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"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"
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"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"

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Janie Hoe.
Master Thesis 1995.
This master thesis is really interesting since Janie Hoe was the first who introduced some basic concepts which could be found few times later in many algorithms which deal with recovery from multiple losses inside a window a data.

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"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"

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  17. 17. t r ™ ¦¨ ¤   ” ™” ¤ “ “ “– ¤ ” ™ ˜• ¢ r ™ 7›“y˜ ¦ ¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ ˜ Y Ÿšyw˜š˜š›˜—V‡yy‘ §› B¤¢8$‘˜‰’ X ¤ ™   yW §›AD§š” h  )—¥    ¨ ˜“ ¤   ”   ™   ™   “  ’ ™ ™ – • ¦ –   • • ¦Ÿ • ’ “ % ¢ 0 ” ¢ ‡i7§’ W §š@›§‘§ $'—‡‘AS¤¤§§—§›B›™ §¥CÌU¥Ÿ # 0 @Uc8¤— # r $ ©“ • U! ˜ •  ˜ ˜ h™ W ¤ ˜ ¨ ˜ •   • ™ ¨Ÿ h  ˜ ¤Ÿ ’ ˜ • ™ ¡   ˜ ™ Ÿ ™ “  “ ˜  ˜ ™ ˜ ¨  ¤›™ yBpš˜ iX ’ ¤f—›™ ¦ ‘ ¡ ›C4…§¨ ‡’ W ¥¤ W ’ x‡’ Y ̤›5§ƒ‘‡’ ¦ š˜ ’ š—wŸ ¦ ‘¤¨ ‡’ “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ q ” v   ™ q ”   h™ “  ˜ 0 ˜ – 6Ÿ  • ” ˜ ™ ¦    ˜ ™ ’ Ÿ ’ av ™ ˜ q ” ’ a ’ • “ ˜ ›y˜ ¦ y›u‚§’ W ‘¸v ‚‡’ W ¢phC¨ š“ ) —©4¤¤‘y›—xŸ W ›BT‘‰8‡£pš§‚§£f“ • Y —yk$ # r ™• Ÿ v˜ X h  Ÿ h  “˜¦ ” ˜ ™ “ “’ ”˜ ˜ “ ˜ “ œ r ¤˜¨ – '•D§¥¦A˜¤§  DW )¤¨ x…@‡¥ ›Ÿ“™ym¤§y‚—•y˜§–›˜©š¤¨ ˜ ¦ ¤‘•›”‚—›•™ % › sž¡B©“ X ¥’š¤t8›ŸA™ ¨ ¤‡‘    h ˜ ’¡    ˜ ˜“ ¢ ¢ Ÿ‰  Ÿ  ˜ •™ ¡  ˜ ¦’ ’ ˜ •™ ’ •™ ˜™’˜ Bp™ X ˜ Y †¹F“ y†“ • …£6 ¦ – ¦ yx’ ¦ ¨ ‡’ ¦ – ¦ CwŸ ¦ —›c‡km§‰˜ Y k—‡—†©›‡–›$¦   “ ¢ ¢ 6 ™  ˜ – ” ˜ • ™ ¡Ÿ ˜ ˜   ™ “ q ” ˜ • • ™Ÿ   ¦¤ ’ ¡ ” h  !  ¦  wŸ …hy‘Bšƒ—¦wƒy“ ‘‚y‚y—‘” 0 ¦ ›x›$mw‡Q0 ’ “ • ™ §›©B)‘…`¨ ‡’ —’ s # r ¢ ¢ 6 ˜ X ¨˜ Ÿ¨   ™˜  ˜ Ÿ ¦ Ÿ  ™–  “ X ¡  W – ˜ X e…£¤›•™ DW 7¤4¨Ÿ Y CtAq¢ph—k—›•™ wƒ—xC¨ ‡‘’™›“¤§Uy‘˜™ DW ‡˜ u¦ D‚¤›•™ DW ¨˜3˜¨ Ÿ ˜ “ Ÿ ™ Ÿ ™–•¦– • ¢ r™ ¦ “ ˜ X ¨ “’ ”˜¨   Ÿ “ ™ 7¤¤©¤‡w“U˜ ¦ ¤‘•›”¦¥“C›•ƒw8¤CB§—§› B¢8hD˜ ¦ š›˜…—‡  DW 7˜§–›˜©š¤‡¥“Ÿ h C¨ w…h % w™Ÿ¤‡‰’ƒwŸ ’ h ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜  ¤   ˜ • ¨ ˜Ÿ • ” ’ ™ – • ¦ –   • ˜ • ™ ¡¤ ’ •v ˜     ’ • ™ “ “ ˜¤ “Ÿ ˜ ”  ˜ ˜ ˆŸ “§¢eDš˜ ¦ š›u¤§  X ¤§  —…h 7˜ Y ¥C‘§k¤CB§—§›B›™ —›hx‡—¸—§r‡—›U›š¥wuy¤š‘98C¨ ˜ • ™ ¡œ r ˜¤¤ “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜    “ ’   Ÿ h ˜ • ™  ˜ • h ™ – • ¦ –   • ™ ˜ • ™   ¨ ˜ ’   ” “ ¤›Sžrh¥x‡’ ¦ ÌDš˜ ¦ y—§ƒ§¢h h C¨ w…u¤›š—…€¤¤B§¤§‘B—›r›™ 7›— ¦ yu¥Ÿ – • ¦ –   • ¨ ˜Ÿ • ” ’ ˜ • ™ ¨  ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜  X ¨ ˜ “ ’ ˜ ” Ÿ “Ÿ ˜ Ÿ h   Ÿ h ˜ • ¢ ¢ ™C¤B§—‡‘B™ ©˜ Y ¥¤‘§r—›2B‡’ % Dš˜ ¦ yr—§  DW 7§–›©—xˆwiyG “ )¤¨ x…—›™ % …h6   Ÿ ™ “ ˜ ¦    ¦ Ÿ • ” ’   ’ “Ÿ q   h™ ˜ ˜ • ™ ™ ’ •   Ÿ ™ ’ ”Ÿ   “ ˜ ™ ’ ¦ Ÿ  ˜ X ©˜ Y r §¥y§—§y” ¤w¤‘§m‘BBx¥2A$Bpš— —›—›™ §¥‡–wC¨ wŸ ’ §’ ›‡‰ —xC¨ ›“   ˜ • ™ ¡ ¦ Ÿ  ˜ ™ ™ ’ ˜ • ¦ Ÿ “  ¨ ˜ “ “ ˜ • ” vŸ ¢ ¡   ” h   ¤›…§  —w¤‘‡—¥ ¤›™ ¤w¤– §  ©›§’ W ¥Ÿ X ˜ ¦ ¤‘›“ ¥ 8ƒ“ • ™ ‡‘©B)‘…! ¨ ‡’ —’ s # %  ¦  r™ Ÿ  ¤ ™  – ’ “ ™ Ÿ “ ’ ™ “ ¨ 7Dw§' ’ ¦ ›Ÿ¤$…›“w™Ÿ ¨ ¤§› …š‘˜‡¥’w¤w¤›”m  ¨ ‡Dš˜ ¦ “™—%–$’ X ©˜ Y ˜ ¦ Ÿ – ¨ “ ˜ ¦  ’ • ”   Ÿ h ˜ • ˜  ¡ ˜ ˜ • r ˜ Ÿ“ ™  ¦ ˜ ¤w›§C€šm—‡—‘gh C¨ w…f—›™ % ‘¼š‘—¢¢ yG “uD˜ ¦ š›“ ¦ – ¦ yx’ ¦ —§  DW 7§–›©—xk¥Ÿ Ÿ‰ ˜  X ¨ ˜ “ ’ ˜ ” Ÿ “ ˜ Ÿ h   Ÿ h ˜ • ˜ “Ÿ h ˜ • r • ™ • ¦Ÿ ˜  X ¨ ˜ “ ’ ˜ ” ˜ ¨ “ ˜ Ÿ h   ¨ Ÿ h ˜ • Ÿ ™Ÿ “   šG ““ )¤¨ w…t—™ % ¥…©—™ X '›D§wš˜ —§  DW ©›§y‘©š¤f¥Ÿ yG “ )¤Bw…t—›™ % ˜ Y ›xm' “Ÿ e ¢ ¢ ¨¤ w‚W…h6 i‡  v …h6 y‘Bš¹©)šG ““ h C¨ w…i§v šG ““ h C¨ w…„D‘A§štyš—@›B —†žœ ¢ ¢ ™  ˜ – ”b e ˜ Ÿ   Ÿ h ¨¤   ˜ Ÿ   Ÿ h ™  ˜ – ”b ™ ” – ¨   ˜ • ™ ¡ re ¢ ¢ ¤˜ ¨ v  –   ˜ ˜”   ¨ “ ¨’ Ÿ ˜ h  Ÿ h ˜ • ¢ r   ™˜  †W…h6 b “ X ’ šC8›ŸA¸™¨ ¤‡‘  Bph™ X ©˜ Y Ïy—‡r7›˜™—%–w“ÏšG “Ÿ“ )¤¨ w…—¢S–Aq$Bphš¤‚w”›Ÿ“™¥“Ÿ v ™˜ ’ ¡ ˜ h  Ÿ ™ ¤ Ÿ” “ ’ ¡  ™ ˜¨ ¤’ ¤’ ’ ’   ¨ “ §wŸ ¦ ‘˜šC¨ $¼ ‚yG “Ÿ“ )¤¨ x…h ¦ – ¦ ›Ÿ¤$  X x¤‡’ @ fh§  §¥ Ÿ‡’ Y ›Ÿ¤‡y¥”›Ÿ™ X ‡—‡r‡r‡r7˜§’ W “ •”’  ’¤ Ÿ ™v  –   ¦ Ÿ “ ˜ ”  ’ ¨Ÿ   Ÿ ™ “ ˜ ¦    b Ÿ ’ wŸ ‘‡©‘B§’ X e X ¥š˜ 8›A¸¨ ¤‡U6 —w“—– y—‡¤i§  Y 4§¥šm—§¢! F 6 ¡! “ • w‡© #
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  19. 19. ( ) Ç·° ¶­ ¾ ½ Ä­ (­  ° ¶­Ã­ ¬ ¿ Æ µ ¿ Ä ± (­ ­² ® ·­ ¬Ã ¿ Æ ¿ ­· ¯ ·­ ¾­ ¬Ã· µ ¿ ¯­ ¯ ¢ ­ ¬ ty¢pyw±2™cš›%›¹² tÁ°c†™À¶yA(š¦£¹šc™A¸w°ct· Á¶›¹pc›¢™A¸…™Á¶p™–£™c« ¤ r  ™” “ ¦ Ÿ h ¤ ¡ ˜ Ÿ’ ” '§w ›Ÿy›˜“ W –F¤w…)¥ x¤§¼ k—›•™ wŸ ¦ ¥“C‡—‘•y˜ ¦ ™  ’ ™   Ÿ “Ÿ •    • ” –   ™ s “Ÿ  ’ • ” ¦ Ÿ q ”  ¤ ”v¡¤ ˜ “ ˜ • ™ ˜   ¤ ’ ™  ’ ¨  D‡‰$9 ¦ Ï¥¤™ §‘—‡‘f˜ tr ¦ ¥¤‡—‘y˜ ¦ —xy‚y¥Aixš›f—›™ % X ›9$›Bf‡‰Dš˜ ¦ —B¤– ¡ ’ ¤   ”   ™   ˜ • ™   ™ Ÿ “ ¨¤Ÿ Ÿ¤ ˜ ’ ™ ’ ¨ ˜ Ÿ¤ ˜ ™  ˜¤ Ÿ   ™ $ ¡   ˜ “ a ! §yy‘§›B9—›ˆ‘DwS¤ix¤– W X ©˜ Y w¤¨ ‘‡—9¥¤ W ’ w‘cDš˜ ¦ w¤ ¦ f›“ • U! T§u—– “ • dW¢ “  ™ ™ ¤ Ÿ ˜ ™ Ÿ  “˜¦  ” ¡   ™’ Ÿ Ÿ ’ “ ¨ “ – r©—§¥ Ÿ‡‰’D˜ ¦ ¥˜¤ ¦ ¤›•x§¥ Ÿ™šm—§ša§É‡¥ ›Ÿ–¥”@¨ w†§’ 7˜—˜ W ‡y¢›“§¥ …š§‚q§— †—D›•™ ’” “ ¤ ™˜ ”’ ’ “ –  Ÿ ”˜  ™ ™’ ¨˜ ¨ ˜ “’ ™˜ ”’ ’ ™’ ™ “ ™˜ ”’ ¨ ’ % ‘•›”w™…h“ ‚qš—šw˜›¤›™‡  W ’ ‡i7'B$› §šš˜ W §—• m‚q§— ‡—›•S›“§¥ ¤ m‚q§—f’ ¦ ‘  U©¼˜CwŸ ¡ ¡ ’ ˜ “ ˜ “ “  ¤ ™ ˜ q ” ’ ˜ • ™ ¤¤ ’ ¡    ’ • ™ “ “ ˜¤ • ” b ˜ ’ “ ˜ –¤Ÿ ’¡ ™ “ ˜ – “ q ” ˜ • ‡y” Bh % e # $ y›m¥¢šm‚‡— ——w‡c§  ¡ ‡—›Byw‘—– ¦ €›‰R¥Ÿ % ‘Bxw‡¹By›™ ¦ “@‚š—‘” Ÿ “ ™¤ – “ ˜ • ”Ÿ • ™Ÿ “  ’ ™ ¦ Ÿ – ¨   Ÿ ™ –   ” ’ ™ ’ X ¨ ˜ “ – ’ ” “ “  ¤ ™ ˜ q ” ’ ™ ’ • ™   Ÿ ™ – “ “ x£‘x¤š‘„‘w¤…h % w“—‡‰—x›B@V§¥¤BA$š‰—¨ DW 7—‡ysm¥¦m‚§— ‡—u§w›¤ ¦ §’ ˜ • ™    ¨ ˜ “ ’ ” ¨ ˜   ¨ ˜ ’ “ ™ ˜ q ” ’ “ ˜ • ” ™Ÿ h“ ˜ • ™ Ÿ     ˜ ˆ “ ˜ “ – ’ ” “   Ÿ ™ ” ˜     ¤›ˆ§Ì7›‡†Rr 7'B$›§c‘x¢›šm‚‡— % y—‘›w…wU¤›ƒw2h ¤¥ ©˜ Y 8©'B– W y›¤‡–8—§w›y—¤‡y” ˜¤ Ÿ ™¤   ¡ “ ™ ˜ q ” ’ ¡   ¦ Ÿ – ˜ – 6 ˜ ™ ’ ¦ ˜ ¦ ¦ ˜ • ™  ˜ s “ ˜ • ” “ ¦ Ÿ – ˜ – 6 ™ –  v ™ “ v  ¥¤8›x¤– ¦ ¦ ‘ ›š§‚§— §É—x¤š¤D5›‡©š‘$m‡’ ¤›i—• ‡r 7 y˜ ¦ ¤‘›ˆ—w¤—©W¤§ž›B3 wŸ wv™›“Bf˜—– X w¤‡‘’©—mF‘•w”¤…h % š—‘•‘”x™…higaœ DW 7‘˜™$'—‡‘’Ac¥“…‰’k‡–Aq$Bphš—8—•U› uš¤›•‚¨ ‡’ 3 “ ¤ ˜ ˜¦ Ÿ• “˜ Ÿ “ X ¨   “  ™ Ÿ ™’ r   ™˜  ˜ ™ ™ ˜ ™  a ! ¢ ¨ “’ Ÿ “  ˜ ˜   “  ™’ ¤ ¡ ™’ ™” Ÿ ’ œ ˜ dWf› ™ ©›˜›“‡—d¥“…‘““™m—• ¨ šk¤›•™ §¢—‡¥ ›Ÿ–¥”xŸ¤B’ ¦ ‘  F‘’‡—¨ % ›˜B›–y›˜w™¤‘•›”2ga‚—•™ žœ rr ™ “e$›”š˜  ™”˜    h ¨ “ ¤ ™’ “  ™ ™’ h˜ ¨ “ r r b “  ™” ¦ Ÿ   “   % §¥ Ÿšš—¤§š” …)¤€›˜mw š” % ‘’‡—¨ w™Ÿ ¦ —‰’A‘˜ % ‰’‡—¨ ©¤ Bš›˜‚B¦ $¹˜„—‡¥ ›Ÿ§’ —xC¨ §'š‘˜Ay” ’ ™ a ! ¢ ™‰˜  ˜ ™ ˜ ™˜¨ ¨ “ – ¤’  ¨ ƒ‘˜‡‘’™“ dW‚y—Ï—›•Ï—wŸ ¦ ‘˜¤u› ™ ©›˜—ˆ› w“‡F›˜’ ¨ ‡’ X x™wŸx¤Ÿ W ‰’C©yš§4š¤›•™ X w¡Ÿ©˜ Y ‘ ™™˜””’ Ÿ˜ ¨ “– ’ ™ ¦ “ ˜ Ÿ “¦’  ™ ¡ Ÿ ˜ ™ ’ W – ™ ¦¨ ¤   ”  7˜—u›˜Ï‘“Dš˜ ¦ y˜F—•™ wm‡—¥ ‡¥ ›Ÿ’ ¦ $¼ ¤w©—•§  ¨ ‡Ï‘“˜ u¦ Dky˜ ¦ ¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ ¨ ‡’ ˜” ˜ – 6˜“ ˜ • ¨ Ÿ˜”˜ ˜’ “™  ¦˜“ ˜ r ™ –   Ÿ ’ ˜ ¡ ’ “ ™ “  ’ ™ ˜ a ! Ÿ¤ ˜ y——©7…—›™ % 7˜ Y yy›T‘xB›Dš˜ ¦ yÉ—• s 7¤§š˜ ¦ ›™ 8©›™ ‡8‘xŸ ¦ —‡‘Aš›`dW¢ % X ©˜ Y w¤¨ ˜ Ÿ¤ ˜ ˜ – “  ˜   ™ “  ¤ “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜ • ™ ˜ “ – ’ ” ˜ ” r   Ÿ““ ˜ ˜ •™ ¦  Ÿ ˜ ” ˜ ¥¤ W ’ w‘u›B¤ši›™ % mwf˜ W X ’ ¦ ›y˜ ¦ y›f—›f›—‡yy¢@'‡¥¥Ÿ ¦ 9 ©—›B– ¡ —wŸ Y yš‘ ˜  ¡ ™ “  ’  ’ ” ˜ ¨  ˜ ˜ • ™ ™ ’ • ™ “ ™ ˜ ™ ”   ¡   W –  ¨ ˜ h  ¤¤ ’ ˜ • ™ “ ˜ ™ ’ ”Ÿ  ™œ  ˜ ›$¼š˜ W wŸ ¦ —‡‘A™ ‡y‚©¤Bš›“ —›‡—›U‘‘šy8§k˜ u¦ Di7B)¥wƒ—›Sy›‡–wC¨ xŸ žkr ¨ ›“  ’ ˜  ˜ “ ’ ’ ™ ’ ¨ ¡   ™  – ’ ˜ • ™ “ ˜ ™ ’ ™ ”Ÿ h   ¨ Ÿ h ˜ • ¢ r “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ¡ ˜ ¦  ’ • ” ‰ ˜ ˜ • X ‡y” ¤¨ šˆÌ‘‡—‡SyC§  ¦ u—…y‘‰šwC¨ )¤Bw…9—¢†©‘Dš˜ ¦ yh§  m—‡—‘C†‚—›™ DW ¨ ™’ Ÿ   Ÿ ™’ “  •  ˜˜ ™ ¨˜ “˜  ™”˜  ” ˜ ˜” ©‘˜‡y¥”¤C– ¦ ¦ y” w“f‰’‡¤¨ % ‘““™m—r¨ ˜ yBphš˜ W 7—“•¥“xŸ¤ W ‰’“™y¥“Ÿ §¥ Ÿšš—¤§šF—›•™ y— X 7S)¤¨ r“ h  v Ÿ h  $ b ™ ¦¨ ¤   ” W – ˜”˜–6 §w…C¨ ’ % de“ • U! f›“y˜ ¦ ¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ % ˜ F¦ yÌy¤š—©7˜“ % “ ¦ –y‚qy¤‘•—w“Ÿ—– DW §‘ y‡y” “ ”˜ ” ¦ “ X ¤ ™  h   v v  Ÿ ’ “ X ¤ ’ “˜ a! ¤ ™˜ ”’ ¤˜ )—¥ ¨ A˜› ž™¨ ˜ •w™…h ¦ –›˜A™É‘˜™ DW w˜¤ W ¥’wŸš›˜‘ƒš¤i¨Ÿ Y ‘ B dW¢ r X ¤ W ¥’wŸš›˜„‘“m‚q§— ©˜ Y wŸ¤¨  ™ ˜˜™ ’’ –    “˜q ¡¤ ˜ “ ™Ÿ a r ˜ – ™ ” ˜ ™Ÿ • ” a œ ˜ • ™ ¡      “ ˜ ™ ’ ˜ a ! ›iy›y‰—‡¦ —Éšm’ ¦ w››w#gœ $‘§›šš‘x¤‘‘’ gr—k§  $›™ §š‘‡‘©'$  dW¢ Ÿ  ™’” Ÿ”˜ “ ¤ ” ™ ˜ ™ ¡  Ÿ ™ r ™’ ™˜ r # t xk‘˜’ §w ›Ÿ‡y—43y'c§š@› §‘ §9¤›•…§†¥“x¤‡‰’˜ R§‰’—¨ ym¦ – ¡  ™’ Ÿ¨ Ÿ  ¡ ™–  ¤ ™   “˜¦  ™’ ¨ ¡ ¤˜¨ ¨ ™’ ¤–  wvB8§  §w ›Ÿ‡y¥”CBwr¨ ‡’ W iv§ž v¤§  ¨ ’ % §› AD§y” ‡¥ ›Ÿ“™ym¤§y” % ‘’‡—…§  X ©˜ Y wŸ¤7›˜‡–w”wŸ¤B@¨ ¤– ˜ v ¤  ™’   ™ Ÿ  ™”˜   ¨˜¦¨ ¤   ”  Ÿ ¤ ‰ % ¤‚¨$ž §wŸ % w˜¤ W ¥’wŸš›˜ % §¥ Ÿ‡—xŸ ¦ ©‘˜™ ¨ ‡’ §w ›Ÿ‡¥’›Ÿw™CwŸ §w ›Ÿy—¤‡y” 7§¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ ¨ ‡’ w™¥”xŸ¤ ˜

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