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Dynamic composition of virtual network functions in a cloud environment

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Translation of the Bachelor of Science thesis dissertation, for the graduation in Electronics, Computer Science and Telecommunications Engineering.

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Dynamic composition of virtual network functions in a cloud environment

  1. 1. Alma Mater Studiorum - Universit`a di Bologna Dynamic composition of virtual network functions in cloud enviroments Supervisor Prof. Eng. Walter Cerroni Assistant Supervisors Eng. Chiara Contoli Eng. Giuliano Santandrea Candidate Francesco Foresta 3rd March 2015
  2. 2. Summary Introduction Cloud Computing Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) Software Defined Networking (SDN) OpenStack Case Study: Dynamic Service Chaining Network Topology: L2 Level Implementation Measurements Network Topology: L3 Level Implementation Conclusions 2 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  3. 3. Context In the last few years Telecommunications networks infrastructures has been gradually modified networks resources have been moved from the core to the edge of the network itself, as close as possible to the end user (edge networks) it’s expected that in the next future the core networks will be only a combination of high-bandwidth connections between those edge networks In this kind of scenario, it will most likely take place the Cloud Computing paradigm where network resources are offered from a provider to a client as a service in a way which is similar to electricity, telephones, gas, water. 3 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  4. 4. Cloud Computing 4 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  5. 5. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) The application of cloud computing to the edge networks lead up to origin of NFV: The original Internet paradigm is focused on packet forwarding based on IP addresses, but in current IP networks packets are processed in intermediate nodes, called middle-boxes Each middle-box is tipically hardware, expensive and proprietary: vendor lock-in problem: the client is dependant from the provider Internet ossification: complexity of providing new services In 2012 a group part of the ETSI published a white paper: the proposal is to virtualize network functions on general purpose hardware, simplifying middle-boxes 5 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  6. 6. Software Defined Networking (SDN) All those approaches require a certain dinamicity and flexibility at traffic management level: SDN: it’s a new approach to computer networking that allows network administrators to manage network services through abstraction of low-level functionality, standardised by Berkeley and Stanford Universities in 2008 SDN architectures decouple network control and forwarding functions It enables network control to become directly programmable and the underlying infrastructure to be abstracted from applications and network services The OpenFlow protocol lets to communicate network plane with the data plane: it enables remote controllers to determine the path of network packets through switches that made the network 6 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  7. 7. OpenStack It’s an Open Source joint project of Rackspace Cloud and NASA, assisted by more than 200 companies from the IT industry. It allows to manage cloud platforms: these are cluster of physical machines which contains some servers that will be offered as a service to a client, in according to the IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service) paradigm A user can create a virtual network infrastructure (VNI) composed of instances (implemented as virtual machines) and networks appliances (routers, firewalls, etc) in a simple and efficient way 7 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  8. 8. OpenStack: Components and abstractions OS is composed of some components: every component works in a specific area (networking, compute, identity, etc). Neutron (networking) defines these networks abstractions: Network : an isolated L2 network segment; Subnet : an IP address block on a certain network; Port : an attachment point to a network; Router : a gateway between subnets; DHCP : a virtual appliance which gives IP addresses; Security Group : a set of rules used as filters which implements a firewall to the cloud platform level. 8 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  9. 9. How SDN and NFV co-operate 9 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  10. 10. Advantages e Disadvantages of NFV and SDN Network cost reductions in hardware New business opportunities Removed vendor lock-in problem Multi tenancy Added flexibility in network functions and dynamism High scalability Possible loss of performance as the hardware moves from specialized to homogeneous Likely only short term because of expected high innovation in software 10 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  11. 11. Case study: Dynamic Service Chaining We want to realize a network scenario, at L2 and L3 Levels, which implements the NFV and SDN paradigms We are refering to a network services provider which offers connectivity to two users: these contracted different agreements. There are a Residential and a Business Users; the second one requires a better Qos than the first one. The suitable QoS is given by means of virtual network functions implementation: they elaborate user’s traffic while the steering takes place by means of an adequate programming of the SDN controller, applying service chaining mechanisms. 11 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  12. 12. How does it works The edge network containing the two user is built up using OpenStack; outside its cluster there is the destination edge network which can be reached via Virtual Router When a user starts to exchange traffic, initially it will be sent to a Deep Packet Inspector (in order to be classified) and to the destination host After a bit of time traffic will be steered to the related network function in order for the system to give the adequate QoS to each user: WAN Accelerator (implemented by means of Trafficsqueezer) for the BusUser Traffic Shaper (realized with Traffic control) for the ResUser 12 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  13. 13. Topologies: L2 e L3 13 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  14. 14. L2 Level: topology realization 14 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  15. 15. L2 Level: Compute node OpenStack 15 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  16. 16. L2 Level: Network node OpenStack 16 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  17. 17. Implementative L2 Details The source edge network has been built up using the CLI of the OpenStack components (neutron, nova, glance) on Linux terminal The destination edge network has been realized in a external host using libvirt and the virsh command suite The SDN controller which has been programmed and used is the Il controller SDN programmato e utilizzato per la POX (written in Python): this allowed an efficient realization of the steering operations on br-int and br3 We implemented also some rules for eliminate problems like the ARP Storming which affects the L2 scenario The generated traffics of the two VMs have been realized using the iperf tool, in the UDP mode 17 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  18. 18. L2 Measures 18 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  19. 19. L3 Level: topology realization 19 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  20. 20. Conclusions Experimental results have shown how an network approch like this (NFV, SDN, Cloud) can really rebuild the Telco area It really gives new possibilities to the network providers to create and manage new market offers with competitive prices, for the providers themself and for the end-users; the easy programmability allows the provider to copy, migrate, destroy and modificate network functions dynamically implemented Future Developments: Use of the context-aware concept, for a greater involvement of the SDN paradigm Other steering experiments with different topologies types, also in multi-tenant enviroment 20 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions
  21. 21. Thanks for the attention! 21 of 1 Francesco Foresta - Dynamic composition of virtual network functions

Translation of the Bachelor of Science thesis dissertation, for the graduation in Electronics, Computer Science and Telecommunications Engineering.

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