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08. Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management 2018, Stakeholders

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Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management 2018, Università di Bergamo. Stakeholders.

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08. Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management 2018, Stakeholders

  1. 1. Critical analysis 1.The Concept of Heritage 2. Structure of a Proposal 3. Implications of Heritage 4. Legislation and Copyright 5. Critical Analysis 6. Context Analysis 7. Services and Interpretations 8. Stakeholders 9.Target Groups 10.Authenticity Map a territory (identify heritage) Context analysis proposal budget Analyse Message(s) promoted Identify legislation and rights SWOT References and Wikipedia Identify Services Identify Stakeholders Analyze Target groups involved Identify Existing Gaps Lessons Assignment Competence As-is analysis Critical analysis As-is analysis Critical analysis Estimated time 20 hours Concepts and proposal Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management, Università di Bergamo, 2018. iolanda.pensa@supsi.ch - http://iopensa.it
  2. 2. World Heritage Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. http://whc.unesco.org/en/about/
  3. 3. Industrialisation/modernisation Nationalism and collective nostalgia Scientific and educative importance Heritage is good economics Artist and aesthetic value Environmental diversity Heritage as functional resource Reasons to conserve the past Source:Adapted from Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, p.88-93
  4. 4. Unesco Global Heritage Fund World Monuments Funds ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites European Union Europa Nostra Italy FAI Fondo Ambiente Italiano (UK National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty) Spain - France - Germany - Finland - Iran - South Africa - Namibia… Definitions of Heritage Definition of Heritage Scope/Mandate Support (links) Source (law, convention, charter) Keywords 21
  5. 5. Example of your map Assignment: Map HeritageIdentify Heritage/Stakeholders
  6. 6. WikiAfrica Cameroun, 2012-2013.
  7. 7. Douala. Photo Emiliano Gandolfi, 2007, cc by-sa.
  8. 8. Joseph-Francis Sumégné, Douala, 1996, cc by-sa.
  9. 9. Lucas Grandin, Douala, 2010, cc by-sa.
  10. 10. Salifou Lindou, Douala, 2010, cc by-sa.
  11. 11. Tracey Rose, Douala, 2010, cc by-sa.
  12. 12. HervéYamguen, Douala, 2010, cc by-sa.
  13. 13. Alioum Moussa, Douala, 2005, cc by-sa.
  14. 14. Wiki Loves Monuments Cameroun 2013 (Douala, Edéa et Limbe). Douala ville d’art et d’histoire, doual’art, 1991-2012.
  15. 15. Sandrine Dole, Douala, 2006, cc by-sa.
  16. 16. Sandrine Dole, Douala, 2006, cc by-sa.
  17. 17. Sandrine Dole, Douala, 2006, cc by-sa.
  18. 18. Sandrine Dole, Douala, 2006, cc by-sa.
  19. 19. Mboupda Talla Roger, Douala, 2013, cc by-sa.
  20. 20. Z. NGNOGUE, Douala, 2013, cc by-sa.
  21. 21. Roberto Paci Dalò, Douala, 2010, cc by-sa.
  22. 22. Paulin Tchuenbou, Douala, 2007, cc by-sa.
  23. 23. Sandrine Dole, Douala, 2006, cc by-sa.
  24. 24. Sandrine Dole, Douala, 2006, cc by-sa.
  25. 25. Sandrine Dole, Douala, 2006, cc by-sa.
  26. 26. Wiki Loves Monuments in Cameroon 2013.Around 700 images.
  27. 27. Ars&Urbis International Workshop, 2007, cc by-sa.
  28. 28. € 0 € 65’000 € 130’000 € 195’000 € 260’000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 € 246’318 € 97’013 € 252’892 € 212’853 € 115’343 doual’art - Financial reports.
  29. 29. Self-financed € 3’589 Ministry of Culture € 15’244 IRCOD € 9’950 FNAC/Ambassade de France € 501 Cultures France € 20’000 EED, Bonn € 38’058 Arts Collaboratory € 28’000 doual’art - Rapport d’audit des états financiers, 2008.Total income 115.343 euro. € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 NL DE FR CM € 18’833 € 30’451 € 38’058 € 28’000 2008 € 0 € 25’000 € 50’000 € 75’000 € 100’000 Cult&DevCult-coop Cult Dev Coop Research Ed Crowd Sponsors Services 3’589501 48’008 15’244 20’000 € 28’000
  30. 30. Self-financed 3% ACP-UE € 9’880 lettera27 € 17’422 Cultures France € 20’000 Casa Africa € 14’941 Arts Initiatives € 17’252 Goethe Institut € 1’000 EED, Bonn € 43’760 Prince Claus Fund € 25’000 Arts Collaboratory € 57’500 doual’art - Rapport d’audit des états financiers, 2009.Total income 212.853 euro. € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 NL DE USA ES FR IT Europe CM € 6’098 € 9’880 € 17’422 € 20’000 € 14’941 € 17’252 € 44’760 € 82’500 2009 € 0 € 25’000 € 50’000 € 75’000 € 100’000 Cult&DevCult-coop Cult Dev Coop Research Ed Crowd Sponsors Services 6’098 17’422 43’760 45’821 € 99’752
  31. 31. Self-financed € 65’184 Alucam € 762 SGBC € 3’049 SABC € 4’573 MTN € 4’573 ACP-UE € 35’097 Gasworks € 1’200 Bozar € 8’000 lettera27 € 7’500 FNAC/Ambassade de France € 2’836 AECID € 25’000 Arts Initiatives € 12’957 Goethe Institut € 1’121 BKVB € 6’896 Mondriaan Foundation € 25’000 Arts Collaboratory € 49’143 doual’art - Rapport d’audit des états financiers, 2010.Total income 252.892 euro. € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 NL DE USA ES FR IT BE UK Europe CM € 78’143 € 35’097 € 1’200 € 8’000€ 7’500 € 2’836 € 25’000 € 12’957 € 1’121 € 81’039 2010 € 0 € 25’000 € 50’000 € 75’000 € 100’000 Cult&DevCult-coop Cult Dev Coop Research Ed Crowd Sponsors Services 65’184 12’958 7’500 27’836 14’896 61’218 € 63’300
  32. 32. Reserve € 328 Self-financed € 7’425 UNESCO € 203 ACP-UE € 14’497 Flemmish institute of culture € 4’500 Orange Foundation € 40’000 French institute of Cameroon € 3’045 Goethe Institut € 1’982 German Embassy € 2’182 GIZ € 1’410 Arts Collaboratory € 21’442 doual’art - Rapport d’audit des états financiers, 2012.Total income 97.013 euro. € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 NL DE FR BE Europe UNESCO CM € 7’753 € 203 € 14’497 € 4’500 € 43’045 € 5’574 € 21’442 2012 € 0 € 25’000 € 50’000 € 75’000 € 100’000 Cult&DevCult-coop Cult Dev Coop Research Ed Crowd Sponsors Services 7’753 40’000 3’592 24’226 € 21’442
  33. 33. Reserve € 38’352 Self-financed € 23’787 CUD € 1’151 Kisskissbankbank € 3’601 Arterial Network (AFAI) € 14’696 SUPSI € 7’824 First Floor Gallery € 921 Tate Modern € 24’974 Philip Aguirré € 46’900 lettera27 € 2’000 Goethe Institut € 9’292 GIZ € 2’820 Arts Collaboratory € 70’000 doual’art - Rapport d’audit des états financiers, 2013.Total income 246.318 euro. € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 NL DE IT BE UK ZW CH Afr-int Crowd CM € 24’938 € 3’601 € 14’696 € 7’824 € 921 € 24’974 € 46’900 € 2’000 € 12’112 € 70’000 2013 € 0 € 25’000 € 50’000 € 75’000 € 100’000 Cult&DevCult-coop Cult Dev Coop Research Ed Crowd Sponsors Services 23’787 3’6012’0007’8242’8201’151 72’795 9’292 € 84’696
  34. 34. doual’art - Income - Cameroonian and international resources. € 0 € 65’000 € 130’000 € 195’000 € 260’000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 € 183’028 € 89’260 € 174’749 € 206’755 € 96’509 € 63’290 € 7’753 € 78’143 € 6’098 € 18’833 Cameroon International
  35. 35. € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 NL DE USA ES FR IT BE UK ZW CH Int EU UNESCO Crowd CM Prince Claus Award, NL The Netherlands SUD 2010 SUD 2013SUD 2007 Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Ars&UrbisArs&Urbis Partnership iStrike Foundation, NL Partnership ICU Art Projects, NL Germany FR FR Cameroon doual’art - Rapport d’audit des états financiers.Analysis based on countries.
  36. 36. doual’art - Financial reports. 0 65000 130000 195000 260000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 SUD 2010 SUD 2013SUD 2007 Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Ars&Urbis Prince Claus Award
  37. 37. The Netherlands € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 doual’art - Rapport d’audit des états financiers.The Netherlands:Arts Collaboratory and Prince Claus Fund. Arts Collaboratory € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Prince Claus Fund € 0 € 22’500 € 45’000 € 67’500 € 90’000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Prince Claus Award
  38. 38. Culture and Development - Cult&Dev Cultural cooperation - Cult-coop Arts Collaboratory Prince Claus Fund Arts Initiatives Gasworks Mondriaan Foundation Goethe Institut Culture - Cult Development - Dev Cooperation - Coop BKVB EED GIZGerman Embassy Casa Africa AECID Cultures France FNAC/French Embassy IRCOD French Institute of Cameroon SUPSI ResearchEducation lettera27 Orange Foundation doual’art income.This overview does not include Crowdfunding (- Crowd), Sponsors and Services.Also partnerships and in-kind contributions are not included. Flemish Institute of Culture Philip AguirréBozarTate Modern First Floor Gallery Arterial Network ACP-EU UNESCO Ministry of Culture (Cameroon) CUD (City of Douala)
  39. 39. € 0 € 260’000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 doual’art - Financial reports and some of the resources not included in the financial reports. Partners In-kind contributions Networks Volunteer work Technical support Access to content Participation Personal commitment Authorizations Maintenance
  40. 40. Photo by Roberto Paci Dalò, cc by-sa, 2010.
  41. 41. People and institutions can actively intervene A vision can produce heritage by defining it Heritage is selected and highlighted by someone We interpret/frame heritage Contemporary production can contribute to highlight/interpret heritage Funds for culture are less than funds for… basically anything else It is not only a matter of funds Activate networks (if you really need them) Understand keywords Production is a gatekeeper Land also determines the network you need doual’art in Douala
  42. 42. ! Mobile A2k Culture and Safety in Africa Design practices for urban safety and security, Venice 17.10.13
  43. 43. Bessengué Neighborhood Overview Bessengué is a neighborhood of Douala located between Akwa, the main commercial centre of Douala, and Deido, an autochthon residential area of the city. It is divided in five administrative blocks, headed by the chief Maurice Eyango Mandengue. The neighborhood is densely populated with limited access to running water, trash disposal, electricity and drainage. Coordinates Douala Cameroon Timeline 2000 “Atelier Urbaines de Bessengué” 2002 “Bessengué city” Borne Fontaine The Passerelle Artworks: Radio Bessengue (ephemeral) Bouquet de souris (ephemeral) Borne Fontaine (permanent) The Passerelle (permanent) Facts 1. A new squared area between the bridge and the borne fontaine is now open with new business activities. 2. Creation of the Development Committee of Bessengué. Thanks to the committee the neighborhood has receive fundings from the World Bank. 3. Two water pumps have been installed into the second and third blocks of the Bessengué. 4. With the fee from the rent of the Borne Fontaine shop (15.000 CFA for month) the CDB can support the costs of small maintenance services 5. The curfew hours are shifts from 7 p.m. to midnight p.m. Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  44. 44. Bessengué Evidences Extract from Interview.... “Creation of the Development Committee of Bessengué Two water pumps have been installed into the second and third blocks of the Bessengué with the fee from the rent of the Borne Fontaine shop (15.000 CFA for month) the CDB can support the costs of small maintenance services opened a new squared area between the bridge and the borne fontaine the curfew hours are shifts from 7 p.m. to midnight p.m.” Related facts – the curfew hours are shifts from 7 p.m. to midnight p.m. Related key findings – the acceleration of development activities (services and infrastructures) Marta Pucciarelli, Field research Douala, December 2012. Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  45. 45. Bessengue Key findings The process of producing the artworks and the necessity of negotiating with land owners have required the engagement of the community, which has lead to the establishment of a stable group. Existing and new businesses have been growing in the the area. Increased value of the land/place. Sense of shared space. Sense of ownership. Keywords Community, engagement, maintenance, neglected area, infrastructures, development, workshops, permanent, discussions, meetings, business, fundings, urban planning, clean water supply, streets, renewing the image of a neighborhood, value, ownership, new community-based initiatives, new artists- lead initiatives, urban research Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  46. 46. New Bell Neighborhood Overview Bessengué is a neighborhood of Douala located between Akwa, the main commercial centre of Douala, and Deido, an autochthon residential area of the city. It is divided in five administrative blocks, headed by the chief Maurice Eyango Mandengue. The neighborhood is densely populated with limited access to running water, trash disposal, electricity and drainage. Timeline 2000 “Atelier Urbaines de Bessengué” 2002 “Bessengué city” Borne Fontaine The Passerelle Artworks: Radio Bessengue (ephemeral) Bouquet de souris (ephemeral) Borne Fontaine (permanent) The Passerelle (permanent) Typology: – Monuments Facts 1. Creation of the Development Committee of Bessengué 2. Two water pumps have been installed into the second and third blocks of the Bessengué 3. with the fee from the rent of the Borne Fontaine shop (15.000 CFA for month) the CDB can support the costs of small maintenance services 4. opened a new squared area between the bridge and the borne fontaine 5. the curfew hours are shifts from 7 p.m. to midnight p.m. Coordinates Douala Cameroon Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  47. 47. La Nouvelle Liberté Monumental artwork Overview Bessengué is a neighborhood of Douala located between Akwa, the main commercial centre of Douala, and Deido, an autochthon residential area of the city. It is divided in five administrative blocks, headed by the chief Maurice Eyango Mandengue. The neighborhood is densely populated with limited access to running water, trash disposal, electricity and drainage. Timeline 2000 “Atelier Urbaines de Bessengué” (2000) 2002 “Bessengué city” Artworks: Radio Bessengue (ephemeral) Bouquet de souris (ephemeral) Borne Fontaine (permanent) The Passerelle (permanent) Typology: – Monuments Facts 1. The production and installation of the work has produced local media coverage and the rise of public opinion (supporting the work or in conflict with it. 2. The city council was forced by the public opinion to improve the maintenance of the area. 3. Informal traders have been removed from the monument surroundings; new businesses around the area. Coordinates Douala Cameroon Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  48. 48. La Nouvelle Liberté Key findings Landmark of the city. The production and installation of the work has produced conflictual reactions. Keywords Public opinion, maintenance, role of the city council, monumental, landmark, permanent, discussions, meetings, conflicts, media coverage, business, renewing the image of the city, ownership Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  49. 49. Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  50. 50. Oasis Proximity artwork Overview Bessengué is a neighborhood of Douala located between Akwa, the main commercial centre of Douala, and Deido, an autochthon residential area of the city. It is divided in five administrative blocks, headed by the chief Maurice Eyango Mandengue. The neighborhood is densely populated with limited access to running water, trash disposal, electricity and drainage. Timeline 2000 “Atelier Urbaines de Bessengué” (2000) 2002 “Bessengué city” Typology: – Monuments Facts 1. Creation of the Development Committee of Bessengué 2. Two water pumps have been installed into the second and third blocks of the Bessengué 3. with the fee from the rent of the Borne Fontaine shop (15.000 CFA for month) the CDB can support the costs of small maintenance services 4. opened a new squared area between the bridge and the borne fontaine 5. the curfew hours are shifts from 7 p.m. to midnight p.m. Coordinates Douala Cameroon Artist Tracey Rose Typology: – Monuments Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  51. 51. Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  52. 52. Les mots écrits de New Bell Overview Bessengué is a neighborhood of Douala located between Akwa, the main commercial centre of Douala, and Deido, an autochthon residential area of the city. It is divided in five administrative blocks, headed by the chief Maurice Eyango Mandengue. The neighborhood is densely populated with limited access to running water, trash disposal, electricity and drainage. Timeline 2003 The Ministry of Culture invites Fernando Alvim to lead a major exhibition project 2006 December-March 2007 Trienal de Luanda Edition I 2010 September-December Trienal de Luanda Edition II Artworks: Radio Bessengue (ephemeral) Bouquet de souris (ephemeral) Borne Fontaine (permanent) The Passerelle (permanent) Typology: – Monuments Facts 1. Creation of the Development Committee of Bessengué 2. Two water pumps have been installed into the second and third blocks of the Bessengué 3. with the fee from the rent of the Borne Fontaine shop (15.000 CFA for month) the CDB can support the costs of small maintenance services 4. opened a new squared area between the bridge and the borne fontaine 5. the curfew hours are shifts from 7 p.m. to midnight p.m. Coordinates Douala Cameroon Marta Pucciarelli, Report Douala in Culture and Safety in Africa, 2013. Curator Iolanda Pensa.
  53. 53. Chimurenga Library network.
  54. 54. © CulturesFrance (with Labiomatic)Visual Identity, project not selected, 2006.
  55. 55. Pro Helvetia, website, still 2008.
  56. 56. Biennial Foundation website, still 2010.
  57. 57. © Information Architects,Web Trand Map 2007/V2, 2007.
  58. 58. Wikipedia. © & ™ All rights reserved,Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
  59. 59. Paul Butler, Facebook, December 2010, 600 million members
  60. 60. World Heritage Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. http://whc.unesco.org/en/about/
  61. 61. Industrialisation/modernisation Nationalism and collective nostalgia Scientific and educative importance Heritage is good economics Artist and aesthetic value Environmental diversity Heritage as functional resource Reasons to conserve the past Source:Adapted from Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, p.88-93
  62. 62. Unesco Global Heritage Fund World Monuments Funds ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites European Union Europa Nostra Italy FAI Fondo Ambiente Italiano (UK National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty) Spain - France - Germany - Finland - Iran - South Africa - Namibia… Definitions of Heritage Definition of Heritage Scope/Mandate Support (links) Source (law, convention, charter) Keywords 21
  63. 63. The cultural heritage of the European Union is a rich and diverse mosaic of cultural and creative expressions, our inheritance from previous generations of Europeans and our legacy for those to come. It includes natural, built and archaeological sites, museums; monuments, artworks; historic cities; literary, musical, and audiovisual works, and the knowledge, practices and traditions of European citizens. Cultural heritage enriches the individual lives of citizens, is a driving force for the cultural and creative sectors, and plays a role in creating and enhancing Europe's social capital. It is also an important resource for economic growth, employment and social cohesion, offering the potential to revitalise urban and rural areas and promote sustainable tourism. While policy in this area is primarily the responsibility of Member States, regional and local authorities, the EU is committed to safeguarding and enhancing Europe's cultural heritage through a number of policies and programmes. Article 3.3 of the Lisbon Treaty 2007 “The Union shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity, and [...] ensure that Europe’s cultural heritage is safeguarded and enhanced”. https://ec.europa.eu/culture/policy/culture-policies/cultural-heritage_en European Union
  64. 64. World Heritage Convention Paris 1972 For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "cultural heritage”: monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "natural heritage”: natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view; geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation; natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty.
  65. 65. Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage is a UNESCO  treaty adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 17 October 2003 Intangible cultural heritage is: Traditional, contemporary and living at the same time: intangible cultural heritage does not only represent inherited traditions from the past but also contemporary rural and urban practices in which diverse cultural groups take part; Inclusive: we may share expressions of intangible cultural heritage that are similar to those practised by others.Whether they are from the neighbouring village, from a city on the opposite side of the world, or have been adapted by peoples who have migrated and settled in a different region, they all are intangible cultural heritage: they have been passed from one generation to another, have evolved in response to their environments and they contribute to giving us a sense of identity and continuity, providing a link from our past, through the present, and into our future. Intangible cultural heritage does not give rise to questions of whether or not certain practices are specific to a culture. It contributes to social cohesion, encouraging a sense of identity and responsibility which helps individuals to feel part of one or different communities and to feel part of society at large; Representative: intangible cultural heritage is not merely valued as a cultural good, on a comparative basis, for its exclusivity or its exceptional value. It thrives on its basis in communities and depends on those whose knowledge of traditions, skills and customs are passed on to the rest of the community, from generation to generation, or to other communities; Community-based: intangible cultural heritage can only be heritage when it is recognized as such by the communities, groups or individuals that create, maintain and transmit it – without their recognition, nobody else can decide for them that a given expression or practice is their heritage. https://ich.unesco.org/en/what-is-intangible-heritage-00003
  66. 66. To be included on the World Heritage List, sites must be of outstanding universal value and meet at least one out of ten selection criteria Selection criteria (i) to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius; (ii) to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design; 3. to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared; 4. to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history; 5. to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change; (vi) to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria); (vii) to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance; 8. to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features; 9. to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals; 10. to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.
  67. 67. Convention for the Protection of the Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)

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