The Role of Technology in CCS-
Schlumberger Carbon Services
Institute of the Americas – Buenos Aires Round Table




     ...
Facts
                                                                                           2



  Emissions of green...
Domination of Fosil Fuels
                                                    3




 • Demand rises by 13.6 mb/d between 2...
Global Oil Resources
                                                                                                     ...
The Challenge
                                                                           5




    Global CO2 Emissions
  ...
CO2 Capture and Storage System in a Nutshell
                                                               6




        ...
Geological Storage Applications   7




                                        Schlumberger Public
Schlumberger Carbon Se...
Global Storage Capacity Estimates
                                                                           8




 • Plan...
Carbon Capture and Storage Cost Chain
                                                                                    ...
Storage Fundamentals
                                                                                 10


  • Capacity: (...
Risk of Storage
                               11




                               Schlumberger Public
Schlumberger Carb...
Storage Program Lifecycle
                                                                   12



                       ...
What Capabilities are Needed?
                                                                                            ...
Site Characterization
                                                                                                    ...
Modeling a CO2 Storage
                                                                                                   ...
Seismic for Characterization
                                                                                    16


    ...
Cap Rock Integrity - Microseismicity
                     g y               y   17




                                   ...
CO2 Location & Tracking
                                            g                18




                              ...
Schlumberger Participation in CO2 Sequestration
                                                                          ...
Current locations of geological storage                                                           20




Project          ...
Large-scale CO2 sequestration Example
                                                                     21




        ...
Sleipner North Sea Project
                                                                                       22




 ...
Conclusions
                                                                           23




  • CCS presents the only ex...
Schlumberger Carbon Services
                                                                        24




 Trusted End t...
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Carlos Calad

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Carlos Calad

  1. 1. The Role of Technology in CCS- Schlumberger Carbon Services Institute of the Americas – Buenos Aires Round Table Schlumberger Public Carlos Calad S. VP Marketing Oilfield Services Latin America
  2. 2. Facts 2 Emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHG) will increase the average global temperature by 1.1 to 6.4 ºC by the end of the 21st century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A global warming of more than 2 ºC increase in global average temperature will lead to Schlumberger Public serious consequences, and IPCC have therefore stated that global GHG emissions should be reduced by 50 to 80 percent by 2050. CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas, and anthropogenic CO2 emissions are mainly a consequence of fossil fuels being the most important global energy sources. Enhanced energy efficiency and increased renewable energy production will reduce CO2 emissions, but according to the International Energy Agency (IEA), energy efficiency and renewable energy do not have the potential to reduce global CO2 emissions as much as IPCC’s target, i.e. 50 to 80 percent by 2050. Schlumberger Carbon Services
  3. 3. Domination of Fosil Fuels 3 • Demand rises by 13.6 mb/d between 2006 and 2015 compared to 11 mb/d between 2001 and 2010 • Assuming no change in modeled rate, 23.9 Schlumberger Public mb/d will be lost to decline between 2006 and 2015 • Planned OPEC and non –OPEC additions total 25 mb/d over the same period – 12.5 mb/d need to be found. • These figures are very sensitive to future declines rates Source: IEA reference scenario Schlumberger Carbon Services
  4. 4. Global Oil Resources 4 Cumulative demand at 2050 80 Cumulative demand at 2030 70 Economic price 2005, US$ 60 Schlumberger Public Arctic 50 EOR Oil shales 40 Deep water 30 Heavy oil Bitumen 20 Other conventional Already OPEC ME oil 10 produced Super deep 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Available oil in billion barrels Source: IEA 2005 Schlumberger Carbon Services
  5. 5. The Challenge 5 Global CO2 Emissions Emissions IEA 2003 CO2 emissions from fuel combustion MTCO2/yr % Schlumberger Public Public electricity & heat production 8236 35% Other energy industries 1228 5% Manufacturing & construction 5257 22% Transport 5656 24% Other sectors 3307 14% 2003 emissions 23684 CO2 emission growth rate = 1.8%/yr 38000 160% 2030 emissions Increases come from Power generation 6400 43% Transport 3300 23% Industry 2100 15% Source: IEA Schlumberger Carbon Services
  6. 6. CO2 Capture and Storage System in a Nutshell 6 Fuels Schlumberger Public Processes Storage options Schlumberger Carbon Services
  7. 7. Geological Storage Applications 7 Schlumberger Public Schlumberger Carbon Services
  8. 8. Global Storage Capacity Estimates 8 • Plants = 600 GTCO2 ; Soil = 1,600 GTCO2 • Underground Storage Capacity approximately 11,000GTCO2 • USA=3900GT • Russia=2100GT • Canada=1300GT Schlumberger Public • Australia=700GT • Middle East=460GT • Africa=430GT • China=390GT • India=380GT • South America=310GT • Western Europe=260GT • Japan/Korea=2GT • Maximum demand < than 2200GT within 100 years • 8100 large point sources (>100,000 tons/yr) worldwide Source: IPCC Schlumberger Carbon Services
  9. 9. Carbon Capture and Storage Cost Chain 9 Injection for Power & Industrial CO2 export terminal Geological processes with CO2 and pipeline storage in capture and transportation or producing or conditioning shipment Schlumberger Public depleted oil and gas fields & aquifers Monitoring: $0.1-1/t Cos $30 – 50 /t $1 - 5/t* $2 - 10/t*= $ 33 – 65/t ** t * Cost principally distance dependant ($2M per Mile) ** Variability is key Schlumberger Carbon Services
  10. 10. Storage Fundamentals 10 • Capacity: (match to source & estimate plume shape) • bulk volume (seismic) X porosity (logs) X “storage factor” • Injectivity (how many wells) • permeability from core, log & well test • Containment (caprock integrity, fractures, wellbore integrity, faults) Schlumberger Public Caprock ? CO2 Post injection Saline Formation Schlumberger Carbon Services
  11. 11. Risk of Storage 11 Schlumberger Public Schlumberger Carbon Services
  12. 12. Storage Program Lifecycle 12 Operational Monitoring • CO2 injection control • Cap rock integrity Verification Monitoring • CO2 location and tracking Schlumberger Public • Cap rock integrity • Well Integrity Environment Monitoring • Aquifers Westbay • Surface • Atmosphere Schlumberger Carbon Services
  13. 13. What Capabilities are Needed? 13 People + Technology People CO2 Technology All Seismic Services Geology Geophysics Wellbore Integrity Evaluation & Schlumberger Public Reservoir Engineer Drilling Engineer Drilling & Completion Cementing Petrophysics Completion Engineer Logging, Testing & Sampling Lab Analysis Geomechanics Geochemistry Data Processing Hydrogeology Economics Modeling & Plume Prediction Data Management HSE Injection Operational Monitoring Verification Monitoring Project Management Environmental Monitoring Tools for Team Integration – Petrel Shared Earth Model Focused Organization Schlumberger Carbon Services
  14. 14. Site Characterization 14 Data Collection & QC Data Collection & QC –Geophysics / Geology –Geophysics / Geology –Petrophysics / / Mineralogy –Petrophysics Mineralogy –Geomechanics –Geomechanics –Fluid Properties –Fluid Properties Schlumberger Public –Well Integrity –Well Integrity Modeling Modeling Injectivity Capacity Containment • Reservoir quality • 3D Cellular Geomechanics Well integrity Hydrodynamics • Geometry Geological Model • Fault Stability • Zonal • Formation • Connectivity • Pore Volume • Sustainable isolation water flow • Connectivity fluid pressure systems Schlumberger Carbon Services
  15. 15. Modeling a CO2 Storage 15 Surface imaging Mapping Log interpretation EM survey interpretation Well correlation Data input Surface identification Information management Surface/subsurface interaction GIS database Data analysis Facies modelling Calibration Fault modelling History match Schlumberger Public Fracture modelling Post processing Hydrodynamic test Presentation analysis Eclipse 3D flow simulation Geochemistry Geomechanics Uncertainty analysis 3D Geological model Upscaling processes 3D Property model of the Reservoir and Aquifer property population Reservoir and the Overburden Schlumberger Carbon Services
  16. 16. Seismic for Characterization 16 Conventional 3-D Seismic Hi-Resolution Q Seismic Data Quality Schlumberger Public Resolution 8-40 Hz 6-80 Hz Formation Characteristics Schlumberger Carbon Services
  17. 17. Cap Rock Integrity - Microseismicity g y y 17 Schlumberger Public Schlumberger Carbon Services
  18. 18. CO2 Location & Tracking g 18 4D Seismic Schlumberger Public Cross-Well RST Log Schlumberger Carbon Services
  19. 19. Schlumberger Participation in CO2 Sequestration 19 Consortiums NACCSA (US) CO2ReMoVe (EU) Stanford GCEP (US) DYNAMIS (EU) MIT CSI (US) MovEcbm (EU) GCCC (US) CO2SINK (EU) CoalSeq (US) CO2CRC (Australia) Schlumberger Public Weyburn II (Canada) DOE RPP (US) Internal CO2 Research Field Demonstration Activity Schlumberger Carbon Services
  20. 20. Current locations of geological storage 20 Project Country Injection start Daily injection Total planned Reservoir name (tCO2/day) storage (tCO2) type Weyburn Canada 2000 3,000 - 5,000 20,000,000 EOR Schlumberger Public In Salah Algeria 2004 3,000 - 4,000 17,000,000 Gas field Sleipner Norway 1996 3,000 20,000,000 Saline formation K12B Netherlands 2004 100 8,000,000 EGR Frio United States 2004 177 1,600 Saline formation Schlumberger Carbon Services
  21. 21. Large-scale CO2 sequestration Example 21 Sleipner North Sea Project (Statoil) Schlumberger Public CO2 is pulled from the production stream and reinjected into a saline aquifer Schlumberger Carbon Services
  22. 22. Sleipner North Sea Project 22 200 m thick Utsira Formation: Miocene 27% porosity Saline Reservoir high permeability between 15-36 oC – within critical range minimum depth 800-1200 m below mudline Schlumberger Public Currently monitoring CO2 migration with seismic Schlumberger Carbon Services
  23. 23. Conclusions 23 • CCS presents the only existing technology that can complement renewable and efficiency gains to achieve 50% emissions reduction by 2050. Schlumberger Public • The Skills and Technologies needed for successful CCS can be easily exported from the E&P Industry • Barriers to CCS projects are mainly regulatory and public awareness; • Technological advances are needed to reduce costs of capture. Schlumberger Carbon Services
  24. 24. Schlumberger Carbon Services 24 Trusted End to End CO2 Storage • QHSE management • Performance & risk management Schlumberger Public • Site screening & selection • Detailed site characterization • Site design • Site construction • Site operations • Measurement, Monitoring & Verification (MMV) http://www.slb.com/content/services/additional/carbon/index.asp? Schlumberger Carbon Services

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