Imran oomer ethnographic study in indian schools sample report
Lend-A-Hand India: PLAN100 BEST PRACTICES FOR SCHOOLS AND ADMINISTRATORS ON INTEGRATING AND SUSTAINING THE IBT PROGRAM
Background Since Lend-A-Hand India (LAHI) launched PLAN100, it has successfully reached over 60 schools and 11,000 students in just over five years. The original 19 schools that have successfully trained cohorts of graduates through the three-year IBT program are “IBT champions” and are leading the efforts to implement strategies striving towards the long-term sustainability of the program.
Defining Sustainability Sustainability needs to be viewed through many different lenses; foremost, conceptual sustainability is the lifeline of an effectively running initiative • The ability of the initiative to consistently cover its costs Financial with cash-in. This typically requires conceptual buy-in from the financial source (s)– customer or donor • The level of administrative support the Administrative initiative receives , which helps it sustain and improve upon its programs‟ operations • The ease and efficiency achieved in Implementation running the initiative‟s core activities on a regular basis • The level of commitment and buy-in of the program‟s Conceptual outcomes received from key stakeholders
Project Objectives This study is primarily aimed at uncovering unique and replicable strategies aimed at sustaining IBT within a school‟s curriculum. To achieve this goal, the following steps have been taken: • …an in-depth interview guide to be used with key Design stakeholders at a pre-determined set of IBT schools • …IBT schools “in action” for a number of days (rapid Observe ethnography) to identify key success factors of their program‟s functionality • …best practices to current and future IBT schools as a referenceDisseminate tool for gaining insight on how other schools have effectively integrated and sustained the program with a long-term
Methodology: Ethnography and Contextual Inquiry An ethnographical approach was used for this project, with the key activity being observing activities at a school over a period of days to examine how the IBT program functions and to gain insight from key participants including: Students IBT Instructors Non-IBT Teachers IBT Coordinators Headmasters School Committee Members Over the period of one month, 4 schools (profiled on the next slide) were visited and 21 interviews were conducted
Selected School Profiles D.N. Mangaon Vikramgad Dhanaji Wandrekar School School School School size & Location Mangaon, Raigan Vikramgad, Upper Pal, Khiroda, Jalgaon District Thane District Jalgaon District District Program SES 120 IBT students 180 IBT students 185 IBT students 173 IBT students (100% per class) – (25% per class) – (100% per class) – (25% per class) – 100% ST 95% ST 100% ST few STRev- Completion 93% graduation 90% graduation 95% graduation 99% graduation rates rate / 100% exam rate / 100% exam rate / 91% exam rate / 100% exam pass rate pass rate pass rate pass rate Student fees: Student fees: Rs. Student fees: Rs. Student fees: Rs.enue Rs: 0 240,00 2,000 50,000 CS: 40,000 CS: Rs. 5,000 CS: Rs. 1,000 CS: Rs. 3,000
Sample Discussion Questions IBT Integration: How was the decision made the launch IBT at your school? What were the main motivations? Who was involved in the decision-making? In what capacity? IBT Commitment: How would you describe the commitment / involvement of each stakeholder (e.g. students, instructors, parents, management)? What are they motivated by? What sells them on IBT? Challenges to Sustainability: Besides funding, what are the biggest challenges you face today regarding commitment to IBT? Instructor Recruitment & Retention: What has worked well in retaining instructors? What challenges have you faced in keeping them engaged in IBT? What are they motivated by? Funding: What are your strategies for financially sustaining the IBT program? If fees and community service do not cover the costs of running IBT, what are the other options?
Common Challenges Expressed Regarding The Sustainability of IBT • Engaging parents and getting IBT buy-in Conceptual • Sparking the interest of incoming IBT students • Gaining buy-in from non-IBT teachers • Instructor recruitment and retentionImplementation • Facilities and equipment maintenance • Availability of raw materials for practicals • Preparing and motivating the IBT coordinatorAdministrative • Regular documentation of attendance, classroom activities and practicals • Limited local market for CS activities + lack of Financial commitment • Poor families not using gov‟t aid for education • Financial support of school committee
Best Practices Addressing Challenges to Sustainability of IBT (Conceptual) Challenge Best Practice Parents react more positively to tangible results. Engaging Parents of Communicate IBT graduate success stories duringPotential and Current parents meetings so that the outcomes of the IBT Students program are clear, particularly the ITI preferred placement (VS) Leverage the knowledge, experience and perspectives of IBT graduates to come to the school as ambassadors to the program, conveying Sparking the interest its benefits to both students and their parents of younger, non-IBT students Students are excited by the practical component of IBT, seeing it as a creative and preferred way of learning. Demonstrate practicals and 10th standard projects to incoming 8th standard students as a core benefit to them of joining IBT
Identified Best Practices Addressing Challenges to Sustainability of IBT (Conceptual) Challenge Best Practice IBT students increase their engagement with the Motivating 8th program when they can effectively make thestandard IBT students connection between IBT and their home lives. Instructors should actively seek input from students on how to adapt the program to be most relevant IBT needs to play an active role in students‟ Gaining buy-in from standard curriculum and vice versa. Schools that non-IBT teachers have succeeded in this facilitate close working relationships between IBT and non-IBT teachers, resulting in some co-teaching of relevant topics
Best Practices Addressing Challenges to Sustainability of IBT (Implementation)Challenge Best PracticeRetaining IBT A) Recruiting IBT graduates who understand the instructors program and its purpose; B) Building an informal instructor network with other nearby IBT program to exchange ideas C) Empowering instructors by encouraging them All to grow IBT project ideas through ownheadmasters experiences in the field (this also has a positive agree that effect on student engagement, as they arewell-trained motivated by new, innovative practicals) and D) Integrating theory and practice such that IBT motivated instructors get to participate in regular classes wheninstructors appropriate E) Having a seasoned instructor (3+ years) that canare the key to play the role of head instructor from aIBT’s success support, advisory, and training perspective F) On-time, regular payment
Best Practices Addressing Challenges to Sustainability of IBT (Implementation) Challenge Best Practice Schools that have succeeded in leveragingMotivating instructors instructors‟ creativity and entrepreneurial skills toto innovate through advance practicals have engaged them with new practicals professional development opportunities. For example, an exemplary engineering instructor was able to attend a relevant seminar at a nearby institute to help advance his skills. The creativity allowed among IBT practicals is limited by the availability of raw materials, a Availability of raw particular challenge in the most rural schools. materials Schools have addressed this challenge by having the field officer, who has more market access and reach, act as an informal buyer for materials
Best Practices Addressing Challenges to Sustainability of IBT (Administrative) Challenge Best Practice Efforts to minimize the IBT coordinator role (e.g. Motivating and have them only responsible for teaching theory) incenting the IBT have not been effective, resulting in disengaged coordinator and uncommitted coordinators. They need to be well-trained in the IBT program and be seen as a resource, not a nuisance, to instructors. The position should be applied and interviewed for and be incentivized with additional professional development opportunities. Schools succeeding in record keeping holdRecord keeping is not instructors responsible for the thorough done effectively nor documentation of class activities using the regularly LAHI/Vigyan Ashram form
Identified Best Practices Addressing Challenges to Sustainability of IBT (Financial) Challenge Best Practice Schools not focused on community service make excuses from a lack of a local market to there beingLack of commitment „no time „ for CS. Those that succeed understandto community service the importance of it not just from a financial pointactivities and revenue of view but as a core component in the curriculum. generation This can only be accomplished if school leadership makes it a priority for instructors and students. IBT programs that have the school committee visit once or twice a year have difficulties in the long- Engaging the school run getting commitment from the committee on committee IBT. The headmaster needs to be armed with state-wide and school-specific outcomes data to engage with the school committee on regularly.
Perspectives on Government Support (Financial)FOR *Potential reduction in quality *Reduce financial stress of with government controlling supporting the program through recruitment, monitoring and unpredictable means evaluation *If accomplished system-wide *Potential for delayed (not just with a few payments, resulting in increased schools), challenges with AGAINST difficulty in retaining instructors government bureaucracy will be reduced *Excessive red tape, and often bribes, in getting approval *More restrictions on the prerequisites for instructors “The Project PLAN 100 team visits and look after the program right now; once it goes into government’s hands, I worry about the quality.” – Headmaster, Vikramgad School
Case Study #1: Transforming the Teacher- Student Relationship Students’ confidence within the classroom has been seen by instructors at Vikramgad School and they attribute it to the close instructor-student relationships they are able to foster within the IBT classroom. They say students are much more willing to ask questions and even more so, give suggestions when they have an idea, within IBT (they cite significant change from 8th standard to 9th and 10th). They say that they are able to foster this environment by: Removing the physical distance between students and teachers (no chalkboard and desks) Working together with the students on projects Being friendly and talking to students outside of the classroom (e.g. to and from school) Removing requirements to address instructors as sir/madam. In addition, instructors believe that fear from asking questions or being incorrect is reduced because they are able to see and feel what works and what doesn’t through hands-on practical work
Case Study #2: Motivating Instructors While Engaging Students The headmaster and IBT coordinator at Dhanaji School in Khorida attribute the school’s success with IBT to student engagement. By giving the instructors the freedom to progress the curriculum and bring in their own ideas, students are able to do new and exciting practicals and that keeps them engaged and interested in the work. Examples include a solar cooker, a bicycle-powered light bulb and washing machine, and dust-free chalk. More than in other schools, the instructors are given full ownership of their sections and are empowered to grow and expand the syllabus as much as they are able to.
General IBT Interview Guide (1 of 8)School Background Numbers and Dates (for context and segmentation) Years of IBT # of IBT & Non-IBT students # of successful graduates # of drop-outs # of successful graduates continuing on to a technical or diploma program What is the background of the students at your school? Literacy of parents Involvement of parents in student‟s education (% attendance at parents‟ meetings?) Family employment Ability to pay for tuition (what % can pay and how much?)
General IBT Interview Guide (2 of 8)Integrating IBT – Conceptual How was the decision made the launch IBT at your school? What were the main motivations? Who was involved in the decision-making? In what capacity? How was IBT first introduced to different groups? Students Teachers Management Donors What message was communicated to each group? How was it popularized? What were their initial reactions? Were they apprehensive at all? Why do you think? How did you respond to their apprehensions? How have their opinions changed, if at all? How would you describe the commitment / involvement of each group? What are they motivated by? What sells them on IBT? Besides funding, what are the biggest challenges you face today regarding commitment to IBT? Do you see a difference between IBT and non-IBT students?
General IBT Interview Guide (3 of 8)Integrating IBT – Administrative How are the administrative responsibilities of IBT program divided? Paperwork, documentation and record keeping What is your current system for these activities? What is challenging? What has worked well? Communication What is your current system for this? What is challenging? What has worked well? Facilities / land management What is your current system for these activities? What is challenging? What has worked well? Instructor search What is your current system for this? What is challenging? What has worked well?
General IBT Interview Guide (4 of 8)Integrating IBT - Implementation How would you rate the success of each of the four IBT modules? What has been the key success factors for each of the modules? What have the challenges been? What has been done to overcome the challenges? How has the recruitment and retention process for instructors been? What has worked in retaining good instructors? What challenges, if any, have you faced in keeping them engaged in IBT? Do you think reward system for instructors will be useful? How we should design it?
General IBT Interview Guide (5 of 8) How involved is your IBT program in community service activities? Who is managing and who is driving these activities? How do you think these activities contribute to the IBT program, overall? What do the students get out of it? What are the challenges in increasing community activities? How it can be strengthened? How are the 10th standard projects going? What types of projects are there? How do you decide about which project to take? Are you satisfied with the quality and learning from the projects by the students? What do the students get out of it? How are your physical facilities for IBT? How have these been maintained/upgraded? Are they clean? Are they sufficient? Classrooms Workshops Agriculture land Storage space Etc.
General IBT Interview Guide (6 of 8)Integrating IBT – Financial (HM) How are the costs for IBT currently covered? Fees Community Service LAHI Private Donors What have you done to increase the funding for IBT? Fees Community Service Private Donors Income generation activities by the school What challenges have you faced in maintaining or increasing contribution from each of these sources? Looking forward, do you believe the IBT program can become self-sustaining? What are your strategies for financially sustaining the IBT program? If fees and community service do not cover the costs of running IBT, what are the other options?
General IBT Interview Guide (7 of 8) What support is the school‟s management able to offer? What about the government? How do you think they should support the program? What are the advantages and disadvantages you see to involving the government? What will change in terms of implementation, monitoring, and program administration with government involvement? What do you think is the possibility of receiving government support – funding, salaries of instructors etc. What are the pros and cons of government funding? Do you think it will be misused – not used properly – IBT quality will go down and it will lose its importance. What do you think about receiving all the present support from the government – recognition of the subject, because it is optional subject, only those schools and students who are interested will opt / go for it, and IBT students getting reservations in ITI and polytechnic colleges? Isn‟t it sufficient so that each school can create its own edge to do good IBT?
General IBT Interview Guide (8 of 8)IBT Instructor-Specific Questions What is your academic background? Your professional background? How did you get involved with IBT? Do you see any benefits in becoming instructor? How has your experience been so far? What do you like / dislike about IBT? What is the impact that you have seen in the students? What long-term benefits do you think exist for students who take part in the IBT program?Teacher-Specific Questions What do you think about IBT and its influence on students at the school? How has it added to the students‟ education? What difference have you seen in the subject you teach? Have you been able to integrate IBT learning into your subject? How? What do you see as the most important characteristics or selling points of IBT?