International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention
ISSN (Online): 2319 – 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 7714
Rural Poverty Alleviation… 40 | P a g e
females (Census, India, 2011). There are 7(seven) scheduled castes ...
Rural Poverty Alleviation… 41 | P a g e
3.1 Introd...
Rural Poverty Alleviation… 42 | P a g e
The results of the Paired “t” test in the Table suggests that P-val...
Rural Poverty Alleviation… 43 | P a g e
State government is giving a lot of emphasis to these poverty allev...
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International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)


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International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI) is an international journal intended for professionals and researchers in all fields of Humanities and Social Science. IJHSSI publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field Humanities and Social Science, new teaching methods, assessment, validation and the impact of new technologies and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. The publications of papers are selected through double peer reviewed to ensure originality, relevance, and readability. The articles published in our journal can be accessed online.

The Journal will bring together leading researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. Topics of interest for submission include, but are not limited to

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International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)

  1. 1. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 – 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 7714 Volume 2 Issue 9 ǁ September. 2013ǁ PP.39-43 39 | P a g e Rural Poverty Alleviation Programmes: A Study Of Mgnrega In Manipur M. Sanjoy Singh 1 , Kh. Tomba Singh2 1 Department Of Commerce, Manipur University, India 2 Department Of Commerce, Manipur University, India ABSTRACT : Manipur live in village out of total population 27.2 lakhs of the state in 2011, 74.89% were living in the villages while only 5.76 lakhs people is constitute 25.11% of the total population live in the urban areas. Since Independence rural employment has been the prime agenda of debate in the country as 74% of the unemployed population hails from rural India. For the pat 3 (three) decade India has been implementing rural employment generating programmes. The Govt. of India, therefore, has always been making effort to restructure the lives of unskilled labour by creating infrastructure and establishing institutional setup for removal of the property in rural area (Mukherjee, 2008). To achieve this aforeside objective, the Govt. has implemented many rural development schemes such as the SGSY (Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana), IAY (Indira Awaas Yojana), PMGY (Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana), PMGSY (Pradhan Mantri Gram Shadak Yojana) etc. But this programme could not bear the desired reasons due to inconsistency between scheme aims, poor quality of asset creation, lack of resources and manipulation of the record. To overcome this problem the present paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the implementation of MGNREGA in Thoubal District of Manipur. For this purposed primary and secondary data has been committed questioners was used for collecting the data. KEY WORDS : Rural employment, development, Schemes, Infrastructure, MGNREGA, etc. I. INTRODUCTION The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005, (MGNREGA) was enacted on 7th September 2005 as “ An Act to provide for the enhancement of livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of Guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household”. The Act has come into force with effect from February, 2006 in 200 districts initially and later on extended to all the rural districts of India from the financial year 2008-09. Salient feature of the Act is to improve the quality of life of rural households who are vulnerable to out-migration in search of daily wage employment by channelising the wage workforce towards developmental activities at the village level itself. The objectives of MGNREGA are: a) providing wage employment opportunities, b) Creating sustainable rural livelihoods through regeneration of the natural resource base i.e. augmenting productivity and supporting creation of durable assets, c) Strengthening rural governance through decentralisation and processes of transparency and accountability (GoI, 2010). total population enhancement in the quality of the life of the economically weaker sections of the society has been one of the basic objectives of development planning of the state. In Manipur, MGNREGA was formerly launched on 13th April, 2006 at District Headquarter of Tamenglong by distribution Job Cards to registered applicants by the Hon‟ble Chief Minister of Manipur. Now, all the remaining district of Manipur, have been implemented. The scheme is implemented through collaborative partnership right from Grama Sabha to Central Government Community participation by way of (i) Grama Sabha, (ii) local vigilance & monitoring committees, and (iii) Self Help Groups (SHGs), and ensures active role by Civil Society Organisations. At official level, the scheme was embedded with inbuilt monitoring & evaluation mechanism at every layer of implementation including online monitoring through Monitoring and Information System (MIS). This programme ensure minimum wage to rural workers and enable them to acquired assets and income through self-employment ventures (GoM, 2010). II. BRIEF PROFILE AND ACTIVITIES OF MGNREGA IN THOUBAL DISTRICT, MANIPUR Spread over a geographical area of 22,327 sq. kms, Manipur is home to about 27.2 lakhs people, who live in 0.7 percent of the total land surface of India. Population of Manipur constitute nearly 0.22 percent of the total population of India. Ninety percent of the total geographical area of the state i.e. 20,089, is covered by hills, the remaining areas is small valley covering only 2,238 sq. kms and accounting for only one-tenth of the total area of the state. Out of the population of the state, 13.6 lakhs were males and the rest 13.5 lakhs were
  2. 2. Rural Poverty Alleviation… 40 | P a g e females (Census, India, 2011). There are 7(seven) scheduled castes communities and 33(thirty three) different scheduled tribes of different ethnic groups presenting complicated socio-economic phenomena. There is apparent disparity in the level of income and consumption between the rich and the poor, between the urban elite and the rural poor, between the have and have note and between the public living in the hills and in the valley. Majority of the population in the hill region are scheduled tribes while the valley is in habited mainly by the Meeteis, Muslim etc. An agriculture sector has a vital place in the economy of the state. It contributes a major share to the state domestic product 52.19 percent of the workers in Manipur are engaged as cultivators and agriculture in the state mainly depends on timely rainfall and weather conditions (Economics & Statistics, Manipur 2010). Thoubal district is situated on the eastern half of the Manipur Valley. It is bounded on the north by Imphal district, on the east by Ukhrul and Chandel districts, on the south by Chandel and Churachandpur districts and on the west by the districts of Imphal and Bishnupur. It has an area of 514 sq. kms. The average elevation is not much different from the rest of Manipur valley, about 790 meters on an average above the sea level. Although the district is a part of the valley, the landscape of the district is not entirely plain. The Indo- Myanmar Friendship Road that leads to Myanmar (Burma) via Moreh and Tammu runs through the district. Administrative Division of the district has three sub-divisions - Lilong, Thoubal and Kakching. There are two revenue circles in the district viz. Kakching and Waikhong. The district has community development blocks one in each sub-division, Thoubal and Kakching are Municipality towns (Census Manipur, 2011). 2..1 MGNREG programmes and beneficiaries assisted in the district The survey of the sample villages showed that in the villages, development programmes in education are being implemented; of which 5 are govt. sponsored and the rest are run by NGOs. In eight villages programmes on nutrition are in progress and of these five are being implemented by govt. and in three villages the programmes are implemented by an NGO with foreign collaboration. Govt. sponsored family planning programmes are in progress in seven sample villages. As revealed from the survey, majority of the population in the villages are reported to use unsafe sources of drinking water and in nine villages programmes on drinking water supply are in progress. In respect of implementation of beneficiary oriented programmes in the course of last three years, the results of the villages survey shows that majority of the beneficiaries were assisted under MGNREGA, SGSY, PMGSY and IAY. The religion wise break-up of beneficiary status across various programmes reveals that majority of the beneficiaries in respect of MGNREGA, SGSY and IAY are Hindus. However, in respect of PMGSY, the SC and Muslim households from the sample villages have a higher coverage. The total number of 13.45 lakh mandays were generated during the year 2009-10 in respect of Thoubal District and number of Women contribution were 5.37 lakh mandays. Generally the district has low population of SC & ST. Hence the numbers of persondays generated by SC & ST during the year were 0.21 lakhs and 0.321 lakhs respectively. Total fund of Rs. 1645.50 lakhs has been received by the district during the year 2009-10. Out of this a sum of Rs. 1617.66 was expended during the year under the scheme. 25 days of wage employment were provided in the year 2009- 10 in the district (GoM, 2010). Table no. 1 : Work activities taken up during the Financial Year 2009-10 are Sl. No Work Activities Completed Works (in numbers) 1 Water Conservation & Harvesting 37 2 Drought Proofing 3 3 Micro Irrigation 84 4 Land owned by SC/ST/IAY - 5 Renovation of traditional Water Bodies 5 6 Land Development 38 7 Flood control and protection 14 8 Rural Connectivity 156 9 Any other activities approved by MoRD - 10 TOTAL 337 Out of the completed Works rural connectivity activities has been the great majority of completed number of works, Micro Irrigation, land development and water conservation etc.
  3. 3. Rural Poverty Alleviation… 41 | P a g e III. MGNREGA IN MANIPUR AND KAKCHING BLOCK IN PARTICULAR 3.1 Introduction Apart from providing livelihood to millions of households, over the last five years, the Act has become a significant vehicle for strengthening grass root level democratic processes and regeneration of India‟s depleting natural resource base. The organizational activity within the village is an important determinant of overall socio-economic development. The data show that at the village level, the organizational activities are more oriented towards activities other than industrial and production related works. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005 is landmark legislation in Indian history of social security legislation after independence. Enacted after a successful struggle for an employment guarantee legislation, this legislation is a partial victory towards a full‐fledged right to employment in any developing country context. The essential feature of this legislation which separates it from any other public service provisioning scheme is its enactment through the parliament of India. Read with the Right to Information Act, this legislation has been bringing about a silent revolution in rural areas of the country. By design, it is different from any employment generation scheme that has been previously implemented. Over the past four-decade a number of studies have apperead on NREGA such as Paul, Kakali (2006), Ravindar, Dhankar (2011), Dreze J and Khera R (2009), Kar, Anirban (2009), Shylendra (2004), Keishnaraj M (2005) and Jonathan R (1998) are reviewed for the purpose of present study. From the review of literature, it is revealed that the overall quality of life of people views and feed-back of the beneficiaries on various faucets of implementation of the scheme at grass root level right from the stage of issue of job cards, no. of days worked, wages received and the due payments. 3.2 The objectives of the study 1. To review the current status of implementation of MGNREGA in the district of Thoubal. 2. To generate awareness among the community. 3. To examine the impact of the programmes on the beneficiaries in terms of changes in occupational status, income and employment. 4. To examine the role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and other implementing institutions in the implementation of programmes. 3.3 Research Methodology Data collection and Analysis: The study is descriptive in nature. It is based on Primary as well as Secondary data which are collected from beneficiaries, PRIs and local bodies. The primary data collected with the help of questionnaires from the beneficiaries, the total sample size of the study was 180 respondents. The secondary data were collected from the Govt. Publications and reports, (published as well as unpublished) of all the agencies functioning at the district, State and Central levels. The data was processed in SPSS – 16 for analysis which is the most appropriate techniques and statistical techniques like paired t- test was used for analysing the data. 3.4 Scope of the study The evaluation of the Study of MGNREGA in the selected village of Manipur namely, Hiyanglam G.P Keirak G.P & Hayen Hangoon G.P under Kakching Block, Thoubal District, Manipur State. IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Table no. 2: Paired “t” test Results of the MGNREGA beneficiaries Paired Statistics Age Income MGNREGA 2007-2008 Mean 45.111 2.4778 Std. Deviation 11.07763 1.02186 Observation 180 180 Pearson Correlation -.062 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 DF 179 P(T two-tail 51.125 95% Confidence Interval Lower Upper 40.9878 44.2789
  4. 4. Rural Poverty Alleviation… 42 | P a g e The results of the Paired “t” test in the Table suggests that P-value of the test is 51.125 which is greater than level of significance i.e 0.05, means there is no significance between age of the beneficiaries and level of MGNREGA income. Table no. 3 Paired “t” test Results of the MGNREGA beneficiaries Paired Statistics Age Income MGNREGA 2008-2009 Mean 45.111 2.8556 Std. Deviation 11.07763 1.10419 Observation 180 180 Pearson Correlation -.054 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 DF 179 P(T two-tail 50.655 95% Confidence Interval Lower Upper 40.6095 43.9016 The results of the Paired “t” test in the Table suggests that P-value of the test is 50.655 which is greater than level of significance i.e 0.05, means there is no significance between age of the beneficiaries and level of MGNREGA income. Table no.4 Paired “t” test Results of the MGNREGA beneficiaries Paired Statistics Age Income MGNREGA 2009-2010 Mean 45.111 3.1944 Std. Deviation 11.07763 1.14870 Observation 180 180 Pearson Correlation -.039 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 DF 179 P(T two-tail 50.297 95% Confidence Interval Lower Upper 40.2721 43.5612 The results of the Paired “t” test in the Table suggests that P-value of the test is 50.297 which is greater than level of significance i.e 0.05, means null hypothesis will be accepted so there is no significance between age of the beneficiaries and level of MGNREGA income.The improvement of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme income, as well as the positive change in the lives of the villagers is attributed to the society. It has allow the people in rural areas to undertaken activities like water conservation, drought proofing, micro irrigation, renovation of traditional water bodies, land development, flood control and protection, rural connectivity etc. in their own villages. The villagers are interesting such poverty alleviation programme, are daily wagers, who work in various construction side in Kakching block, Thoubal District V. CONCLUSION Under the scheme 326.66 lakhs person days have been generated in the 9(nine) districts of the year 2009-2010. The total availability of fund during the year, 2009-2010 is Rs. 44904.97 lakhs out of which Rs 43570.30 lakhs have been expended. The total no of households issued job cards is 426582. The unskilled daily wage is fixed at Rs. 81.40. Most of the poverty alleviation programmes have designed the objectives to help the currently poverty line. Important reasons into poverty are a large expenditure on sickness and beyond capacity expenses, rural connectivity, drought proofing, irrigation facilities and other social ceremonies. Being closer to rural people are expected to prove quite effective in popularisation of such schemes. It is to be noted that the government should also receive due attention in rural development and poverty alleviation programmes. . The people of the area are backward and poor which will be a new hope for the livelihood of the rural people in the near future. The central and
  5. 5. Rural Poverty Alleviation… 43 | P a g e State government is giving a lot of emphasis to these poverty alleviation programmes to help the poor. The government thrust seems to be in the right direction. As per the guidelines the beneficiaries have to be selected from the BPL families. But the Panchayat members select their own members. The beneficiaries do not know the details of schemes. Hence it is suggested that the guidelines should necessarily be kept in the village meetings. Further it should be made known to all that they need not approach any middlemen/village leader to get selected as a beneficiary under any scheme by paying some amount of them. In the study villages there were several complaints of under or non payment of wage in these villages. These leads to compromises in both the quality of public works and the unemployment created. The burden of the distortions in the programmes ultimately fell on the potential employment and earnings of the labourers. One of the important areas which was need to be considered in the nature of the administration and financial supervision which the panchayats require. Official associated with such programmes should be made more accountable and aware. Activities of the programmes on rural development should be highly co ordinate to avoid waste of fund. Political interface should be kept at minimum. Rural people should be made more aware to take up such programmes. Hence, rural poverty was to solved the rural problems and through development process and through community participation by creating awareness among the beneficiaries of the society. Thus the only solution lies within the rural population itself with their commitment, challenges and capacity to utilise all the government policies successfully and transparently. REFERENCES [1] Drèze, Jean and Reetika Khera, The Battle for Employment Guarantee, Frontline, Vol 26, No 1, 3-16 January. – (2008): “From Acconts to Accountability”, The Hindu, 6 December 2009. [2] GoM., Annual administrative report, Department of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj,. 2010, 12-13. [3] GoI, Provisional Census. Publications office of the Registrar General, Directorate of Census operation, Manipur. 2011. [4] GoI, Mid-term Appraisal of the Tenth Five Year Plan, Planning Commission.2005. [5] GoM ,. Annual Report : Department of Rural Development, Imhal, 2010. [6] GoM.. Annual Report, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Manipur, 2010. [7] GoM. Annual Survey of MGNREGS: Kakching Block ‟DRDA, Thoubal, 2010. [8] GoM.Administrative office, DRDA, Thoubal, 2010. [9] GOI,. Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007): Sectoral Policies and Programmes, Vol. II. New Delhi: Planning Commission, 2008. [10] Kar, A Employment Guarantee, Women‟s Work and Childcare, Economic & Political Weekly, (43) 9, 1 March, 2009, 10-13. [11] Keishnaraj, Maithreyi, “Growth and rural Poverty”, Economic and political weekly, 2005, September 21. [12] Kesselman, Jonathan R. “Work Relief Programs in the Great Depression." In Creating Jobs: Public Employment Programs and Wage Subsidies, J. L. Palmer (ed.) Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1998. [13] Mukherjee, Anit and Bandyopadhyay, K.R., „Rethinking Rural Poverty Alleviation‟, an opinion piece i Mahajan, V., Dikshit, M. and Rao, K., “Overview.” In State of India’s Livelihoods: The 4p Report, ed. D. Sankar and S. Vipin, 15-38. New Delhi: Access Development the column, „From the Ivory Tower‟, Financial Express, May 2008. [14] Pandian M,“Employment and Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India an Appraisal”, New Delhi, Dominant Publishers, 2008,722. [15] Paul, S K & Paul, Kakali., Role of Panchayats towards sustainable Rural Development, Rural Development and Environment: Delhi. Deep & Deep Publication. Pvt. Ltd. 2006. [16] Ravi, Shamika and Monika Engler Workfare in Low Income Countries: An Effective Way to Fight Poverty?, The Case of the NREGS in India, Preliminary draft, 2009. [17] Ravindra, Dhankar, Current updates from (Jan 2010 to March 2011),Indian Economy,. Dhankar Publication, Meerut 2011,165- 170. [18] Shylendra, „The Emerging Governance Paradigm and its Implication for Poverty Alleviation and Equity‟, Anand: Institute of Rural Management, 2004, 182.