LEARNING THEORIES<br />B.F. Skinner<br />Teresa C. Ko<br />Michael Eric P. Talento<br />
Background<br />Burrhus Frederic Skinner<br />Born: March 20, 1904, in the small Pennsylvania town of Susquehanna<br />Fat...
Theory of B.F. Skinner <br />Learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an ...
Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner&apos;s S-R theory. <br />A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired...
One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner&apos;s theory is that it attempted to provide behavioural explanations for a bro...
B.F. Skinner’s Theory of Learning<br />Learning is not doing; it is changing what we do.<br />We may see that behavior has...
Copies or representations play an important part in cognitive theories of learning and memory where they raise problems th...
Sources:<br />http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html<br />http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html<br />http://www.new...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Tere Macky B.F. Skinner

2,195 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,195
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
503
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tere Macky B.F. Skinner

  1. 1. LEARNING THEORIES<br />B.F. Skinner<br />Teresa C. Ko<br />Michael Eric P. Talento<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />Burrhus Frederic Skinner<br />Born: March 20, 1904, in the small Pennsylvania town of Susquehanna<br />Father – lawyer<br />Mother - strong and intelligent housewife<br />upbringing was old-fashioned and hard-working <br />
  3. 3. Theory of B.F. Skinner <br />Learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual&apos;s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response(S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviourism is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. <br />
  4. 4. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner&apos;s S-R theory. <br />A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforcers -- any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from aversive stimuli -- punishment -- which result in reduced responses). A great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement (e.g. interval versus ratio) and their effects on establishing and maintaining behaviour. <br />
  5. 5. One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner&apos;s theory is that it attempted to provide behavioural explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. For example, Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules. Skinner (1957) tried to account for verbal learning and language within the operant conditioning paradigm, although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists. Skinner (1971) deals with the issue of free will and social control. <br />
  6. 6. B.F. Skinner’s Theory of Learning<br />Learning is not doing; it is changing what we do.<br />We may see that behavior has changed, but we do not see the changing. We see reinforcing consequences but not how they cause a change. Since the observable effects of reinforcement are usually not immediate, we often overlook the connection. Behavior is then often said to grow or develop. Develop originally meant to unfold, as one unfolds a letter. We assume that what we see was there from the start.<br />
  7. 7. Copies or representations play an important part in cognitive theories of learning and memory where they raise problems that do not arise in behavioral analysis. When we must describe something that is no longer present, the traditional view is that we recall the copy we have stored. In behavioral analysis contingencies of reinforcement change the way we respond to stimuli. It is a changed person, not a memory that has been &quot;stored&quot;.<br />
  8. 8. Sources:<br />http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html<br />http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html<br />http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Skinner.html<br />

×