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A leading private investigator singapore & worldwide explains data recovery


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Data Recovery by A Leading Private Investigator Singapore & worldwide

Published in: Technology, Business
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A leading private investigator singapore & worldwide explains data recovery

  2. 2. This eBook fully owned by a leading privateinvestigator Singapore and worldwide but is for freeaccess by the general public. You can share the wholeeBook or part of its contents but you are not allowedto alter its contents. You are therefore prohibited fromaltering the contents of this eBook as that can lead topenalization. Do feel free to share it with yourfriends, colleagues and any other external partythough without changing its contents whatsoever. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 2
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Data recovery comes in handy when you lose critical data.The demand for this service has grown a lot over the lastdecade because everything is now computerized and needssome sort of storage. It could be due to power outage orforgetting to save a document that you lose your data oreven a disaster.The bigger the size of the storage media, the more data islost when damages to the media occurs. Due to the increasein the use of digital media and computers, increase in theneed of storage capacities has been realized. This hasfurther increased the risks of data loss. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 4
  5. 5. It has been noted that people are losing critical data thattakes a lot of time, energy and effort to create thus losingsuch data can be very agonizing hence the need for datarecovery.You can recover lost data on your own or use the services ofa data recovery company. Recovering data on your own canbe very risky because this is a serious and sensitive matter.It is wise to seek professional assistance for lost informationthat is worth more than the amount it will cost to recoverthe data. Whatever the reason for your data loss, it ispossible to retrieve it. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 5
  6. 6. Data can be stored in media such as floppy disk,CDs, PDAs (personal digital assistants) DVDs,memory cards, magnetic disks, and RAIDconfigurations of HDD, hard disk drives(HDD), Mobile phones, tapes, data cartridges,zip disks, flash disks and Xboxes among others.Data recovery can be sought by various peopleor clients such as government, students, smalland medium businesses or enterprises, largecorporates or even those who are self-employed. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 6
  7. 7. Copyright/DisclaimerData RecoveryIntroduction Background InformationChapter 1 Definition and Overview of Data Recovery Sources/Causes of Data Loss A Typical Data Recovery Process Data Recovery Techniques Mechanical/Physical Data Damages Logical Data Damages The Most Common Hard Disk Drive Problems The Do’s and Don’ts In Case of Data Loss The Process of Data Recovery Importance of Data Recovery A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 7
  8. 8. Chapter 2Data Recovery Software Data Recovery Companies Disadvantages of Data Recovery Companies Choosing /Selecting the Best Data Recovery CompanyChapter 3Prevention of Data Loss Qualities/Attributes of Good Data Recovery SoftwareData Backup and Disaster Recovery Plan Types of Backups Qualities of a Good Backup Device Types of Backup Devices/SolutionsBackup Tips A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 8
  9. 9. Good Backup Strategy Tips Disaster Recovery Procedure DevelopmentConclusionAbout the Author A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 9
  10. 10. Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 10
  11. 11. Retrieval of lost data and information from a storage mediathat is inaccessible, deleted files or corrupted files isreferred to as data recovery. Electronic devices such as MP3players, computers and digital cameras store information onstorage devices such as flash disks, hard disks or evendiskettes. Every storage media poses a different challenge indata recovery. The process of obtaining data is very laborintensive and complex. For a successful data recovery totake place, you need to understand the technical aspects ofthe latest technological storage media, file systems as wellas operating systems A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 11
  12. 12. Other resources required are well trained andexperienced technicians in data recovery and acomputer laboratory that is equipped and wellcontrolled. Using these resources reduces chances ofmore data loss or devastating damages to the storagemedia. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 12
  13. 13. Data losses are caused by either physical or logical failures.Logical failures include virus infections, deletion of files, powersurges, human errors as well as formatting and reformatting ofhard disks.Logical data losses are much easier to retrieve as long as the datahas not been tampered with or even overwritten. Physicalfailures are brought about by mechanical damages to the storagemedia. The damages can be as a result of water or fire and incase of a hard disk, the spindle usually stops functioning.When a physical failure occurs, the physical storage media thatis damaged must be repaired first before data can be recovered.Whereas specialized techniques and technology enables datarecovery, it is impossible to recover or obtain data from storagemedia that is extremely damaged. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 13
  14. 14. When a physical failure occurs, the physical storage mediathat is damaged must be repaired first before data can berecovered. Whereas specialized techniques and technologyenables data recovery, it is impossible to recover or obtaindata from storage media that is extremely damaged. Dataloss can also be caused by natural disasters or tragediessuch as earthquakes, tornados and floods, improper storageof the devices, power failures, accidental and intentionaldeletion of files, software bugs, fire, firmware corruptions,business failures, A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 14
  15. 15. crimes (such as hacking, theft sabotage and acts thatare malicious such as viruses, worm and hackers oreven theft of physical storage media) dropping ofstorage media and failure of semiconductor. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 15
  16. 16. A typical data recovery process involves four steps namely:disk repair, disk image, data retrieval and data restoration.The damaged hard disks are diagnosed before they can berepaired as well as firmware failures. Any damagedcomponents of the hard disk are replaced with new ones.Data is then removed from the repaired disk and transferredto another onto which a disk image is created to ensure thatthe data remains just as it was before damages occurred tothe previous disk. Data retrieval involves diagnosis andrepair of corrupted or damaged file systems so thatindividual files can be accessed. Once the individual filesare opened, the corrupted ones are then repaired. Datarestoration involves moving of the retrieved data to a newstorage location and finally, it is given back to the owner(client). A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 16
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  18. 18. Storage media physical damages are caused by variousfailures. The dye layer or metallic substrate of DVD/CDsusually get scratched thus causing a physical damage.Failed motors and head crashes cause mechanical failures tohard disks. Breakage of tapes is another type of mechanicalfailure. These mechanical damages not only lead to datalosses but also destruction of the file system logicalstructures. Data or file recovery cannot take place until alllogical damages are fixed. End users are not in a position tohandle mechanical damages to storage devices because theydo not have the required technical expertise and the disk canbe exposed to data which is very harmful. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 18
  19. 19. Dust causes crashes of the read/write heads and platter(which are very sensitive) of hard disks which can lead tofurther damages that could render data recovery processfutile. There are several techniques of obtaining data from ahardware that is physically damaged.The damaged parts of the hard disk are replaced in order forthe disk to be used again but since there also logical datafailures in the disk, they have to be repaired as well. Diskimaging is used to obtain all data that is readable from thedisk surface and the image stored on a new storage media.Afterwards, it is analyzed for any logical data damages toenable the reconstruction of the original file system before itwas damaged. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 19
  20. 20. Procedures of data recovery on damaged media may includereplacement of a PCB (printed circuit board) that isdamaged with one that is new or working, swapping of livePCB in which a donor drive is used, assembling ofread/write heads with compatible working drives andremoval and installation of hard disk platters of a damageddrive to one that is in good working condition. Acombination of these procedures can also be implementedin a single data recovery process. Most of these proceduresrequire technical expertise and hence cannot be used by endusers.The nicks and scratches on optical disks such as CDs andDVDs using repair products that can be purchased fromcomputer shops. The nicks and scratches are filled with theproduct and then the surface is sealed. When donesuccessfully, previously inaccessible data can then be read. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 20
  21. 21. In case of raid configuration errors such as RAID 0, itis split over two physical drives that are different torecreate the RAID array in order to salvage data onthe each of the drives. They are later merged to createthe original data. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 21
  22. 22. These kinds of damages can be repaired by end users unlessthe extent of damages is so serious that it would need theattention of an expert. Corrupt partition tables, damaged filesystems and media errors can render data unreadable.Deleted data or files are never completely lost because theyusually leave footprints through which they can be tracked.Specialized software for data recovery can be used to repairthese damaged and corrupted partition tables, file systemsand errors on the storage media hence recovery of all orportions of original data before the damage occurred.Testdisk is an example of such specialized software.Imaging of media irrespective of the logical errorsdiscussed above can be performed by software known asdd_rescue. Data carving which is salvaging of damagedfiles using their file structures can also be used in datarecovery. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 22
  23. 23. There are also simple tools and methods that can be used in datarecovery that do not require any knowledge and experience inusing them hence can be used by end users. Magnetic forcemicroscope can be used to recover overwritten data theoreticallythough practically it has not been proven. Hence it is difficult ifnot impossible to recover overwritten data. Overwritten data onSSD (solid-state drives) is easier to salvage than those on HDD(hard disk drives). Data on SSDs are stores in blocks and pagesof flash memory that use LBA (logical block addresses) forreferencing. FTL (flash translation layer) is used to managethese logical block addresses used for referencing. New data iswritten to another logical block address by the flash translationlayer and updates mapped to reflect the changes. This ensuresthat the pre-modified data remains intact and can be obtained byspecialized data recovery software. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 23
  24. 24. Unlike physical damages to storage media, logical damagescan be recovered from a remote location using remoteaccess software such a Team view and windows remotedesktop connection among others. All that is required is astable connection with adequate bandwidth between the twolocations connected either through the internet or any othernetwork connection. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 24
  25. 25.  Deletion of files Commercial software, proprietary software and HEX editors are used to retrieve deleted files from hard disk drives. Before sending a hard drive that contains the deleted files for restoration to a data recovery company you can use the commercial data recovery software to try restore the data. Electronic Damage Electronic damage is usually repaired using PCB swaps as well as tools used to repair the hard disk’s firmware. Failure of Heads Hard disks always become inaccessible when its read/write head fails to function. The failed heads are either repaired or replaced. The hard drive platters are usually swapped to a working hard disk to retrieve the data it contains. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 25
  26. 26. Head stack assemblies can also be swapped and in case the platters are not damage, a full and successful data recovery can take place. Head swaps must always be done in a clean 100 room. Spindle lock up Removal or repairs of platters are usually done when spindles lock up. Removal and swapping of platters is done using special tools. This type of head transfer requires a high level of skill and not just anybody can do it. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 26
  27. 27. There are certain data losses that cannot be recoveredno matter what. These types of losses can be said tobe irreversible. Extreme electronic damage, damagedplatters and overwritten information (overwrittenseveral times) or data on hard disk drives cannot berepaired for data recovery. This simply means thatdata loss due to these scenarios is impossible torecover. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 27
  28. 28.  In case of data loss, note down the last installed software, the last upgrades and the last application that was run. Do not alter anything on the drive where the data is saved or on the data itself. Do not attempt to open the drive to try and repair as the condition of the environment can cause irreversible damages to it. Do research for a good data recovery company which should be among the best in the industry if not the best. If you need to continue working on something else, create a mirror and use a different drive so that you do not affect the drive with lost data. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 28
  29. 29.  Cover up the hard drive with a thick layer of shock absorbent material because it is sensitive to any knocks. Remember that the faster you solve the problem the better and vice versa. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 29
  30. 30. The data recovery process ranges from simple to complex processes that are very detailed and exhaustive. Evaluation Evaluate the damaged storage media to determine the potential of recovering the lost data, the kind of work that will be involved to salvage the data and the extent of damage to the media. Estimation Estimate the steps that will be taken to recover the data, amount of data that can be recovered, amount of work that will be involved and ultimately the amount of money it will cost to recover the lost data. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 30
  31. 31.  Mirroring If the storage media can still function physically, mirror all accessible data to a new location as this will ensure that the original storage media is preserved just in case future access to it will be needed. Chances of a full data recovery are also greatly improved. Repair All physical and electrical damages that prevent the storage media from accessing data must be repaired. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 31
  32. 32.  Logical Data Recovery The raw data on the storage media (drive or disk) is recovered logically using specialized data recovery software. Data Analysis To ensure that the recovered data from the damaged media is intact and can be used, it has to be analyzed. A report containing information such as the kind of recovered data and what could have possibly brought about the data loss among others, is written and provided to the client. Storage and Return The salvaged data is then stored on any type of storage media and returned or given to the owner. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 32
  33. 33. The importance of data recovery sorely depends on the importance of the data that has been lost. If the lost data is very critical to you or to the business in that you risk losing a lot of money time, then data recovery becomes very important and must be considered as soon as possible before more damage occurs to the data or the storage media containing it. It could lead permanent loss of the data. It prevents loss of critical data when the data is backed up from the damaged storage media. It is the most economical and effective way of salvaging important files and data. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 33
  34. 34.  It ensures recovery of lost emails, fails, tasks and data comprehensively. Specialized data recovery techniques that improve the chances of a successful full data recovery are used. Information on data protection can be provided by data recovery companies. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 34
  35. 35. Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 35
  36. 36.  Data recovery softwares are specialized programs that are mainly used in obtaining lost data from a storage media. They are very efficient and effective in repairing as well recovering lost data, storage media, databases and corrupt file partitions. They help to obtain data and files safely without errors or further damage to the storage media before the lost data is obtained. Some of the software used are open source (free to be downloaded from the internet) while others have to be purchased from the vendors. They can be bought online from the vendor’s website. Data recovery is not done on an operating system that is running but a live or bootable CD, disk or USB. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 36
  37. 37. Examples of these types of programs are BartPE, Knoppix,BackTrack, SpinRite, WinPE, SystemRescueCD, Hiren’sBootCD, Ultimate Boot CD for Windows, Trinity Rescue Kitand Lazesoft Recovery Suite Home Edition among others.The programs used to check for consistency are Disk Utility,Disk First Aid, CHKDSK and fsck among others. Data recoverysoftware programs used in the process of obtaining or salvagingdata are Foremost, Norton Utilities, Recuva, TotalRecovery,TestDisk, TuneUp Utilities, FileSalvage, IsoBuster, CDRoller,dvdisaster, DataLifeSaver, PhotoRec, PC Tools File Recover,GetDataBack and Disk Drill Basic among others. Programimaging tools that are used in the data recovery process areddrescue, StoreGrid BMR and CopyCatX among several others. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 37
  38. 38. These are professional data recovery companies that specialize insalvaging of lost data from storage media at a fee. Thesecompanies have highly trained data recovery technicians andengineers with expertise and experience that are required for asuccessful data recovery to take place. The companies also ownlaboratories that are well equipped will all the required tools andequipment needed for data recovery.They charge fees for the services offered to their clients. Feescharged depend on the extent of damage to the media and theexpected turnaround time by the client with cheaper servicestaking up to two weeks. There are small data recovery companiesthat deal with minor data loss issues and big companies that dealwith more serious issues that the smaller companies cannot handle.Though not all data can be recovered, data recovery companies cansalvage quite a percentage of lost data. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 38
  39. 39. A good data recovery company must be licensed tooperate the business by relevant authorities andaccredited with Quality Assurance standardsISO9001-2000 by the right standardized body as wellas certification to ISO BE EN 14644. The datarecovery company should also have relevantexperience in handling data losses. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 39
  40. 40.  Turnaround Time Turnaround time is the time between submission of a damaged media and return of recovered data to a client. Data recovery companies never guarantee a fast turnaround time hence it is important to contact the company before the end of the scheduled time to find out if everything is going on fine. Pricing Data recovery companies have been known to quote prices that are extremely high. Unless it is promotion that is special, do not accept offers from companies for flat rate fees as they might be scams. A good company should evaluate a damaged disk before quoting a price. A good company should provide a price range and not flat rate fees. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 40
  41. 41.  Partial Data Recoveries Partial data recovery is when a full data recovery is not successful and only a portion or part of the original data is salvaged from the damaged media. Some data recovery companies tend to get the cost of money worth a full data recovery when they just performed a partial recovery. You should agree with the data recovery company that you will only pay for recovered data and if no data is recovered no payment will be made. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 41
  42. 42. There are so many scams and imposters in this industry thus it is very important to choose the best data recovery company that is genuine. There are things that you can look for in your search for a reliable company to recover your lost data and be very cautious and careful in your search. Clean Environment for Recovery Hard drives are storage devices that are very sensitive thus should be handled and opened in very clean rooms without dirt. If dirt gets in contact with hard disk platters, they can be damaged so badly beyond repair. A good data recovery company should therefore have clean rooms of class 100 with clean flow benches. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 42
  43. 43. 100 mean that there are 100 micro particles in every cubic foot of air. Previous Clients/Customers Find data recovery companies that are highly rated by their past clients and they should also have testimonials from the clients who were happy with their services. The more repeat customers they have the better because that is a sign that they offer great services. You can also look for customer reviews in the data recovery company’s website to get to know what past customers feel about the company. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 43
  44. 44.  Safe Methods/Techniques A good data recovery company is one that uses safe methods or techniques that are not destructive to obtain lost data in hard drives. Merely running recovery software on the damaged storage media can lead to further loss of data hence should be avoided. Hard drive companies will always refer you to a reputable company that offers data recovery services and has been investigated to prove so. Cost Depending on the extent of the problem with the damaged media, the recovery process can cost between $800 and $1500. You should not spend an amount that is either too high or too low as compared to the price range. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 44
  45. 45. Most evaluation services used to determine causes of data loss are offered free of charge by most of the data recovery companies. Flat fees Flat fees should be charged on SD cards but not hard disk drives as this can greatly lower the chances for a successful data recovery. A company that offers flat fees on data recovery services from hard disks could just be scams so be wary of them. Most companies quote prices after an evaluation of the damaged storage media. A good company should not charge for data they have not been able to recover. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 45
  46. 46.  Chance of a Successful Data Recovery This is measured in terms of percentages and most companies have a chance of recovery between 80% and 90%. Request for the company’s rate of having successful recoveries and how they get to that figure. It should be rated entirely based on complete recoveries and not partial or unrecoverable hard drives. Very few data recovery companies meet these criteria so ensure that the one selected does meet them. Speed of Service Levels Service levels include RAID array, expedited, flash media, hard drive, emergency and slow services. You should find out a data recovery company’s turnaround time and pricing for all the services levels. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 46
  47. 47. A good data recovery company is one that works at great speeds yet still offers quality services. Compare the prices from different companies to determine the best that suits your needs and fits your budget. Technology Technology is always changing day in day out and so are the software and hardware components in the market. It is good to keep pace with technological changes. Choose a company that implements the latest technology in their recovery processes. All firmware repair tools must also be the latest and up to date. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 47
  48. 48.  Experience Look for a data recovery company that has several years of experience in offering the services. The expert engineers and technicians must have hands on experience in recovering data from damaged storage media. A good data recovery company with experience will not only guarantee a good service but also increase the chances of a successful recovery. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 48
  49. 49. Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 49
  50. 50. Nothing can guarantee the prevention of data loss but agood where to ensure maximum data loss prevention is byputting in place a policy that combines protection of powerfailures using backup batteries, generators and severalpower circuits; RAID storage and journaling file system,regular backup of data, network firewalls and antivirusprotection, up to date security fixes and system patches andultimately, education of the end users on data lossprevention A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 50
  51. 51.  Even when the recycle bin has been shredded, it should be possible to recover deleted files. Even after a malicious attack, files should be unrecoverable. Files should be recovered from a failed and reformatted hard disks or even a crashed system. All file types should be recovered. Data from all kinds of storage media should be recovered. Files should be recovered not just easily but also successfully. Data backup must be created of file systems that are critical to the business. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 51
  52. 52. Prevention is always better than cure. Backup is makingcopies of data or information and keeping in differentstorage media in a different location from the original file. Itis stored so that it can be used in case the original file is lostwhen data loss occurs due to one of the several reasons thatcause it. Data backup is performed mainly for two reasons: for latercomputer system restoration after a fatal disaster and fordata recovery. Backup is the most important way of dealingwith data loss hence the more important stored data is thegreater the necessity to backup it up. This means that theimportance of data is directly proportional to the importanceof backup. When the data importance increases so does the necessity increases. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 52
  53. 53. The company or business size is also directly proportionalto backup necessity. Backup will enhance a fast andsuccessful data recovery to get the business up and runningas it was previously before the disaster occurred.Having a disaster recovery plan in place and regular backupof data can be of great importance in case of data losses orwhen a disaster strikes. The created backups must be storedin a separate location from where the systems and should betested for functionality and ability to restore damagedsystems to back to normal working conditions. End userscan schedule regular data backup operations in theircomputers without seeking professional help. Computerrestoration can help retrieve minor data losses and systemchanges by restoring it to an earlier date. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 53
  54. 54. Backup systems should be reliable to guarantee data recovery incase of disasters and damages to hard drives. The hard drivesshould also be kept away from extreme temperatures that candamage them thus causing data loss. It should also be protectedfrom damages that can occur from the surrounding environment.You can also use surge protectors to protect your computersfrom electricity fluctuations that usually cause short circuiting.For backups done on the same computer, they should be storedin drives that are different from the one the system’s operatingsystem is running on. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 54
  55. 55.  Full backup This involves backing up of all selected files. The file archive attributes are deleted and later set when the file is changed to show that back up is needed. It is also known as normal backup. Differential backup It creates copies of files that have been modified since the last full backup and backs them up. Files with archive attributes need backup but the attribute is not changed to allow for other backup types in the future. Copy backup Despite the state of the archive attribute all selected files are backed up. Files with archive attributes are backed up but not changed to allow for other backup types in the future. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 55
  56. 56.  Daily backup The file’s modification date is used for backup. Changes to files and their backup takes place on the same day. File archive attributes are not modified. Incremental backup Backs up only the latest changes to files since the last full or incremental backup. Files with archive attributes are backed up and the attribute deleted afterwards. The attribute is set when files are modified to show that back up is needed. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 56
  57. 57.  Should be reliable to perform when needed. Should have a high capacity to store more data. Should be very extensible. Should be of high backup and recovery speed The cost should fit into your established budget. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 57
  58. 58. The types of backup solutions available in the marketare removable disks, DAT (Digital audio tapes)drives, Tape drives, Magnetic optical drives, Diskdrives, Tape juke boxes and Auto-loader tapesystems. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 58
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  60. 60. Tips#1 Data Backup Plan Think of the place where your data backup is kept. Do not keep backups in basements if you live in an area that flood. In case of a natural disaster like earthquake, is it possible to get your data? An online or offsite backup could just work for you. To protect against theft, fire and other disasters, store a full data backup in a separate location. Quarterly and yearly backups are essential for critical data. Tip#2 Start a Backup Routine Schedule daily data backups Do backups yourself Backup your critical data A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 60
  61. 61. Tip#3 Customize data backup strategy to meet your needs Determine the frequency of your data change in order to determine a backup schedule. Data that changes every hour should be scheduled for a several backups in a day whereas those that change every week require daily backups. Have at least three separate data backups. Supplement full data backups with incremental backups which are quicker and also only backs up changed files since a full backup was last done. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 61
  62. 62. Tip#4 Test Backup RegularlyIn order to ensure that backups will work well in case of adisaster or data loss, it needs to be tested periodically. Youcan also attempt restoration of backup to a different locationto test whether it works and can protect you. You will beable to determine any corrupt data or any flaws and fix themin time. You can also use backup reports and logs todetermine any files that have been skipped, errors or anyproblems that might have occurred.Tip#5 Two Separate Backup LocationsFor total protection of your data, you should have threecopies of your data: the original copy, a backup that is easyto access and another protected backup. An online databackup service can be used to keep the protected backupcopy. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 62
  63. 63. PreparationPreparing in advance for a disaster can facilitate datarecovery process in case of one. The use of computersincrease daily hence the risk associated with storage systemfailure and data loss. A disaster recovery policy shouldincorporate data losses such as malicious or accidentaldeletion of data, power failure, corruption of data, fireoutbreaks, theft, viruses, failure of hard disk and naturaldisasters such as earthquakes and floods among others. Adisaster contingency plan should incorporate businessprocesses that are critical to the organization. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 63
  64. 64. You should also consider general disaster risk assessmentto involve customer, monetary, regulatory and legalexposures and dependencies interdepartmental level. For afull-scale backup restore operation that ensures theobjectives of recovery time, a disaster recovery plan shouldalso incorporate data freshness window and recovery.I/O and network topology technology does not keep pacewith set data sizes and CPU performances technology thatdoubles every eighteen months. The main objective ofdisaster recovery implementation architecture is to decreasethe capacity of data to be transmitted while the overall datarate is improved. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 64
  65. 65. Need determination Depending on your system architecture and the operating system running on your systems, consider the following questions. What failure scenarios are likely to occur? What data should I consider critical? How frequent should backup be scheduled to take place? When should a full, incremental or differential backup be scheduled to take place? Will backup be scheduled to take place automatically or manually? How is a successful backup verified? A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 65
  66. 66.  How are useful backups determined? How long will the backup be saved before the medium is reused? How long will last backup restoration take? Where will the backup storage media be kept? Will authorized personnel be allowed to access backup storage media for restorations? In the absence of the system administrator, what will be the source of backup procedures and system password acquisition and in case performing restoration is necessary? Is there a disaster recovery policy in place that can incorporate the above? A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 66
  67. 67. Practices That are Recommended When developing a disaster recovery plan, you should consider the following: Backup and restoration procedures should be developed using the appropriate personnel and resources. To ensure that data can be recovered in a timely manner, you need to test the procedures. To avoid catastrophic failures, you need to back up the whole system volume. To prevent security information and user accounting from loss, backup the active directory. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 67
  68. 68.  For faster granular file restorations, all available logs should be backed up. Keep three backup copies in storage media with one kept in an environment that is controlled at an off-site location. Verify if backups are proper and successful by performing trial restorations periodically. Put precautions in place to ensure that nobody else restores data to the wrong servers. Detailed system component descriptions should be maintained to help in case of hardware failures that are very severe that calls for system replacement or rebuild. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 68
  69. 69. The descriptions should contain system components like tape drive, drives, IRQ, Network card configuration, memory, CPU, Video mode settings, SCSI configuration, DMA and I/O among other components. A list of current patches that are installed on every system environment should be maintained and OEM specific drivers, patches, Net Vault and O/S media used for distribution should be readily available. Maintain each system configuration profile that is up to date and should include machine names, network settings (TCP/IP configurations), account and domain information, layouts of disk partitions, sizes of partitions, disk configurations, installed O/S patches and partition system file format type. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 69
  70. 70. System Crash Restoration You should first determine the cause of data loss in case of system failure and repair it before restoration takes place. In case of a disaster, system rebuilds or repair is done. Restoration of a repaired system that was damaged should include the following steps: The O/S is re-installed. OEM drivers are installed. O/S patches are installed. Net Vault Client is installed. Net vault patches are installed. Data is restored. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 70
  71. 71. Restoration of Net Vault Server The O/S is re-installed. OEM drivers are installed. O/S patches are installed. Net Vault Server is installed. Net Vault patches are installed. Net Vault devices are configured. Net Vault database is scanned in the tape that contains it. Net vault database restoration. Data restoration. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 71
  72. 72. A data recovery plan should be created by the wholeorganization or company and not just an IT department ordata centre to make it a corporate-wide plan. It is a longterm project that should include logbooks, operatingprocedures that are standardized, a scheduled tape backuprotation that is reliable, problem isolation procedures anddata flow diagrams. It will facilitate the isolation ofapplication bugs, lessen support personnel andrequirements, lessen mistakes made during operations aswell as a general system and application that are easier tomaintain. Net Vault software for network backup andrestore provides a data insurance policy that is the simplestand fastest.Data recovery can be done either manually or scheduled totake place at a designated time and day. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 72
  73. 73. The Author of this eBook is a prominent and a leadingprivate Investigator Singapore and worldwide. He hasworked in this industry for so many years and earnedhimself a lot of respect, experience and a good reputation.Though he is knowledgeable in investigative cases, he alsohas skills and knowledge in data recovery. He took his timeto write this eBook because data loss is something thatoccurs on a daily basis without giving warning signs henceinevitable. Individuals and companies lose millions ofdollars everyday due to data losses hence it is important toinvest in a backup and data recovery procedure andmanagement plan. Many people are looking for informationfrom someone with hands on experience in data recovery.The eBook basically covers everything one might want toknow about data loss, data recovery and preventivemeasures to avoid data loss. A Leading Private Detective Singapore & Worldwide 73