The Level of Job Satisfaction of Employees in Saudi Banks
The Level of Job Satisfaction of Employees in Saudi Banks
Research BackgroundJob satisfaction explains the level of contentedness of an individual with his or her job. Thehappy employees are said to be more satisfied with their jobs. Job satisfaction is not similar tothe level of motivation at work place or the aptitude level but still it is clearly linked with theboth. It is said that the happy employees are productive employees. The most-used researchdefinition of job satisfaction is by Locke (1976), who defined it as ―. . . a pleasurable or positiveemotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences‖ (p. 1304).Locke’sdefinition gives importance to both affect or feeling and cognition or thinking. This can be saidin other words as, when we thing, we have feelings about what we think.There are various statements going around in the organizations saying that the happy employeesare productive employees while the proponents state that the happy employees are not productiveemployees. These conflicting statements are drawn by the HR professionals and the managerswithin organizations. There is confusion and debate among practitioners on the topic ofemployee attitudes and job satisfaction— even at a time when employees are increasinglyimportant for organizational success and competitiveness. There is no strong acceptance amongresearchers, that increased job satisfaction produces improved job performance, in fact, improvedjob satisfaction can sometimes decrease job performance. Study conducted by Staw& Ross(1985) demonstrated that a person’s job satisfaction scores have stability over time, even whenhe or she changes jobs or companies.Research conducted by Judge et al (1998), Judge and Bono (2001) indicated that core self-evaluation plays a significant role as a key personality trait that correlates with the employee jobsatisfaction. They further concluded that the relationship between self-evaluation and jobsatisfaction has one primary perception of the job itself. The job satisfaction is linked to the jobitself, to what may be the most important personality trait to predict job satisfaction, core self-evaluation.Many managerial studies conducted in the past have linked the performance evaluationprocedures of an employee to the level of job satisfaction (Brownell. 1982; Harrison. 1992;Lau
and Sholihin. 2005). This is justified on the basis of an assumption that the performanceevaluation of employees has reflection on the extent of employees’ success or failure inperforming their tasks. Feelings of success and failure are important determinants of jobsatisfaction (Locke and Latham. 1990). Based on the above discussion, it is reasonable toconclude that fairness of performance procedures may affect job satisfaction. Therefore, thepurpose of this study is to provide greater understanding of the research on this topic and giverecommendations related to the major practitioners.Aim of the StudyEmployee job satisfaction plays an important role in the organizations. Cascio (1986), Mirvisand Lawler (1977) indicated that the job satisfaction is the predictor of withdrawal behaviors liketurnover and absenteeism from the organizations. This enables the researchers to statisticallymeasure the impact of employee attitudes on organizations. Using these methods can be apowerful way for practitioners to reveal the costs of low job satisfaction and the value ofimproved employee attitudes on such outcomes as absenteeism and retention.The aim of the study is to discuss the level of job satisfaction among employees working in theSaudi Banks. The study will attempt to investigate the factors of satisfaction of employeesworking in Saudi Arabian Banks. This will help the researcher to draw a snapshot of the currentjob satisfaction approaches implemented by the banks. So the study is entitled as ―the level ofjob satisfaction of employees in Saudi Banks‖. For the purpose of achieving the abovementioned aims, following objectives are formulated: 1. The research will identify the process and procedure of job satisfaction within the Saudi Arabian Banks. 2. To discover how Saudi Arabian Banks are implementing and providing Job satisfaction procedure to their employees. 3. To investigate the factors that lead to the employee job satisfaction.The study will be de-limited to:
The Private sector banks of Saudi Arabia. The public sector banks of Saudi Arabia. The 50 private and public sector banks in Saudi Arabia. 25 Public sector banks. 25 Private sector banks. The officers, managers of the banks only. One specific city of KSA only.Methodology of the StudyDesign of the studyThe research design will follow descriptive research methodology. The descriptive researchdesign is a scientific method that uses observations and the description of the behaviors of thesubject without influencing it in any way (Gill & Johnson, 1997; Anderson, 2004, Creswell,1998).PopulationThe population of the study will be comprised of Private and Public limited banks of SaudiArabia.Sample and Sampling TechniqueThe sample of the study will consist of 50 private and public limited banks of Saudi Arabia; 25public limited banks and 25 private limited banks. The sample will be drawn from one single cityof Saudi Arabia. In order to carry out the sample out of population, Purposive samplingtechnique will be used. The purposive sampling is used when we want to conduct a research witha specific population in mind and the sample is selected to include the people of interest and toexclude those who do not match the purpose. In Purposive sampling, the selection of unitsdepends on the need of research. This type of sampling technique is used when it is not possible
to adopt any random procedure for selection of sampling units (Agarwal, 2009; Easterby-Smith,Thorpe & Lowe, 2008).Tool of researchThe research will be conducted by using questionnaires method. Job satisfaction questionnairewill be developed. The questionnaires are greatly used by the survey strategies, both inexperiment and case study research strategies can make use of these techniques (Saunders,Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009). This questionnaire will help the researcher to identify those aspectsof employers’ current job that are rewarding as well as those that contribute to dissatisfaction ofemployees. The results will help the researcher to clarify the aspects of a job that most directlycontribute to your career satisfaction (Coughlan & Drumgoole, 2004)Development of toolFor the purpose of development of research tool, international survey methodology called TheCranﬁeld Network project (Cranet) will be used (Sparrow, 2009; Chris et al, 2004). The researchtool will be developed by Using Rands theory (Rand, 1990). The main factors to be used in thedevelopment of tool will be emotions as a starting point, the concepts of satisfaction,dissatisfaction, value, emotion, and appraisal, thinking, needs, goals (Locke, 1969, 2002)andtheir interrelationships will be discussed. Moreover, closed ended questions will be used in thequestionnaires and point five Likert scale (Likert, 1932) will be used in the questionnaires.Tool AdministrationAfter extensive review of literature and consultation with the supervisor, questionnaire will bedeveloped. It will be based on the indicators of job satisfaction of employees in theorganizations. The first draft of tool of research will be pilot tested on few selected respondents.Questionnaires for the employee satisfaction level will be developed on the following aspects: I. Employee profile
II. Concept of Values, Emotions, Religion and GoalsIII. Need and level of fulfillment, commitment, engagementIV. Appraisal Techniques in the Organization V. Factors leading to Satisfaction levelVI. Factors leading to DissatisfactionThe questionnaires will be sent to the respondents through electronic mail system along withcovering letters which contain instructions to fill the questionnaire for convenience ofrespondents. The questionnaires will be developed in English and Arabic as well.Data AnalysisStatistical techniques will be used for data analysis and on the basis on these inferences will bedrawn. Following techniques will be used to analyze the data: Percentage method Mean of the data Correlation Chi-squareThe percentage method, mean, correlation and Chi-square will be used for the data analysisprocess. These methods are used in the descriptive analysis of the research and data. Thedescriptive statistics provide the basic understanding of the data in a particular study. They helpto find out the basic features and summaries about the sample and its uses. They are used toexplain what is what in the data without intervening in the process (Brewerton & Millward,2001). The correlation will find the level of dependence of employee satisfaction on the factorsthat drive their satisfaction. Chi-square distribution will be used to find out the level ofassociation between those factors with that of the satisfaction level of employees working inSaudi banks. The data will be analyzed on SPSS and inferences will be drawn on the basis of theanalysis.
Findings and RecommendationsThe Summary of findings, the conclusions drawn from the findings and recommendations will bemade on the basis of analysis of data.Planning and Critical AnalysisPlanningThe time line required to conduct and complete this study is given below:Literature ReviewFor the study and recording of related literature review, approximately one month will berequired to conduct and use the related literature review.Tool DevelopmentOn the basis of literature review, 1 month approximately will be required for the tooldevelopment.Data Collection1-2 months maximum will be required for the data collection.Data Analysis, Interpretation and Conclusion1-2 months will be required for the data analysis, interpretations and conclusions.LimitationsThe researcher may incur the following limitations during its research: issues in data collection Little or no cooperation from the respondents (sampling issues). Biased responses of the respondents.
Management’s failure to cooperate. The Organization’s failure to acknowledge the researcher’s demands of cooperation The policies of the banks may collide with the researcher’s work requirements The employees may hesitate to provide their reviews.ReferencesAgarwal, B.L, 2009. Programmed Statistics (Question-Answers), India: New Age InternationalPvt Ltd PublishersAnderson, V. 2004. Research Methods in Human Resource Management, CIPD, LondonBrewerton P and Millward L 2001, Organizational Research Method, Sage Publications, LondonBrowneli, P. 1982. The role of accounting data in performance evaluation, budgetaryparticipation, and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Accounting Research. 20(1): 12-27.Cascio, W. F. 1986. Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits. NewYork: McGraw-Hill.Chris, B., Mayrhofer, W., and Morley, M., 2004.Human Resource Management in Europe:Evidence of Convergence?, Butterworth-Heineman, ISBN-13: 978-0-7506-4717-5Coughlan D., Drumgoole (eds) 2004. online resource, Managers Learning in Action:Management Learning Research and Education, RoutledgeCreswell J., 1998. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions,Sage, LondonEasterby-Smith M, Thorpe R and Lowe A., 2008. Management Research: An Introduction;Sage Publications, LondonGill J., Johnson P, 1997. Research Methods for Managers, 2nd Edition, Paul ChapmanPublishing, LondonHarrison. G. L. 1992. The cross cultural generalizability of the relation between participation,budget emphasis and job related attitudes. Accounting.Organizations andSociety.17(1): 1-15.Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., &Kluger, A. N. 1998. Dispositional effects on joband life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 17–34.
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