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International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention (IJMSI) is an international journal intended for professionals and researchers in all fields of computer science and electronics. IJMSI publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field Mathematics and Statistics, new teaching methods, assessment, validation and the impact of new technologies and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. The publications of papers are selected through double peer reviewed to ensure originality, relevance, and readability. The articles published in our journal can be accessed online.

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### D02402033039

1. 1. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention (IJMSI) E-ISSN: 2321 – 4767 P-ISSN: 2321 - 4759 www.ijmsi.org Volume 2 Issue 4 || April. 2014 || PP-33-39 www.ijmsi.org 33 | P a g e Coupled Fixed Point Theorems in S-metric Spaces Ajay Singh1 , Nawneet Hooda2 1, 2, (Department of Mathematics, DCRUST, Murthal, Sonepat, Haryana, India ABSTRACT : The aim of this paper is to establish some coupled fixed point results in S-metric space which are the generlaizations of some fixed point theorems in metric spaces [6]. MSC: 47H10, 54H25 KEYWORDS - Coupled fixed point, mixed monotone property, S-metric space, ICS property. I. INTRODUCTION In 1922, the Polish mathematicians, Banach, proved a theorem which ensures, under approiate conditions, the existence and uniqueness of fixed point. This result is called Banach’s fixed point theorem or Banach contraction principle. Many authors extend this principle in different ways and imporoved it. Bahaskar and Lakshikanthamin [1] introduced the concept of coupled fixed point of a mapping and proved some coupled fixed point results in partially ordered metric spaces. After that many result are obtained by several authors. Mustafa and Sims [4] introduced the concept of generalized metric space called G-metric space. Now, recently Sedghi et al. [3] have introduced the notion of S-metric spaces as the generalization of G-metric and * D -metric spaces. After this they proved some fixed point theorems in S-metric spaces. After that several authors obtained many result on S-metric space. II. PRELIMINARIES Definition 1 ([3]). Let X be a nonempty set. An S-metric on X is a function 3 : [0, )S X   that satisfies the following conditions, for each , , ,x y z a X . (i) ( , , ) 0S x y z  (ii) ( , , ) 0S x y z  if and only if x y z  (iii) ( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , )S x y z S x x a S y y a S z z a   Then the pair ( , )X S is called an S-metric space. Definition 2 ([1]). Let ( , )X  be a partially ordered set and :F X X X  be a mapping. F is said to have the mixed monotone property if ( , )F x y is monotone non-decreasing in x and is monotone non- increasing in y , that is, for any ,x y X , 1 2 1 2( , ) ( , )x x F x y F x y   , for 1 2,x x X and 1 2 2 1( , ) ( , )y y F x y F x y   , for 1 2,y y X . Definition 3 ([1]). An element ( , )x y X X  is said to be a coupled fixed point of the mapping :F X X X  if ( , )F x y x and ( , )F y x y . For further definition see [7-10]. Definition 4. Let ( , )X d be a metric space. A mapping :T X X is said to be ICS if T is injective, continuous and has the property: for every sequence { }nx in X , if { }nTx is convergent then { }nx is also convergent. Let  be the set of all functions :[0,1) [0,1)  such that
2. 2. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems in S-metric Spaces www.ijmsi.org 34 | P a g e (i)  is non-decreasing, (ii) ( )t t  for all 0t  , (iii) lim ( ) r t r t   for all 0t  . Definition 5 ([1]). Let ( , )X  be a partially ordered set equipped with a metric S such that ( , )X S is a metric space. Further, equip the product space X X with the following partial ordering: for ( , ),( , )x y u v X X  , define ( , ) ( , ) ,u v x y x u y v    . Theorem 1. Let ( , )X  be a partially ordered set and suppose there is a metric S on X such that ( , )X S is complete S-metric space. Suppose :T X X is an ICS mapping and :F X X X  is such that F has the mixed monotone property. Assume that there exists    such that ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) (max{ ( , , ), ( , , )})S TF x y TF x y TF u v S Tx Tx Tu S Ty Ty Tv (1) for any , , ,x y u v X for which x u , v y . Suppose either (a) F is continuous or (b) X has the following property: (i) if non-decreasing sequence nx x , then nx x for all n . (ii) if non-increasing sequence ny y , then ny y for all n . If there exist 0 0,x y X such that 0 0 0( , )x F x y , 0 0 0( , )y F y x , then there exist ,x y X such that ( , )F x y x , ( , )F y x y that is F has a coupled fixed point. Proof. Let 0 0,x y X such that 0 0 0( , )x F x y and 0 0 0( , )y F y x . Define 1 0 0( , )x F x y , 1 0 0( , )y F y x (2) Like this, we can construct sequences { }nx and { }ny in X such that 1 ( , )n n nx F x y  , and 1 ( , )n n ny F y x  (3) Since F has the mixed monotone property, so it is easy that 1n nx x  , 1n ny y  for 0,1,2,...n  Let for some n N , we take 1n nx x  or 1n ny y  then form (3), F has the coupled fixed point. Let if possible, for any n N , 1n nx x  or 1n ny y  . (4) Since T is injective, then for any n N , by (4) 1 10 max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}n n n n n nS Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty  (5) Using (1) and (3), we get 1 1 1 1 1( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )}n n n n n n n n nS Tx Tx Tx S TF x y TF x y TF x y     .  1 1 1 1max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}n n n n n nS Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty     (6) Also 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( , , ) ( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )} max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n S Ty Ty Ty S Ty Ty Ty S TF y x TF y x TF y x S Ty Ty Ty S Tx Tx Tx           . Also, we are given that ( )t t  for all 0t  , so from (6) and (7), we set       1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty               (8) This shows that
3. 3. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems in S-metric Spaces www.ijmsi.org 35 | P a g e 1 1 1 1 1 1max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}n n n n n n n n n n n nS Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty      Thus  1 1max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}n n n n n nS Tx Tx Tx S Ty y y  is a positive decreasing sequence, so there exist 0r  such that 1 1lim max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}n n n n n n n S Tx Tx Tx S Ty y y r    Assume that 0r  . Letting n   in (8), we get  1 1 1 10 lim max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}n n n n n n n r S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty        lim ( ) t r t r    (9) which is a contradiction, so we deduce that 1 1lim max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} 0n n n n n n n S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty    (10) Now, we shall prove that { }nTx and { }nTy are Cauchy sequences. Suppose, on the contrary, { }nTx or { }nTy is not a Cauchy sequences, that is, , lim ( , , ) 0m m n n m S Tx Tx Tx   or , lim ( , , ) 0m m n n m S Ty Ty Ty   This means that there exist 0  for which we can find subsequences of integers ( )km and ( )kn with k kn m k  such that max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}k k k k k km m n m m nS Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty  (11) Again correspoidng to km we can find kn in such a way that it is the smallest integers with k kn m and satisfying (11). Then 1 1max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}k k k k k km m n m m nS Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty    (12) with the help of triangular inequality and (12), we get 1 1 1( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , ) 0 0 k k k k k k k k k k k km m n m m m m m m n n mS Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx          . Thus by (10), we get lim ( , , )k k km m n k S Tx Tx Tx    (13) Similarly, we get lim ( , , )k k km m n k S Ty Ty Ty    (14) Also, 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 ( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , ) 2 ( , , ) k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k m m n m m m m m m n n m m m m S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx                      Using (10), we get 1 1 2lim ( , , )k k km m n k S Tx Tx Tx      (15) Similarly, we get 1 1 2lim ( , , )k k km m m k S Ty Ty Ty      (16) Using (11) and (13)-(16), we get 1 1 1 1 1 1 lim max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} lim max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} k k k k k k k k k k k k m m n m m n n m m n m m n n S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty            (17) Now, by inequality (1), we get 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) [max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}] k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k m m n m m m m n n m m n m m n S Tx Tx Tx S TF x y TF x y TF x y S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty               (18)
4. 4. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems in S-metric Spaces www.ijmsi.org 36 | P a g e and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) [max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}] k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k m m n m m m m n n m m n m m n S Ty Ty Ty S TF y x TF y x TF y x S Ty Ty Ty S Tx Tx Tx               (19) Now, by (18) and (19), we obtain that 1 1 1 1 1 1 max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} [max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}] k k k k k k k k k k k k m m n m m n m m n m m n S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty       (20) Assuming k   , in (20), and using (17), we obtain 0 lim ( ) t t         which is a contradiction. Hence { }nTx and { }nTy are Cauchy sequences in ( , )X S . Since X is complete S- metric space, { }nTx and { }nTy are convergent sequences. Since T is an ICS mapping, there exist ,x y X such that lim n n x x   and lim n n y y   (21) Sicne T is continuous, we get lim n n Tx Tx   and lim n n Ty Ty   (22) Now, assume that the assumption (a) holds, that is F is continuous. By (3), (21) and (22) we have 1lim lim ( , ) lim , lim ( , ) n n n n n n n n n x x F x y F x y F x y             and 1lim lim ( , ) lim , lim ( , ) n n n n n n n n n y y F y x F y x F y x             Thus we have show that F has a coupled fixed point. Suppose, now the assumption (b) holds. Since { }nx is non decreasing with nx x and also { }ny is non increasing with ny y . Then by assumption (b), we get nx x and ny y for all n . Now, 1 1 1 1 1 ( , , ( , )) ( , , ) ( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ) 2 ( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) 2 ( , , ) (max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}) n n n n n n n n n S Tx Tx TF x y S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx S TF x y TF x y Tx S Tx Tx Tx S TF x y TF x y TF x y S Tx Tx Tx S Tx Tx Tx S Ty Ty Ty             taking lim n and using (22), right hand side of this inequality is equal to zero. Hence ( , , ( , )) 0S Tx Tx TF x y  . So ( , )Tx TF x y and sine T is injective so ( , )x F x y . Similarly, we can show that ( , )y F y x . Thus, we have shown F has a coupled fixed point in X . Corollary 1. Let ( , )X  be a partially ordered set and suppose those is a metric S on X such that ( , )X S is a complete S-metric space. Suppose :T X X is an ICS mapping and :F X X X  is such that F has the mixed monotone property. Assume that there exists    such that
5. 5. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems in S-metric Spaces www.ijmsi.org 37 | P a g e ( , , ) ( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) 2 S Tx Tx Tu S Ty Ty Tv S TF x y TF x y TF u v        for any , , ,x y u v X for which x u and v y . Suppose either (a) F is continuous or (b) X has the following properties: (i) if non-decreasing sequence nx x , then nx x for all n . (ii) if non-increasing sequence ny y , then ny y for all n . If there exist 0 0,x y X such that 0 0 0( , )x F x y and 0 0 0( , )F y x y then there exist ,x y X such that ( , )F x y x and ( , )F y x y , that is F has a coupled fixed point. Proof. If can be easily shown as ( , , ) ( , , ) max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} 2 S Tx Tx Tu S Ty Ty Tv S Tx Tx Tu S Ty Ty Tv   . Then apply Theorem 1, because that  is non-decreasing. Corollary 2. Let ( , )X  be a partially ordered set and suppose that there is a metric S on X such that ( , )X S is a complete S-metric space. Suppose :T X X is an ICS mapping and :F X X X  is such that F has the mixed monotone property. Assume that there exist [0,1)k  such that ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}S TF x y TF x y TF u v k S Tx Tx Tu S Ty Ty Tv for any , , ,x y u v X for which x u and v y . Suppose either (a) F is continuous or (b) X has the following properties: (i) if non-decreasing sequence nx x , then nx x for all n . (ii) if non-decreasing sequence ny y , then ny y for all n . If there exist 0 0,x y X such that 0 0 0( , )x F x y and 0 0 0( , )F y x y then there exist ,x y X such that ( , )F x y x and ( , )F y x y , that is F has a coupled fixed point. Proof. It follows by ( )t kt  in Theorem 1. Corollary 3. Let ( , )X  be a partially ordered set and suppose that there is a metric S on X such that ( , )X S is a complete S-metric on X . Suppose :T X X is an ICS mapping and :F X X X  is such that F has the mixed monotone property. Assume that there exist [0,1)k  such that ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) ( ( , , ), ( , , )) 3 k S TF x y TF x y TF u v S Tx Tx Tu S Ty Ty Tv for any , , ,x y u v X for which x u and v y . Suppose either (a) F is continuous or (b) X has the following properties:
6. 6. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems in S-metric Spaces www.ijmsi.org 38 | P a g e (i) if non-decreasing sequence nx x , then nx x for all n . (ii) if non-increasing sequence ny y , then ny y for all n . If there exist 0 0,x y X such that 0 0 0( , )x F x y and 0 0 0( , )F y x y then there exist ,x y X such that ( , )F x y x and ( , )F y x y , that is F has a coupled fixed point. Proof. It follows by ( )t kt  in Theorem 1. Theorem 2. In addition to the condition of Theorem 1, suppose that for all ( , ),( , )x y u v X X  , there exist ( , )a b X X  such that ( ( , ), ( , ))F a b F b a is comparable to ( ( , ), ( , ))F x y F y x and ( ( , ), ( , ))F u v F v u then F has a unique coupled fixed point ( , )x y . Proof. We know that the set of coupled fixed poit of F is not empty by Theorem 1. Suppose, now ( , )x y and ( , )u v are two coupled fixed point of F , that is ( , )F x y x ; ( , )F y x y and ( , )F u v u , ( , )F v u v . We shall prove that ( , )x y and ( , )u v are equal. By our supositon there exist ( , )a b X X  such that ( ( , ), ( , ))F a b F b a is comparable to ( ( , ), ( , ))F x y F y x and ( ( , ), ( , ))F u v F v u . Now construct sequences { }na and { }nb such that 0a a , 0b b and for any 1n  . 1 1( , )n n na F a b  , 1 1( , )n n nb F b a  for all n (23) Again set 0x x , 0y y and 0u u , 0v v and on the same way construct the sequence { }nx , { }ny , { }nu and { }nv . Then ( , ), ( , ), ( , ), ( , )n n n nx F x y y F y x u F u v v F v u    for all 1n  (24) Since 1 1( ( , ), ( , )) ( , ) ( , )F x y F y x x y x y  is comparable to 1 1( ( , ), ( , )) ( , )F a b F b a a b then it is easy to show 1 1( , ) ( , )x y a b . Similarly, we have that ( , ) ( , )n nx y a b for all n (25) From (25) and (1), we get 1( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) (max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}) n n n n n S Tx Tx Ta S TF x y TF x y TF a b S Tx Tx Ta S Ty Ty Tb    (26) and 1 1 1( , , ) ( , , ) ( ( , ), ( , ), ( , )) (max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}) n n n n n n n n n n n S Ty Ty Tb S Tb Tb Ty S TF b a TF b a TF y x S Tb Tb Ty S Ta Ta Tx      (27) It follows, from (26) and (27), that 1 1{( , , ), ( , , )} [max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}]n n n nTx Tx Ta S Ty Ty Tb S Tx Tx Ta S Ty Ty Tb    So for all 1n  0 0max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} max{ ( , , ), ( , , )}n n nS Tx Tx Ta S Ty Ty Tb S Tx Tx Ta S Ty Ty Tb (28) But we know that ( )t t  and lim ( ) r t r t   implies lim ( ) 0n n t   for all 0t  .
7. 7. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems in S-metric Spaces www.ijmsi.org 39 | P a g e Hence from (28), we get lim max{ ( , , ), ( , , )} 0n n n S Tx Tx Ta S Ty Ty Tb   This gives lim{ ( , , )} 0n n S Tx Tx Ta   (29) and lim{ ( , , )} 0n n S Ty Ty Tb   (30) Similarly we can show that lim{ ( , , )} 0n n S Tu Tu Ta   (31) and lim{ ( , , )} 0n n S Tv Tv Tb   (32) Adding (29)-(32), we get ( , )Tx Ty and ( , )Tu Tv are equal. The fact that T is injective gives us x u and y v . REFERENCES [1] T. Gnana Bhaskar and V. Lakshmikantham, Fixed point theorems in partially ordered metric spaces and applications, Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications A, 65(7), 2006, 1379-1393. [2] V. Lakshmikantham and L. Ciric, Coupled fixed point theorems for nonlinear contractions in partially ordered metric spaces, Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications A, 70(12), 2009, 4341-4349. [3] S. Sedghi, N. Shobe and A. Aliouche, A generalization of fixed point theorems in S-metric spaces, Mat. Vesnik 64(3), 2012, 258-266. [4] Z. Mustafa and B. Sims, A new approach to generalized metric spaces, Journal of Nonlinear and Convex Analysis, 7 (2), 2006, 289- 297. [5] T.V. An and N.V. Dung, Two fixed point theorems in S-metric spaces, preprint (2012). [6] H. Aydi and E. Karapinar, Triple fixed points in ordered metric spaces, Bulletin of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 4(1), 2012, 197-207. [7] K.P. Chi, On a fixed point theorem for certain class of maps satisfying a contractive condition depended on an another function, Lobachevskii J. Math., 30 (4), 2009, 289-291. [8] K.P. Chi and H.T. Thuy, A fixed point theorem in 2-metric spaces for a class of maps that satisfy a contractive condition dependent on an another function, Lobachevskii J. Math., 31(4), 2010, 338-346. [9] N.V. Luong, N.X. Thuan and T.T. Hai, Coupled fixed point theorems in partially ordered metric spaces depended on another function, Bulletin of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 3 (3), 2011, 129-140. [10] S. Moradi and M. Omid, A fixed point theorem for integral type inequality depending on another function, Int. J. Math. Anal. (Ruse), 4 (29-32), 1491-1499.