overly inauthentic and preened as such by the tourist
establishment and perceived as such by the tourist - overt tourist space.
Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, p. 242-
1. Authentic people in authentic environments
2. Authentic people in inauthentic environments
3. Inauthentic people in inauthentic environments
4. Inauthentic people in authentic environments
Do NOT use the word authentic
and the concept of authenticity
(unless you are analyzing it from a historiographic perspective)
Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management, 2018.
I'm no longer your bloody object in the British Museum.
Rasheed Araeen, From Primitivism to Ethnic Arts in "Third Text", n. 1, 1987, p. 18. La stessa frase è pubblicata anche in Primitivism andTwentieth-
Century Art, (dir.) Jack Flam with Miriam Deutch, University of California Press, Barkeley et Los Angeles et London, 2003, p. 432.
Douala. Photo Emiliano Gandolﬁ, 2007, cc by-sa.
Analyze the message and identify the gapsCritical analysis
What is the common image of this place?
How people think it is?
What is the image sold to the tourists?
It is based on what kind of heritage?
What is its present situation?
Are there other “richnesses”?
Is there heritage which can document differently this
Am I satisﬁed with the current image?
What image of this place I want to highlight?
Is there something I want to change?
Is there something missing?
Current situation Potentialities